December 2005

Grant Results

SUMMARY

From 1997 to 2004, staff at the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) provided information, technical assistance and training to national and local policy groups interested in addressing underage drinking issues.

Key Results

  • CSPI staff produced an array of information and motivational materials that grassroots leaders can use in their education activities on the local level.
  • CSPI worked closely with a number of national alcohol and drug use prevention organizations to disseminate the information to their local constituents, effectively quadrupling the number of people receiving CSPI materials and tripling the number of pages accessed from the Alcohol Policies Project section of the CSPI Web site.
  • CSPI staff also responded to some 525 requests for technical assistance, most handled through phone or e-mail interaction.
  • CSPI made some 25 site visits to grassroots groups working on local-level alcohol policy issues to identify community needs, and it reached hundreds of people through training events from small local workshops to sessions held in conjunction with national meetings.
  • During the last grant period, CSPI led a series of national education campaigns on issues ranging from sales of so-called "alcopops" (sweet-tasting soft drink-like beverages that contain alcohol and are marketed to young drinkers) to the increase of state alcohol excise taxes as a method to reduce alcohol consumption.

Funding
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) provided three grants totaling $1,130,644, as well as additional funding of $30,000 from the Special Opportunities Fund for communications, to support this solicited project.

 See Grant Detail & Contact Information
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THE PROBLEM

Alcohol is the most widely used drug and the leading cause of drug problems among youth, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a Washington consumer advocacy organization that conducts research and advocacy programs in health and nutrition.

Alcohol kills more teenagers than all other drugs combined, and is a factor in the three leading causes of death among 15- through 24-year-olds: accidents, homicides and suicides. Nearly 4 million young people suffer from alcohol dependence, accounting for over one-fifth of all alcohol-dependent people.

Alcohol can cause serious and potentially life-threatening problems in children and adolescents and can be a precursor to other drug use. The average age at which children in the United States begin to drink today is about 13, according to the federal Department of Health and Human Services.

In addressing alcohol problems, policy-makers have promoted a variety of education, law enforcement and rehabilitation programs that focus on a few highly visible alcohol issues connected with individual drinking behaviors, such as drinking and driving.

They have devoted little attention to public health policy measures that promise to help reduce alcohol problems across the board, such as reforming alcohol marketing and advertising and increasing excise taxes on alcoholic beverages. Meanwhile, a number of alcohol beverage producers have adopted increasingly aggressive tactics to promote their products, especially to young people.

CSPI research reports that the industry began to accelerate ad placements on television and in youth-oriented magazines in the mid 1990s, to expand direct sales over the Internet and to create new categories of beverages, such as "alcopops" (sweet-tasting soft drink-like beverages that contain alcohol) and alcohol-laced ice cream.

National and local coalitions working on substance abuse issues have access to an array of technical assistance, but little of it addresses alcohol policy issues specifically. Local leaders need quality, affordable technical assistance, training and information, along with media support, to help them achieve changes in policies, practices and norms.

CSPI has been active in alcohol policy education and reform since the early 1970s. Its Alcohol Policies Project, launched in 1981, works with organizations and individuals to promote policy reforms that will reduce the health and social consequences of drinking.

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RWJF STRATEGY

In 1997, RWJF spearheaded an effort to strengthen the skills and capacity of key alcohol and drug use prevention grantees to address issues around underage drinking. These grants, and others to CSPI, advanced the Alcohol & Illegal Drug Team's (now the Addiction Prevention and Treatment Team) objective to enhance and expand existing capacity in the alcohol field by providing assistance to RWJF national programs — Reducing Underage Drinking Through Coalitions and A Matter of Degree: Reducing High-Risk Drinking Among College Students and other grantees currently addressing alcohol policy issues.

The grants to CSPI also addressed the team's objective to build new capacity in the alcohol field to coordinate efforts and work strategically to improve the policy development and implementation process by educating, assisting, linking and providing leadership to coalitions and organizations new to alcohol policy work. In addition, the grants addressed the team's objective of increasing to 20 the number of states having a minimum set of state alcohol policies.

