RWJF Scholar examines neighborhood-based death rates from opiate-based painkiller overdoses, compared with heroin overdose deaths.
From 1993 to 2001, Henry Wechsler, Ph.D., and researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health conducted four national surveys examining the drinking patterns and practices of American college students.
The College Alcohol Study identified key individual and environmental factors related to heavy episodic or "binge" drinking and evaluated institutional policies and programs designed to control alcohol problems.
Key findings from what the New York Times called "a landmark national study of binge drinking among college students" (Carey Goldberg, September 11, 1998) encompass more than 80 publications.
These include a 1994 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association that drew national attention to the problem of college binge drinking and its "secondhand" effects on non-drinkers, according to the Boston Globe (Doloras Kong, September 27, 1997).
Publications on the College Alcohol Study in public health, psychological, economic, medical, psychiatric, educational, alcohol and substance abuse journals are among the most widely cited articles on college drinking, according to the Science Citation Index.
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) provided seven grants totaling $6,501,696 to support the College Alcohol Study and its dissemination from 1992 to 2004.
According to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, alcohol abuse is a major public health problem, and it is the third leading cause of death in the United States, behind tobacco use and the combined effects of poor diet and sedentary lifestyle. The group most at risk for heavy alcohol consumption may be college students.
Concerns about college drinking among college administrators and parents began to escalate in the 1990s for several reasons, including the persistence of heavy episodic or "binge" drinking and heightened awareness of the dangers of date rape and of serious injury and death due to alcohol-related accidents.
With few exceptions, studies of college drinking prior to the first College Alcohol Study had focused on single college campuses. Wechsler, the College Alcohol Study's director, had studied the problem of college binge drinking in New England and believed that a large-scale national survey was needed, along with a vigorous dissemination campaign to ensure that survey results reached key audiences, notably college administrators, the general public, federal policy-makers and substance abuse prevention experts.
RWJF also funds A Matter of Degree: Reducing High-Risk Drinking Among College Students. It is an $8.6 million, seven-year program designed to foster collaboration between participating universities and the communities in which they are located to address high-risk drinking problems.
Ten university-community coalitions participating in the program are working to build healthier, safer communities. They are:
Beginning in 1992, Wechsler and a team of researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health designed and conducted the College Alcohol Study, a series of four surveys conducted in 1993, 1997, 1999 and 2001 that provided the first nationally representative picture of college alcohol use.
The goal of the study was to describe drinking patterns and practices of American college students, identify key factors related to heavy episodic drinking and understand how institutional policies and programs may help to control alcohol problems.
The Harvard team consisted of researchers from multiple disciplines, including social psychology, social epidemiology, behavioral sciences and biostatistics.
The team also collaborated on studies with other researchers within Harvard University from disciplines such as economics, psychology, epidemiology and medicine. The institutional affiliation of these researchers included:
Although the College Alcohol Study examined seven measures of drinking behavior, the main variable studied was binge drinking. Behavior categories studied and described in Findings included:
In addition to the comprehensive information about drinking behaviors, each of the surveys collected information about the use of tobacco and illicit drugs and other high-risk behaviors of college students. Examples of additional research questions addressed by individual surveys included:
For the first survey in 1993 (Grant ID# 019547), the researchers recruited a random sample of 140 colleges from the American Council of Education's list of accredited four-year colleges. They mailed a self-administered questionnaire to a randomly selected sample of students in each of the colleges.
After the first survey, the researchers resurveyed a nationally representative sample of students at most of the same colleges in 1997, 1999 and 2001 (Grant ID#s 029870, 030249 and 035965), with responses over the four surveys totaling more than 50,000 students.
For all four surveys, administrators at each participating school used guidelines provided by the researchers to randomly select 215 students from their full-time enrolled undergraduates.
Over the course of the surveys, more than 85 percent of the original colleges continued to participate in the study. The goal of the three follow-up surveys was to measure changes in binge drinking and other high-risk alcohol use behaviors since the 1993 survey and to determine to what extent observed changes reflected the influence of environmental conditions and interventions.
