July 2000

Grant Results

SUMMARY

In 1998, the Center for the Advancement of Health, Washington, established the Youth Tobacco-Use Prevention Initiative, whose goals were to:

  1. Identify what would be necessary to raise the quantity, quality and effectiveness of youth tobacco-use prevention research.
  2. Incorporate transdisciplinary approaches into the current framework for prevention efforts through both an examination of training needs and an assessment of processes to remove institutional barriers and improve communications among those in academia and grantmaking agencies.

Seven working groups, including 57 scientists, funders, and policymakers, were assembled to examine several topics.

Key Results

  • Each working group produced a report describing areas that would benefit from additional resources and attention.
  • The center sponsored a meeting of working group members on October 16, 1998, in Washington, to discuss their recommendations for further work in the field, and project leaders drafted a series of documents outlining next steps.
  • Following one recommendation, the nine funders who took part in the "Communication Among Grantmakers" working group, including the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), have formed the National Organization of Tobacco Use Research Funders (NO TURF) to improve funding for tobacco research.

Funding
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) supported the project with a $135,723 grant between February and October 1998.

 See Grant Detail & Contact Information
 Back to the Table of Contents


THE PROJECT

Despite past investments in tobacco prevention research by federal and non-governmental agencies in the United States and Canada, many fundamental research challenges remain to be addressed, and few mechanisms bridge research knowledge across biomedical, psychosocial, intervention, and policy research. In 1997, RWJF funded two meetings on tobacco prevention research.

The Sundance Conference (ID#s 028417, 030055, 030735, 031272, 031794, and 031887 — see Grant Results on ID#s 028417 and 030055) emphasized the importance of thinking about problems from various perspectives. The follow-up meeting, called the Stonehouse meeting or Stonehouse I, (ID# 035124) run by RWJF staff, which brought together governmental and private funders of tobacco prevention research, concluded that the effectiveness of research on preventing youth smoking could be improved by increased communication among scientists, funders, and policymakers, and by consideration of transdisciplinary research.

This grant from RWJF enabled the center to establish the Youth Tobacco-Use Prevention Initiative, whose goals were to: (1) identify what would be necessary to raise the quantity, quality and effectiveness of youth tobacco use prevention research; and (2) incorporate transdisciplinary approaches into the current framework for prevention efforts through both an examination of training needs and an assessment of processes to remove institutional barriers and improve communications among those in academia and grantmaking agencies.

The Center was established in 1992 to promote an evidence-based view of health that recognizes the contributions of physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and environment factors, and has experience with translating scientific information and developing and sustaining relationships across multiple organizations. A set of seven working groups, including 57 scientists, funders, and policymakers, were assembled to examine the following topics:

  • Critical Research Questions
  • Review of Current Research
  • Training Needs for Transdisciplinary Research
  • Barriers to Transdisciplinary Youth Tobacco-Use Prevention Research
  • Surveillance Systems Relevant to Youth Tobacco-Use Prevention
  • Translating Science into Practice
  • Communication Among Grantmakers

At the end of the grant period, participants in the seven working groups met, reported on their activities and findings, and planned next steps. The center served as secretariat and coordinator of the working groups, providing meeting space, teleconferencing, electronic communications, facilitation assistance, and technical expertise.

 Back to the Table of Contents


RESULTS

  • Each working group produced a report describing areas that would benefit from additional resources and attention. The Center compiled the reports into an overall Report from the Working Groups of the Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative. The major findings of the working groups were:
    • Critical Research Questions: Many of the gaps in knowledge fall outside traditional National Institutes of Health funding streams and the Center for Disease Control's usual purview. Finding answers will require forging some common ground among divergent conceptual frameworks and research methods.
    • Review of Current Research: There are few examples of true multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary work. An indexed database of peer-reviewed studies and reports would help prevent redundancies and contribute to the development of more coherent transdisciplinary approaches.
    • Training Needs for Transdisciplinary Research: There is a critical need for some sort of training institute or training forum regarding transdisciplinary research in youth tobacco-use prevention, which might also develop educational materials to disseminate to a broad community of scientists.
    • Barriers to Transdisciplinary Research: Numerous barriers hinder transdisciplinary research, including lack of training, lack of colleagues in the field, departmental policies, university incentives, and funders' constraints and incentives. Past efforts to overcome these barriers are instructive.
    • Review of Ongoing Surveillance Systems: It is possible to establish an electronic reference for the various surveillance systems in the United States and Canada to monitor work in youth tobacco use and to establish a cooperative database for all research going on in youth tobacco-use prevention.
    • Translating Science into Practice: Dissemination of research findings often fails because the information is not tailored to any specific audiences. The various target audiences must be identified, and dissemination made appropriate for each one. A central agency or organization with a mandate to evaluate research and to plan dissemination strategies could be very beneficial to this effort.
    • Communication Among Grantmakers: Ten funders agreed that they have much to gain by communicating regularly, sharing information, defining common terms, and coordinating their efforts generally — and that they are ready and willing to begin doing so.
  • Project leaders prepared a summary paper that highlighted suggestions from the larger report. "What It Will Take to Prevent Tobacco Use by Youth: Elements of Effective Action," divided the work that needs to be done into areas of "push" (strategies for funders to direct the focus and increase the quantity of tobacco-use prevention research), "capacity" (the ability of researchers to do transdisciplinary tobacco-use prevention research within the current infrastructure), and "pull" (demand from practitioners, policy makers and the public for higher quality, relevant research).
  • Fifty members, whose membership spanned all seven working groups, convened to discuss their recommendations for further work in the field. The meeting, "Growing the Field of Youth Tobacco-Use Prevention Research: Mobilizing for Action," known informally as Stonehouse II, took place October 16, 1998, at the center's offices in Washington, D.C. The meeting included small-group discussions on revising the Elements of Effect Action paper and a plenary session to: (1) brainstorm about how to encourage the involvement of funders, researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers; and (2) agree upon the critical next steps.
  • Project participants drafted a strategic plan proposing next steps. The plan proposed a number of follow-up activities, including the presentation of relevant recommendations to specific agencies, separate subsequent meetings for policymakers and researchers; publication of a monthly electronic newsletter for researchers; and creation of a program-level partnership of funders. The Elements of Effective Action was also revised based on feedback from the Stonehouse II meeting.