In addition to these grants, RWJF made two prior grants to CSPI that are related to their work on this project:

  • With ID# 024758 (December 1994 to December 1995), CSPI researched, developed and disseminated a "Citizens' Action Guide to Alcohol Taxes and Health" for state and local alcohol prevention advocates and state policymakers to help groups implement strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems by increasing alcohol excise taxes.
  • With ID# 027965 (February 1996 to February 1997), CSPI researched, developed and disseminated a community resource guide to address off-campus binge drinking. The guide provides guidance on working with local retailers, bars and restaurants; identifies effective ways for addressing advertising practices in school papers that encourage high-risk and binge drinking; and identifies local community alcohol-service practices that prevent binge drinking.

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THE PROJECT

Under these grants (ID#s 031866, 036935 and 040938), staff at CSPI provided information, technical assistance and training to national and local policy groups interested in addressing issues concerning underage drinking.

CSPI aimed to help local communities address a number of alcohol policy issues, including:

  • Alcohol advertising.
  • Sponsorships (including sporting events, rock concerts, clothing and other giveaways).
  • The relationship of alcohol to the use of other hazardous substances, including illegal drugs and tobacco.
  • The availability of alcohol to young people.
  • Measures to discourage underage drinking and driving.
  • The enforcement of laws against serving alcohol to underage persons and those already inebriated.
  • The targeting of minority communities with high-power malt liquor products in oversize containers.
  • The posting of point-of-purchase warnings about underage drinking and other alcohol-related problems.

Information Resources
To improve its ability to serve a growing grassroots constituency, CSPI enhanced the Alcohol Policies Project section of its Web site to provide more up-to-date information on alcohol policy issues and reorganized and expanded its in-house resource files and research materials.

CSPI staff also created an array of new informational materials that could be easily adapted by local-level advocates and provided content for national organizations' information pieces on alcohol policy issues. These informational materials reached local constituents in a number of forms, including online newsletters, broadcast fax alerts, action kits, policy updates, facts sheets, survey reports and technical assistance manuals. See Results for details of informational materials produced.

Technical Assistance
CSPI worked with national organizations that provide technical assistance on alcohol and drug use prevention issues to help them educate and motivate their local affiliates to understand and promote policies to reduce alcohol problems among young people. These included a number of RWJF-funded projects and programs:

  • Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA). Founded in 1992, CADCA works with some 5,000 community groups to create safe, healthy and drug-free communities. It provides its members technical assistance and training, public policy, media strategies and marketing programs, conferences and special events. For more information, see the Grant Results on ID# 036494 et al.
  • Join Together. Founded in 1991, Join Together supports community-based efforts to reduce, prevent and treat substance abuse across the nation. Every month, 350,000 people view 1 million pages on the Join Together Web site. For more information, see the Grant Results on ID# 027954 et al.
  • A Matter of Degree: Reducing High-Risk Drinking Among College Students, a program to develop model approaches to reduce student high-risk drinking on campus and in the surrounding community by developing college/community partnerships. More information is available online.
  • Reducing Underage Drinking Through Coalitions, a program to raise awareness and support strategies to decrease underage drinking and thus reduce alcohol-related problems among youth. More information is available online).
  • The Trauma Foundation's Project to Prevent Alcohol-Related Injury and Violence that synthesizes and disseminates information about alcohol-related injury and violence (see Grant Results on ID#s 031935 and 035122).

CSPI also provided technical assistance to local groups, through telephone consultations, online contacts, materials development, referrals to appropriate research and other experts and periodic site visits. Most requests required only a document or a reference to a source of information. Some 20 percent of them required intensive research, creation of materials, consultation and sustained e-mail and phone conversations. See Results for examples of technical assistance offered.

Site Visits and Training Sessions
To further assist grassroots groups, CPSI staff made 25 site visits to states where alcohol policy issues were on the public policy agenda. Staff visited Alabama, Alaska, Colorado, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Pennsylvania, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah and Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. CSPI selected some of these locations because local leaders had identified specific needs for resources, guidance and expertise. In other cases , CSPI targeted assistance to groups that already had well-established policy goals.

Responding to the local leaders' expressed concerns, CPSI staff provided information on numerous local alcohol issues, including billboard advertising, alcohol excise taxes, discounted drink specials, illegal sales to minors, sporting events and alcohol, political contributions from alcoholic beverage sources and privatization of alcohol sales. These visits helped CSPI staff and local leaders identify other needs for technical assistance, which often led to more in-depth training sessions. See Results for examples of site visit activities.