Questions for Students
The researchers used a 20-page self-administered survey to ask students about their drinking behavior, alcohol-related health problems and other problems, including tobacco and illicit drug use.
Students who drank alcohol in the previous year were asked a series of questions about their experience of alcohol-related problems and the health and behavioral consequences of their own drinking, such as having a hangover, missing a class, engaging in unplanned sexual activity, damaging property or getting in trouble with campus or local police.
Students were also asked whether they experienced "secondhand effects," e.g., problems caused by other students' drinking, such as being insulted or humiliated, having sleep or study interrupted, experiencing an unwanted sexual advance or being the victim of sexual assault or date rape.
In addition to students, the College Alcohol Study also surveyed college administrators in order to determine the alcohol-related programs and policies that were in effect during each of the four survey years and to examine the relationship between college efforts to prevent alcohol use and student reports of drinking behavior.
The researchers mailed questionnaires to key administrators, including deans of students, deans of judicial affairs, alcohol and drug education directors, chiefs of campus security, directors of student health clinics and directors of residential life at the same colleges sampled for the student surveys. Data were collected from administrators at nearly all of the participating colleges.
Administrators rated the perceived severity of alcohol-abuse problems among students on their campuses, specified approaches their colleges used to address binge drinking and described prevention resources.
Researchers developed different versions of the administrators' questionnaire to target specific administrative functions, such as security and health clinic directors.
The questionnaires consisted of both closed- and open-ended questions designed to elicit descriptive information about the types of alcohol education and prevention programs offered to students, as well as the range of campus alcohol-control policies.
The researchers also conducted surveys of college presidents and senior administrators (whom presidents delegated to complete the survey) at all four-year colleges in the United States in 1999 and in 2002. The purpose of these surveys was to provide a comprehensive overview of prevention efforts nationally, including an examination of institutional allotment of resources for prevention.
College presidents and senior administrators at more than 700 four-year colleges in the United States responded to each of these surveys.
Eligible institutions included all four-year colleges and universities accredited by the American Council on Education that were located in the United States, offered baccalaureate liberal arts or sciences degrees and provided on-campus residences for at least 10 percent of their undergraduates.
The survey asked presidents to rate the severity of the student alcohol problems at their institutions, describe their alcohol policies and education or prevention efforts, list the sources of funding for their alcohol education-prevention programs and rate the success of their education-prevention efforts.
In 1999, officials at 734 schools mailed back the questionnaire, a response rate of 76.1 percent. Respondents were:
In 2002, administrators designated by college presidents at 760 schools returned the questionnaire, which was a response rate of 68 percent.
The project team also contracted with two national research organizations to conduct additional studies of the environment around the campuses:
Connection to A Matter of Degree
In addition to directing the College Alcohol Study, Wechsler was also the principal investigator for the evaluation of A Matter of Degree. Wechsler used a group of colleges and universities with high rates of binge drinking, identified by the College Alcohol Study, as a comparison group in the evaluation. (For more information about A Matter of Degree, see the national program office Web site. Additional information about the evaluation is available online.)
RWJF also provided three grants to support dissemination of the findings of the College Alcohol Study (Grant ID#s 024464, 033931 and 040869). The goals of the dissemination projects were to ensure that the issue of college student binge drinking received national attention and that various stakeholders were engaged to consider solutions to this problem.
Dissemination activities included efforts to reach people capable of creating institutional change, such as college presidents, deans, trustees, fraternity directors and health directors. Other key audiences included those who could influence the campus environment, such as the roommates of binge drinkers; residential life administrators; security and health officials; parents; prospective students; and federal, state and local policy-makers.
The Harvard School of Public Health subcontracted with Burness Communications, a consulting firm based in Bethesda, Md., to provide public relations support.
The College Alcohol Study has received widespread attention from both academic and general audiences beginning with a 1994 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association ("Health and Behavioral Consequences of Binge Drinking in College: A National Survey of Students at 140 Campuses") and including the September 11, 1998, article in the New York Times which called it "a landmark national study of binge drinking among college students" (Carey Goldberg).
