Cystatin C Level as a Marker of Kidney Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Kidney functioning for HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals as measured by levels of cystatin C and creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were compared in this article. Participants were 1,008 HIV-positive individuals from the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study along with a control sample of 290 individuals from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

Key Findings:

  • HIV-positive individuals had significantly higher levels of cystatin C than did HIV-negative individuals.
  • Average levels of creatinine and eGFR did not differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals.
  • Even with various factors controlled for in the analysis, there was nine times the likelihood of cystatin C levels of more than 1.0mg/L for HIV-positive individuals as compared to the control sample.
  • Higher cystatin C levels were related to risk factors for kidney disease, such as hypertension, as well the hepatitis C virus and low CD4 lymphocyte counts.