During the grant periods, CSPI staff offered three different kinds of training events:

  1. Informal sessions customized for the specific needs of a community.
  2. Formal workshops for participants attending national conferences.
  3. Regional meetings focused on specific alcohol policy issues applicable to a number of states. For example, two regional conferences, in 2001 and 2004, drew grassroots workers from around the country to learn how to spearhead efforts to raise state excise taxes on alcohol — one strategy for reducing alcohol use, particularly among young people.

CSPI's formal training sessions proved to be too rigid for some communities. As a result, CSPI staff became more flexible in how they responded to grassroots demand for assistance — conducting fewer formal training sessions than originally planned, which allowed staff members to work with more groups than expected. See Results for examples of training activities.

National Education Campaigns
Under the final grant, CSPI staff had planned to organize and coordinate at least two national education campaigns on underage drinking issues that have relevance to both local and national policies. CSPI provided local advocates with information on the issues, such as survey results, statements by CSPI staff, fact sheets and other materials, to use in their efforts to educate policy-makers and others.

The RWJF grant supplemented funds from other sources for several of the campaigns, which focused on raising awareness of:

  • The marketing of "alcopops," alcoholic products such as Zima, Mike's Hard Lemonade, Smirnoff Ice and others, which target young people.
  • The exposure of children to alcohol advertising during sports telecasts.
  • The impact of state alcohol excise taxes on reducing alcohol sales to young people.

In addition, CSPI also coordinated reaction from local organizations to:

  • The NBC television network's intention to drop its voluntary ban on liquor advertising. (NBC retained the ban.)
  • The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum's display of an airplane featuring beer company logos. (The logos remain.)
  • The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy's partnership with a racecar driver who displays beer logos on his car. (The ONDCP terminated its relationship with the driver.)

RWJF provided three grants totaling $1,130,644 for this solicited project. In addition to these grants, the RWJF communications department supported CSPI's "alcopops" national education campaign with $30,000 from the RWJF Special Opportunities Fund for communications activities. With these funds, CSPI subcontracted with Global Strategy Group in Washington to conduct a poll and a communications campaign (including a video) to highlight the calorie content of alcopops. Grants from the Christopher D. Smithers Foundation and the Barkley Fund of the Philanthropic Ventures Foundation matched RWJF funds.

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RESULTS

CSPI reported these results to RWJF:

Information Resources

  • The number of people requesting and receiving CSPI educational and motivational materials increased.
    • From 1997 to 2004, the number of contacts regularly receiving CSPI information quadrupled to 4,100, according to the project director. Many thousands more received CSPI information through the publications and Web sites of other substance abuse groups, including, CADCA, Join Together and the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention (a program of the U.S. Department of Education that helps college and community leaders develop, implement and evaluate programs and policies to reduce student problems related to alcohol and other drug use).
    • From July 2001 to November 2004, the number of page "hits" on the Alcohol Policies Project section of the CSPI Web site tripled from 28,039 to more than 99,000 a month.
  • CSPI increased the volume of educational and motivational materials reaching grassroots leaders. The following are among the informational products CSPI staff disseminated during the grant periods:
    • Eighteen "Action Alerts," which provide background information on a specific alcohol policy issue or problem and recommend an action that grassroots groups and individuals can take to help influence private or public decision-makers. Subjects covered by the Action Alerts include: billboard advertising, Federal Communications Commission consideration of broadcast liquor advertising and news of a Federal Trade Commission inquiry into alcohol marketing to underage persons.
    • Twenty-four "Fact Sheets," which provide statistics and research findings on key issues in a form that can be readily downloaded and reproduced by local groups. The Fact Sheet "Youth and Alcohol," for example, compiles data from various sources about the effects of alcohol on young people.
    • Survey Reports summarize findings from CSPI polling, such as its study of state and national alcohol tax policies.
    • Five "Updates" on alcohol issues, such as a report on a 2000 decision by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to include the consumption of alcoholic beverages as "a known human carcinogen."
    • Numerous national prevention and public health organizations routinely republished CSPI's online publications. Organizations include Join Together, the Trauma Foundation, A Matter of Degree and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.
    See the Bibliography for details on CSPI's informational products.
  • CSPI helped several national substance abuse organizations to expand their content that addresses alcohol policy issues. CADCA and Join Together had previously focused primarily on illegal drugs.
    • With CSPI staff providing content, CADCA published three technical assistance manuals called Strategizers — on alcohol advertising, on preventing youth access to alcohol from commercial sources and on increasing alcohol taxes — and disseminated them to its network of some 5,000 community coalitions working to create drug-free communities.
    • Join Together took CSPI policy updates and developed its own special alerts for its list of online subscribers.
    • Other groups also incorporated CSPI materials into their own Web sites, including Alcohol-related Injury & Violence, a project of the Trauma Foundation, and the American Medical Association's Office on Alcohol and Other Substances.