A press conference on December 6, 1994, resulted in a four-minute lead story on "ABC World News Tonight," lead reports and NBC and CBS and 413 total broadcast exposures that reached 150 million people, according to Burness Communications. The findings were been widely reported in newspaper articles, magazines Time, Newsweek and local television and radio shows and online sources. Since then other College Alcohol Study reports also received wide coverage. Selected press coverage of the College Alcohol Study is available on the study's Web site.
Since 1994 Wechsler and his colleagues have published more than 80 articles in peer-reviewed public health, medical, social science, educational and economic journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the American Journal of Public Health, Addiction, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Social Science and Medicine, Journal of Health Economics, Pediatrics, Journal of American College Health and many others. In addition to alcohol, topics have included tobacco and drug use, gambling and gun possession. Abstracts and some full texts of these articles are available on the study's Web site.
Project staff sent every college president in the United States copies of two reports on the study: Binge Drinking on American College Campus: A New Look at an Old Problem and Binge Drinking on America's College Campuses: Findings for the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study.
The researchers compiled findings from their published articles in a summary paper, "The Findings and Impact of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study: Focusing Attention on Binge Drinking and the College Environment."
They identified the following key findings related to binge drinking and its secondhand effects.
Student Binge Drinking
Effects on Other Students
Effects of Policies, Environment and Laws
The College Alcohol Study examined tobacco use among college students. Wechsler and his colleagues reported the following findings, in the articles noted:
Illicit Drug Use
The College Alcohol Study also examined college students' use of illicit drugs. Wechsler and his colleagues reported these findings in the journal articles cited:
Other High-Risk Behaviors
The College Alcohol Study also examined other high-risk behaviors. The researchers reported the following findings related to gun ownership and gambling by college students in the articles cited:
The researchers identified the following key findings from the surveys of college presidents and senior administrators in 1999 and 2002. Additional detail on these surveys can be found in articles listed in the Bibliography.
The College Alcohol Study employed a cross-sectional design (a descriptive study of a defined population at a particular point in time) and obtained self-reported data from students. The researchers noted several general limitations of this type of research.
Wechsler and his colleagues drew the following conclusions from the College Alcohol Study, which they reported in their summary ("The Findings and Impact of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study: Focusing Attention on Binge Drinking and the College Environment"):
According to Wechsler's research team, the College Alcohol Study has played an important role in the national policy debate about drinking among college students and influenced major national and governmental action. As evidence, they note that:
In a new review that examines the findings from the College Alcohol Study and their implications, the researchers conclude that heavy drinking behavior of students was more common in college environments that have a strong drinking culture, few alcohol control policies on campus or in the surrounding community, weak enforcement of existing policies, and alcohol made easily accessible through low prices, heavy marketing and special promotions. The review appears in the July 2008 issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. The review was conducted by the College Alcohol Study director Wechsler, and assistant director Toben Nelson, assistant professor of epidemiology and community health at the University of Minnesota.
The Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study's most recent paper (in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69(4): 481490) reviews 14 years of findings from the College Alcohol Study and supplemental surveys. The authors refer to the combination of factors that promote heavy drinking as being a "wet environment." These factors include, but are not limited to:
College Alcohol Study
Harvard University School of Public Health (Boston, MA)
Henry Wechsler, Ph.D.
(Current as of date of this report; as provided by grantee organization; not verified by RWJF; items not available from RWJF.)
Wechsler H and Wuethrich B. Dying to Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Books, 2002.
Hingson R, Heeren T, Winter M and Wechsler H. "Magnitude of AlcoholRelated Mortality and Morbidity Among U.S. College Students Ages 1824: Changes from 1998 to 2001." Annual Review of Public Health, 26: 259279, 2005.
McCabe SE, Teter CJ, Boyd CJ, Knight JR and Wechsler H. "Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids Among U.S. College Students: Prevalence and Correlates from a National Survey." Addictive Behaviors, 30:789805, 2005.
McCabe SE, Knight JR, Teter CJ and Wechsler H. "Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants Among US College Students: Prevalence and Correlates from a National Survey." Addiction, 100: 96106, 2005.
Nelson TF, Naimi TS, Brewer RD and Wechsler H. "The State Sets the Rate: The Relationship of College Binge Drinking to State Binge Drinking Rates and Selected State Alcohol Control Policies." American Journal of Public Health, 95(3): 441446, 2005.
Rigotti NA, Moran SE and Wechsler H. "US College Students' Exposure to Tobacco Promotions: Prevalence and Association with Tobacco Use." American Journal of Public Health, 95(1): 138144, 2005.
Weitzman E and Chen Y. "RiskModifying Effect of Social Capital on Measures of Heavy Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Abuse, Harms, and Secondhand Effects: National Survey Findings." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59(4):303309, 2005.
MohlerKuo M, Dowdall GW, Koss M and Wechsler H. "Correlates of Rape while Intoxicated in a National Sample of College Women." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65(1): 3745, 2004.
Moran S, Wechsler H and Rigotti NA. "Social Smoking Among US College Students." Pediatrics, 114: 10281034, 2004.
Powell LM, Williams J and Wechsler H. "Study Habits and the Level of Alcohol Use Among College Students." Education Economics, 12(2): 135149, 2004.
Wechsler H, Seibring M, Liu IC and Ahl M. "Colleges Respond to Student Binge Drinking: Reducing Student Demand or Limiting Access." Journal of American College Health, 52(4): 159168, 2004.
Weitzman ER and Nelson TF. "College Student Binge Drinking and the "Prevention Paradox": Implications for Prevention and Harm Reduction." Journal of Drug Education, 34(3):247266, 2004.
Weitzman ER, Nelson TF, Lee H and Wechsler H. "Reducing Drinking and Related Harms in College: Evaluation of the "A Matter of Degree" Program." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(3): 187196, 2004.
Weitzman ER. "Poor Mental Health, Depression, and Associations with Alcohol Consumption, Harm, and Abuse in a National Sample of Young Adults in College." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(4): 269277, 2004.
Weitzman ER. "Social Developmental Overview of Heavy Episodic or Binge Drinking Among U.S. College Students." Psychiatric Times, (21): 2, 2004.
Eisenberg M and Wechsler H. "Social Influences on SubstanceUse Behaviors of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual College Students: Findings From a National Study." Social Science & Medicine, 57(10): 19131923, 2003.
Eisenberg M and Wechsler H. "Substance Use Behaviors Among College Students with SameSex and OppositeSex Experience: Results from a National Study." Addictive Behaviors, 28(6): 899913, 2003.
Harford TC, Wechsler H and Muthen BO. "AlcoholRelated Aggression and Drinking at OffCampus Parties and Bars: A National Study of Current Drinkers at College." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(5): 704711, 2003.
Hingson R, Heeren T, Zakocs RC, Winter MR and Wechsler H. "Age of First Intoxication, Heavy Drinking, Driving after Drinking and Risk of Unintentional Injury Among U.S. College Students." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(1): 2331, 2003.
Hingson R, Heeren T, Winter MR and Wechsler H. "Early Age of First Drunkenness as a Factor in College Students' Unplanned and Unprotected Sex Due to Drinking." Pediatrics, 111(1): 3441, 2003.
Knight JR, Harris SK, Sherritt L, Kelley K, Van Hook S and Wechsler H. "Heavy Drinking and Alcohol Policy Enforcement in a Statewide Public College System." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(5): 696703, 2003.
Kuo M, Wechsler H, Greenberg P and Lee H. "The Marketing of Alcohol to College Students: The Role of Low Prices and Special Promotions." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(3): 204211, 2003.
LaBrie RA, Shaffer HJ, LaPlante DA and Wechsler H. "Correlates of College Student Gambling in the United States." Journal of American College Health, 52(2):5362, 2003.