Technical Assistance

  • CSPI responded to some 525 formal requests for technical assistance and information. Those asking for assistance included advocates, journalists, policy-makers, community leaders, educators, youth organization leaders, researchers, students, public health workers and others. Examples of the type of technical assistance offered:
    • CSPI sent Teresa Walters of Emporians for Drug Awareness (Emporia, Kan.) numerous fact sheets and action guides on alcohol advertising and adolescents. She used the information to testify on underage drinking issues before a subcommittee of the Kansas Legislature.
    • CSPI helped Minister Rodney Mohammad of the Nation of Islam in Philadelphia develop a grassroots campaign to eliminate sales of 32- and 40-ounce bottles of malt liquor at local "sandwich shops." Over the course of eight months, CSPI staff provided issue research, examples of other community initiatives, help in identifying and choosing local allies and briefings for Mohammad before media appearances. The campaign generated significant media attention and succeeded in raising the awareness of the effects of malt liquor on young people.

Site Visits and Training Sessions

  • During site visits, CSPI staff worked to help local groups address alcohol policy issues in their communities. Following are examples:
    • In New Mexico, CSPI project director George A. Hacker, J.D., spoke to a group of clergy interested in alcohol issues; appeared on a statewide radio talk show with a traffic safety activist; and conferred with two state legislators, officials with Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), American Cancer Society activists, alcohol policy activists and others. Alcohol tax increases have been "on the prevention agenda" ever since.
    • In Alaska, Hacker worked with a variety of advocates who were part of a coalition pushing to raise alcohol taxes, suggesting appropriate (non-overlapping) roles for each group. Hacker also made presentations to a statewide prevention conference and an Anchorage candidate's forum; did media interviews; and advised community activists, clergy representatives, state mental health officials and others. The information and advice helped strengthen the education campaign and advocacy strategies aimed at winning an increase in alcohol excise taxes.
    • In Syracuse, N.Y., CSPI staff helped supporters of the Alcohol Advertising Reform Initiative to define a mission and strategy — "to promote the environmental prevention of alcohol problems, with a special focus on limiting and neutralizing irresponsible advertising and marketing of alcohol." That group has since become a leader in identifying alcohol advertising that fails to conform to industry standards. Its complaints have led to the removal of at least two billboard campaigns (in Syracuse and nationally).
  • CSPI staff conducted 19 state and local training sessions, two major, multi-state training projects, and workshops in conjunction with major national conferences. Examples of training events:
    • In September 2000, CSPI facilitated a workshop on Alcohol Taxes and Underage Drinking for Texans Standing Tall's statewide conference. The session gave participants an opportunity to learn firsthand about state alcohol tax issues from others immersed in a similar campaign. Afterward, CSPI staff helped facilitate a planning session that outlined strategies for a possible statewide educational campaign. Since then, the group has produced polling and a report on the economic costs of alcohol problems and continues to educate policy-makers. As of May 2005, a possible increase in the beer tax was still on the table for the 2005 legislature.
    • CSPI collaborated with RWJF's A Matter of Degree national program to convene a multi-state conference in Chicago in 2001 focusing on alcohol tax policy as a deterrent to underage drinking. Thirty-five activists from 15 states attended. Working with the Center on College Health and Safety, CSPI conducted another training session on the same issue as part of the State Initiatives Leadership Institute Conference in 2004 in Pittsburgh. Some 130 attendees from community and campus groups around the country gathered to learn about alcohol tax policies and grassroots organizing methods from seasoned experts.
    • Project staff also conducted training workshops for activists attending national alcohol prevention-related conferences, including meetings of the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America, the American Public Health Association, PRIDE Youth Programs and the National Capital Coalition to Prevent Underage Drinking.