MohlerKuo M, Lee JE and Wechsler H. "Trends in Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use Among College Students: Results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys: 19932001." Journal of American College Health, 52(1): 1724, 2003.
Nelson TF and Wechsler H. "School Spirits: Alcohol and Collegiate Sports Fans." Addictive Behaviors, 28(1): 111, 2003.
Wechsler H and Kuo M. "Watering Down the Drinks: The Moderating Effect of College Demographics on Alcohol Use of HighRisk Groups." American Journal of Public Health, 93(11): 19291933, 2003.
Wechsler H, Lee JE, Nelson TF and Lee H. "Drinking and Driving Among College Students: The Influence of AlcoholControl Policies." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(3): 212218, 2003.
Wechsler H, Nelson TF, Lee JE, Seibring M, Lewis C and Keeling RP. "Perception and Reality: A National Evaluation of Social Norms Marketing Interventions to Reduce College Students' Heavy Alcohol Use." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(4): 484494, 2003.
Weitzman ER, Nelson TF and Wechsler H. "Assessing Success in a CoalitionBased Environmental Prevention Programme Targeting Alcohol Abuse and Harms." Nordic Journal of Substance Use, 20: 19, 2003.
Weitzman ER, Folkman A, Folkman KL and Wechsler H. "The Relationship of Alcohol Outlet Density to Heavy and Frequent Drinking and DrinkingRelated Problems Among College Students at Eight Universities." Health and Place, 9(1): 16, 2003.
Weitzman ER, Nelson TF and Wechsler H. "Taking up Binge Drinking in College: The Influences of Person, Social Group, and Environment." Journal of Adolescent Health, 32(1): 2635, 2003.
Williams J, Powell LM and Wechsler H. "Does Alcohol Consumption Reduce Human Capital Accumulation? Evidence from the College Alcohol Study." Applied Economics, 35(10): 12271239, 2003.
Dowdall GW and Wechsler H. "Studying College Alcohol Use: Widening the Lens, Sharpening the Focus." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 14(3): 1422, 2002.
Gassman RA, Demone HW and Wechsler H. "College Students' Drinking: Master's in Social Work Compared with Undergraduate Students. Health and Social Work, 27(3): 184192, 2002.
Harford TC, Wechsler H and Muthen BO. "The Impact of Current Residence and High School Drinking on Alcohol Problems Among College Students." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(3): 271279, 2002.
Harford TC, Wechsler H, Seibring M. "Attendance and Alcohol Use at Parties and Bars in College: A National Survey of Current Drinkers." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(11): 726733, 2002.
Hingson R, Heeren T, Zakocs RC, Kopstein A and Wechsler H. "Magnitude of AlcoholRelated Mortality and Morbidity Among U.S. College Students Ages 1824." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(2): 136144, 2002.
Knight JR, Wechsler H, Kuo M, Seibring M, Weitzman ER and Schuckit MA. "Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Among U.S. College Students." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(3): 263270, 2002.
Kuo M, Adlaf EM, Lee H, Gliksman L, Demers A and Wechsler H. "More Canadian Students Drink But American Students Drink More: Comparing College Use in Two Countries." Addiction, 97(12): 15831592, 2002.
Miller M, Hemenway D and Wechsler H. "Guns and Gun Threats at College." Journal of American College Health, 51(2): 5765, 2002.
Rigotti NA, Regan S, Majchrzak NE, Knight JR and Wechsler H. "Tobacco Use by Massachusetts Public College Students: Long Term Effect of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program." Tobacco Control, 11(Suppl. 2): ii20ii24, 2002.
Strote J, Lee JE and Wechsler H. "Increased MDMA Use Among College Students: Results of a National Survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(1): 6472, 2002.
Wechsler H, Lee JE, Hall J, Wagenaar AC and Lee H. "Secondhand Effects of Student Alcohol Use Reported by Neighbors of Colleges: The Role of Alcohol Outlets." Social Science & Medicine, 55(3): 425435, 2002.
Wechsler H, Lee JE, Kuo M, Seibring M, Nelson TF and Lee H. "Trends in College Binge Drinking During a Period of Increased Prevention Efforts: Findings from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys: 19932001. Journal of American College Health, 50(5): 203217, 2002.
Wechsler H, Lee JE, Nelson TF and Kuo M. "Underage College Students' Drinking Behavior, Access to Alcohol, and the Influence of Deterrence Policies: Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study." Journal of American College Health, 50(5): 223236, 2002.
Williams J, Chaloupka FJ and Wechsler H. "Are There Differential Effects of Price and Policy on College Students' Drinking Intensity?" National Bureau of Economic Research, 1: WP 8702, 2002. See also "Higher Alcohol Prices and Student Drinking." (a nontechnical version of the paper) National Bureau of Economic Research Digest, June 2002.
Czart C, Pacula RL, Chaloupka FJ and Wechsler H. "The Impact of Prices and Control Policies on Cigarette Smoking Among College Students." Contemporary Economic Policy, 19(2): 135149, 2001.
Nelson TF and Wechsler H. "Alcohol and College Athletes." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(1): 4347,2001.
Wechsler H and Nelson TF. "Binge Drinking and the American College Student: What's Five Drinks?" Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(4): 287291, 2001.
Wechsler H, Lee JE, GledhillHoyt J and Nelson TF. "Alcohol Use and Problems at Colleges Banning Alcohol: Results of a National Survey." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(2): 133141, 2001.
Wechsler H, Lee JE and Rigotti NA. "Cigarette Use by College Students in SmokeFree Housing: Results of a National Study." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 20(3): 202207, 2001.
Wechsler H, Kelley K, Seibring M, Kuo M and Rigotti NA. "College Smoking Policies and Smoking Cessation Programs: Results of a Survey of College Health Center Directors." Journal of American College Health, 49(5): 18, 2001.
Wechsler H, Lee JE, Nelson TF and Lee H. "Drinking Levels, Alcohol Problems and Secondhand Effects in SubstanceFree College Residences: Results of a National Study." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1): 2331, 2001.
GledhillHoyt J, Lee H, Strote J and Wechsler H. "Increased Use of Marijuana and Other Illicit Drugs at US Colleges in the 1990s: Results of Three National Surveys." Addiction, 95(11): 16551667, 2000.
Rigotti NA, Lee JE and Wechsler H. "US College Students' Use of Tobacco Products: Results of a National Study." Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(6):699705, 2000.
Wechsler H and Kuo M. "College Students Define Binge Drinking and Estimate Its Prevalence: Results of a National Survey." Journal of American College Health, 49(2): 5764, 2000.
Wechsler H, Kuo M, Lee H and Dowdall GW. "Environmental Correlates of Underage Alcohol Use and Related Problems of College Students." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19(1): 2429, 2000.
Wechsler H, Lee JE, Kuo M and Lee H. "College Binge Drinking in the 1990s: A Continuing ProblemResults of the Harvard School of Public Health 1999 College Alcohol Study." Journal of American College Health, 48(10): 199210, 2000.
Wechsler H, Kelley K, Weitzman ER, San Giovanni J and Seibring M. "What Colleges Are Doing About Student Binge Drinking A Survey of College Administrators." Journal of American College Health, 48(10): 219226, 2000.
Wechsler H, Nelson TF and Weitzman ER. "From Knowledge to Action: How Harvard's College Alcohol Study Can Help Your Campus Design a Campaign Against Student Alcohol Abuse." Change, 32(1): 3843, 2000.
Weitzman ER and Kawachi I. "Giving Means Receiving: The Protective Effects of Social Capital on Binge Drinking on College Campuses." American Journal of Public Health, 90(12): 19361939, 2000.
Weitzman ER and Wechsler H. "Alcohol Use, Abuse and Related Problems Among Children of Problem Drinkers, Findings From A National Survey of College Alcohol Use." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188(3):148154, 2000.
Miller M, Hemenway D and Wechsler H. "Guns at College." Journal of American College Health, 48(1): 712, 1999.