National Education Campaigns

  • Examples of CPSI's national education campaigns include:
    • Alcopops. Some local groups used CSPI's studies and visuals (showing alcopops being sold alongside non-alcoholic, look-alike beverages) to educate people in their communities, discuss the issue with shopkeepers and educate policy-makers. The attention brought to alcopops led to numerous state investigations — and one federal investigation — that sought to reclassify many of these products as distilled spirits, rather than malt beverages. Since the beginning of the campaign, many alcopop products have been withdrawn, and between 2002 and 2003, total sales in the category fell by 8 percent.
    • Alcohol Advertising During Televised Sports. In one year, CSPI's Campaign for Alcohol-Free Sports TV recruited 180 official organizational endorsers, and 227 colleges and universities committed to eliminating beer ads during college sports broadcasts. Local leaders played a vital role in the campaign, according to the project director, customizing CSPI materials to create their own messages, writing letters to local college presidents and athletic directors and garnering local media coverage of the issue.
    • State Alcohol Excise Taxes. A national campaign and two multi-state conferences helped generate considerable activity on the alcohol excise state tax issue around the country, according to project director Hacker. State and local leaders have actively educated colleagues and policy-makers about the issue and have made progress in getting the issue onto their state's public policy agenda. Seven states increased their alcohol taxes between 2001 and 2003; only 12 states did so during the entire 1990s. A number of other states are considering alcohol excise tax increases.

Communications

CSPI disseminated the information and motivational materials created for this project through the Alcohol Policies Project section of its Web site, e-mail, broadcast faxes and mailings. The project's main communication piece, its online newsletter Washington Report, goes to 40,000 people on CSPI's lists and those of its collaborator organizations.

To support its national education campaigns, CSPI held three major press conferences and distributed 25 news releases. For the campaign about alcohol advertising during sports events, CSPI launched a new Web site, to promote the campaign's goals, recruit supporters and educate the public.

The national education campaigns garnered some 75 national print, television and radio stories, in venues such as the New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, USA Today and the Chicago Tribune — and many more in local media outlets. Project staff also published several opinion pieces and letters to the editor in major newspapers.

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LESSONS LEARNED

  1. Use centralized national campaigns to help focus local attention on underage drinking prevention issues. Local efforts have a harder time gaining traction without a national spotlight shining on an issue. (Project Director)
  2. Be prepared to modify your training model to accommodate community needs and logistical capabilities. CSPI's formal training sessions proved to be too rigid for some grassroots community organizations. By responding with more flexibility to grassroots demand for assistance, staff members were able to work with more groups than expected. (Project Director)
  3. Provide grassroots groups with a broad range of assistance and support to help them be successful educators on the local level. Groups need advocacy tools including, but not limited to polling, economic analysis, statistics and legal support. (Project Director)
  4. In working with grassroots organizations, meet them on their "turf." To be effective, CSPI learned not to impose its "agenda" on grassroots groups, but rather to work with groups to explore opportunities to expand their vision and increase their effectiveness. CSPI also worked to make certain its assistance would fit communities' timetables and capabilities. (Project Director)

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AFTER THE GRANT

CSPI continues its Alcohol Policies Project, working on state and federal alcohol excise taxes, on the Campaign for Alcohol-Free Sports TV and on underage drinking issues.

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GRANT DETAILS & CONTACT INFORMATION

Project

Technical Assistance, Training and Communications to Support State and Local Alcohol Policy Development

Grantee

Center for Science in the Public Interest (Washington,  DC)

  • Technical Assistance and Training to Support Community Alcohol Policy Development
    Amount: $ 183,751
    Dates: September 1997 to May 1999
    ID#:  031866

  • Technical Assistance, Training, and Communications to Support State and Local Alcohol Policy Development
    Amount: $ 196,894
    Dates: July 1999 to December 2000
    ID#:  036935

  • Technical Assistance, Training, and Communications to Support State and Local Alcohol Policy Development
    Amount: $ 749,999
    Dates: February 2001 to October 2004
    ID#:  040938

Contact

George A. Hacker, J.D.
(202) 332-9110
ghacker@spinet.org

Web Site

http://www.cspinet.org/booze
http://www.BeerFreeSportsTV.org

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Current as of date of this report; as provided by grantee organization; not verified by RWJF; items not available from RWJF.)