Wechsler H, Molnar BE, Davenport A and Baer J. "College Alcohol Use: A Full or Empty Glass?" Journal of American College Health, 47(6): 247252, 1999.
Chaloupka FJ and Wechsler H. "Binge Drinking in College: The Impact of Price, Availability and Alcohol Control Policies. Contemporary Economic Policy, XIV(4): 112124, 1996.
Emmons K, Wechsler H, Dowdall GW and Abraham M. "Predictors of Smoking Among College Students." American Journal of Public Health, 88(1): 104107, 1998.
Wechsler H, Rigotti NA, GledhillHoyt J and Lee H. "Increased Levels of Cigarette Use Among College Students: A Cause for National Concern." Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(19): 16731678, 1998.
Wechsler H, Dowdall GW, Maenner G, GledhillHoyt J and Lee H. "Changes in Binge Drinking and Related Problems Among American College Students Between 1993 and 1997." Journal of American College Health, 47(2):5768, 1998.
Wechsler H and Austin SB. "Binge Drinking: The Five/Four Measure." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(1): 122123, 1998.
Bell R, Wechsler H and Johnston LD. "Correlates of College Student Marijuana Use: Results of a US National Survey." Addiction, 92(5): 571582, 1997.
Chaloupka FJ and Wechsler H. "Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Smoking Among Young Adults." Journal of Health Economics, 16(3): 359373, 1997.
Wechsler H, Fulop M, Padilla A, Lee H and Patrick K. "Binge Drinking Among College Students: A Comparison of California with Other States." Journal of American College Health, 45: 273277, 1997.
Wechsler H, Davenport A, Dowdall GW, Grossman S and Zanakos S. "Binge Drinking, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use and Involvement in College Athletics." Journal of American College Health, 45: 195200, 1997.
Perkins HW and Wechsler H. "Variation in Perceived College Drinking Norms and Its Impact on Alcohol Abuse: A Nationwide Study." Journal of Drug Issues, 26(4): 961974, 1996.
Wechsler H, Kuh G and Davenport A. "Fraternities, Sororities and Binge Drinking: Results From A National Study of American Colleges." National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 33(4): 260279, 1996.
Wechsler H, Dowdall GW, Davenport A and Rimm EB. "A GenderSpecific Measure of Binge Drinking Among College Students." American Journal of Public Health, 85: 982985, 1995.
Wechsler H, Moeykens B, Davenport A, Castillo S and Hansen J. "The Adverse Impact of Heavy Episodic Drinkers on Other College Students." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56(6): 628634, 1995.
Wechsler H, Dowdall GW, Davenport A and Castillo S. "Correlates of College Student Binge Drinking." American Journal of Public Health, 85: 921926, 1995.
Wechsler H, Davenport A, Dowdall GW, Moeykens B and Castillo S. "Health and Behavioral Consequences of Binge Drinking in College: A National Survey of Students at 140 Campuses." Journal of the American Medical Association, 272(21): 16721677, 1994.
Binge Drinking on America's College Campuses: Findings for the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, College Alcohol Study, Department of Health and Social Behavior, 2001.
Binge Drinking on American College Campuses: A New Look at an Old Problem. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, College Alcohol Study, Department of Health and Social Behavior, August 1995.
Wechsler H and Nelson TF. The Findings and Impact of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study: Focusing Attention on Binge Drinking and the College Environment. Unpublished.
All the national CAS data sets are available from the InterUniversity Consortium for Social and Policy Research Web site.
www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas. The Web site of the Harvard College Alcohol Study offers extensive information of the study goals staff and findings. Users can access abstracts and the full text of all articles published on the study.
www.hsph.harvard.edu/amod. The "A Matter of Degree" program evaluation Web site provides an overview of this project, links to findings and links to project partners.
Report prepared by: Jayme Hannay
Reviewed by: Robert Narus
Reviewed by: Molly McKaughan
Program Officer: Marjorie A. Gutman
Program Officer: Seth Emont
Program Officer: M. Katherine Kraft
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