Reports

National Survey of Alcohol Marketing and College Sports. Survey Report. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, June 1998.

Youth and Alcohol. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, February 1999.

Binge Drinking on College Campuses. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, February 1999.

Alcohol Beverage Containers. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, May 1999.

House Appropriations Committee Scheduled to Vote on Underage Drinking Prevention. Update. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 9, 1999.

House Appropriations Committee Votes Down Measure to Add Underage Drinking Prevention Messages to ONDCP Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Update. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 15, 1999.

Ad Recklessly Promotes Binge Drinking Culture and Undermines Colleges' Struggle to Combat Excessive Drinking. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, September 10, 1999.

A Brewing Controversy: Alcohol Sponsorship of College Sports. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 1999.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 1999.

Enforcing Underage-Drinking Laws. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, September 1999.

Adolescents and Alcohol Use: Data From the Monitoring the Future Study. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, December 21, 1999.

Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary' Guidelines for Americans 2000. Update. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, February 9, 2000.

Alcohol and Youth: A Guide to the National Surveys. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, February 17, 2000.

Binge Drinking on College Campuses. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 2000.

Notice of Public Hearings Regarding Health Claims on Alcoholic Beverage Containers. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 17, 2000.

Research on Alcohol in the Media: Effects on Children and Adolescents. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, May 2000.

Alcoholic Beverages Listed as a Known Human Carcinogen. Update. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, May 19, 2000.

.08 BAC Goes to Conference Committee. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, June 30, 2000.

National Media Campaign to Prevent Underage Drinking Act of 2000. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, August 30, 2000.

Action Needed! National Media Campaign to Prevent Underage Drinking – H.R. 5137. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, September 14, 2000.

Urgent Action Needed! Final Decision on .08 BAC Provision. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, September 22, 2000.

House-Senate Conference Committee Passes .08 BAC Provision. Update. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 4, 2000.

Women and Alcohol. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, September 2000.

Key Findings on Adolescent Alcohol Use from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and the Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education (PRIDE) Survey. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 11, 2000.

Urge the Knight Commission to Put Alcohol Sponsorship and Advertising on the NCAA Reform Agenda. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 30, 2000.

Putting Anheuser-Busch's Consumer Responsibility Campaign Into Perspective. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, December 14, 2000.

Adolescent Alcohol Use: Results From the Monitoring the Future Study. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, December 15, 2000.

Increasing Alcohol Taxes to Fund Program to Prevent and Treat Youth-Related Alcohol Problems, Strategizer #37.Technical Assistance Manual. Alexandria, VA: Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America and Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2001.

State Alcohol Tax Study. Survey Report. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest and the American Medical Association, 2001.

National Alcohol Tax Study. Survey Report. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest and Mothers Against Drunk Driving, 2001.

Time to End Alcohol Marketing in Sports Campaign. Statement by George Hacker. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 2001.

National Media Campaign to Prevent Underage Drinking. Statement by George Hacker. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, April 2001.

The Marketing of Alcopops to Teens. Statement by George Hacker. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, May 2001.

Young People and Alcohol. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, May 2001.

What Teens and Adults are Saying about Alcopops. Survey Report. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, May 2001.

Beer Consumption and Taxes. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 2001.

Key Findings on Adolescent Alcohol Use from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and the Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education Survey. Survey Report. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, November 2001.

Liquor Ads on Television. Advocacy Package. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, December 2001.

Alcohol Advertising: Are Our Kids Collateral or Intended Targets. Statement by George Hacker. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, January 2002.

Local Television Affiliates Say No to NBC's Hard Liquor Ads. Update. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, February 2002.

Zippers: Lunch Box Liquor. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, May 2002.

Alcohol Advertising and Young People. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 2002.

Young People and Alcohol. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 2002.

Liquor Ads on Television Target Teenagers. Statement by George Hacker. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 2002.

Teen Television Viewing After 9 PM. Survey Report. Washington: Global Strategy Group, July 2002.

Urge Drug Czar Walters to End Relationship with Beer Promoter. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, August 2002.

Tell the NFL to Reject Ads for Hard Liquor. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, September 2002.

Alcohol Excise Taxes in Maryland. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, November 2002.

Survey Research Data on Alcopops. Survey Report. Washington: Global Strategy Group, November 2002.

Alcohol Excise Taxes in California: An Increase Is Long Overdue. Statement by W. England. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, January 2003.

Hacker GA, Boonn A and England B. Alcohol Excise Taxes in Pennsylvania: A Case for an Increase. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, February 2003.

Hacker GA, Boonn A and England B. Alcohol Excise Taxes in the District of Columbia: A Case for an Increase. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, April 2003.

Hacker GA and Boonn A. Alcohol Excise Taxes in Connecticut: A Case for an Increase. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 2003.

Alcohol Promoters Misrepresent Policy-Makers on the Effects of Alcohol Advertising. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 2003.

Beer Consumption and Taxes. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, August 2003.

The National Academy of Sciences' Report to Congress on Underage Drinking. Statement by George Hacker. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, September 2003.

Why Raise Alcohol Excise Taxes to Protect Underage Youth? Evidence Supporting NAS Report Recommendations. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 2003.

Hacker GA, Boonn A and Gotwals AE. Alcohol Excise Taxes in New Mexico: The Effects of Increases on Revenues, Price and Consumption. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 2003.

A National Call to Action on the Nation's Number-One Youth Drug Problem: Responding to the NAS Report on Underage Drinking. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 2003.

State Alcohol Tax Action Guide: NAS Report Recommends Raising Alcohol Excise Taxes, Next Steps to Forward the Issue in Your State. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 2003.

Comments Needed to Improve Alcopops Regulation. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 2003.

Help Get Beer Ads Out of the Air and Space Museum. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, October 2003.

Alcoholic Beverage Industry Needs Young Drinkers. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, November 2003.

Alcohol Advertising, Televised Sports, and Underage Youth. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, November 2003.

College Students and Alcohol Use. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, November 2003.

Youth and Alcohol. Fact Sheet. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, November 2003.

Help Break the Tie Between Alcohol and Sports! Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, November 2003.

Urge College Presidents to Help Break the Tie Between Sports and Alcohol Ads. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, January 2004.

Help Strengthen U.S. Dietary Guidelines on Alcoholic Beverage. Action Alert. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 2004.

Hacker GA and Gotwals AE. Beer Taxes in Alabama: The Effects of Increases on Revenues, Price, and Consumption. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 2004.

Hacker GA and Gotwals AE. Alcohol Excise Taxes in Maryland: A Case for an Increase. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 2004.

Hacker GA and Gotwals AE. Alcohol Excise Taxes in Connecticut: A Case for an Increase. Report by Hacker GA & Gotwals AE. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 2004.

Survey Research and Communications Strategy to Highlight the High-Calorie Content of Youth-Oriented 'Alcopops'. Survey Report. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, April 2004.

Pouring it On. Brochure for Campaign for Alcohol-Free Sports TV. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, May 2004.

Hacker GA and Boonn A. Alcohol Excise Taxes in Pennsylvania: The Effects of Increases on Revenues, Price, and Consumption. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, June 2004.

Hacker GA and Boonn A. A Factbook on State Beer Taxes. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 2004. Updated August 2004.

Audio-Visuals and Computer Software

Marketing Booze to Teens: Alcopops Media Advocacy. 25-minute videotape of media coverage of CSPI's "alcopops" poll findings, teen focus group highlights and alcopop product advertising. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2001. (Produced through Funding from RJWF's Special Opportunity Fund in the Communications Department.)

Survey Instruments

"Calories and Alcopops Study." Washington: Global Strategy Group, fielded September 2003.

World Wide Web Sites

www.cspinet.org/booze. The Alcohol Policies Project section of CSPI's Web site provides access to all of its informational and motivational products. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest. 99,000 page requests per month.

www.BeerFreeSportsTV.org. Created to support CSPI's Campaign for Alcohol-Free Sports TV. Washington: Center for Science in the Public Interest, November 12, 2003.

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Report prepared by: Kelsey Menehan
Reviewed by: Richard Camer
Reviewed by: Molly McKaughan
Program Officer: Joan Hollendonner
Program Officer: Floyd Morris

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