Communications

The Report from the Working Groups of the Youth Tobacco-Use Prevention Initiative was distributed to working group members and conference attendees. In addition, about 100 copies each of the full report and its sections, including "Barriers to Transdisciplinary Research in Youth Tobacco-Use Prevention" report have been mailed out in response to requests.

 Back to the Table of Contents


AFTER THE GRANT

Following a recommendation in the strategic plan, the nine funders who took part in the Communication Among Grantmakers working group, including RWJF, initiated formation of NO TURF. The goals of this collaboration are to increase funding for tobacco research, ensure that all important topics receive support, build cohesiveness in the field, and encourage other organizations to fund tobacco research. There are now 25 funders of tobacco-use research, including major Canadian funders and a number of states participating in NO TURF. Current activities of the group include producing a guide to sources of tobacco research funding, and compiling a report on the research topics currently being funded by all the major tobacco funders.

Another outgrowth of this grant and the related Sundance Conferences is the Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Centers project, which is funded by the National Cancer Institute, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and RWJF. RWJF's program is the Partners for Tobacco Use Research Centers: Advancing Transdisciplinary Science and Policy Studies. A total of $68 million has been invested in the creation of eight centers and support for a range of tobacco-use research initiatives (etiology, prevention, and cessation). A related multi-funded initiative is establishing priorities for research and practice in youth smoking cessation.

 Back to the Table of Contents


GRANT DETAILS & CONTACT INFORMATION

Project

Working Group on Transdisciplinary Tobacco Prevention Research

Grantee

Center for the Advancement of Health (Washington,  DC)

  • Amount: $ 135,723
    Dates: February 1998 to October 1998
    ID#:  033602

Contact

Catherine Maule
(202) 387-2829
cmaule@cfah.org

 Back to the Table of Contents


APPENDICES


Appendix 1

(Current as of the time of the grant; provided by the grantee organization; not verified by RWJF.)

Members of the Working Groups

Group #1: Critical Research Questions

Jack Henningfield, Ph.D. (Chair)
Pinney Associates
Bethesda, Md.

David B. Abrams, Ph.D.
Professor and Director, Center for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine
Brown University School of Medicine and The Miriam Hospital
Providence, R.I.

Richard Clayton, Ph.D.
Director, Center for Prevention Research
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Ky.

Reginald Fant, Ph.D.
Pinney Associates
Bethesda, Md.

Roberta Ferrence, Ph.D.
Director, Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, University of Toronto
Senior Scientist, Addiction Research Foundation Division, Addiction and Mental Health Services Corporation
Toronto, Ontario

Gary Giovino, Ph.D.
Chief, Epidemiology Branch
Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Ga.

Steven Gust, Ph.D.
Acting Director, Office on AIDS
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Rockville, Md.

Kenneth Kellar, Ph.D.
Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology
Georgetown University School of Medicine
Washington, D.C.

Catherine Lorraine, J.D.
Director, Policy Development and Coordination Staff
Office of Policy, Food and Drug Administration
Rockville, Md.

Cynthia McCormick, M.D.
Director, Division of Anesthetics, Critical Care and Addiction Drug Products,
Office of Drug Evaluation and Research
Food and Drug Administration
Rockville, Md.

Robin Mermelstein, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, Ill.

Eric T. Moolchan, M.D.
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Baltimore, Md.

John Slade, M.D.
Professor of Clinical Medicine
University of Medicine and Dentistry of NJ, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
New Brunswick, N.J.

Dace Svikis, Ph.D.
Program Director, Center for Addiction and Pregnancy
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, Md.

Jeffrey Wigand, Ph.D.
Private Consultant
Charleston, S.C.

Group #2: Review of Current Research

Neil Grunberg, Ph.D. (Chair)
Professor of Medical and Clinical Psychology and Professor of Neuroscience
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Bethesda, Md.

Michael Cummings, M.D.
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Cancer Control
Buffalo, N.Y.

Martha Faraday, M.S.
Graduate Fellow, Medical and Clinical Psychology
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Bethesda, Md.

Brian Flay, D.Phil.
Professor and Director, Prevention Research Center
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, Ill.

Gary Giovino, Ph.D.
Chief, Epidemiology Branch
Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Ga.

Mary Ann Linseman, Ph.D.
Deputy Director, Tobacco Programs
Medical Research Council of Canada
Ottowa, Ontario

Mary Ann Pentz, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Preventative Medicine
Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research
University of Southern California
Alhambra, Calif.

Betty Tarnowski, Ph.D.
Scientific Program Director, Extramural Grants
American Cancer Society
Atlanta, Ga.

Group #3: Training Needs for Transdisciplinary Research

Neil Grunberg, Ph.D. (Chair)
Professor of Medical & Clinical Psychology and Professor of Neuroscience
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Bethesda, Md.

Deborah Bowen
Cancer Prevention Research Program
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Seattle, Wash.

Richard Clayton, Ph.D.
Director, Center for Prevention Research
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Ky.

Martha Faraday, M.S.
Graduate Fellow, Medical and Clinical Psychology
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Bethesda, Md.

Judith K. Ockene, Ph.D.
Professor of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
University of Massachusetts Medical Center
Worcester, Mass.

Warren Rhodes, Ph.D.
Professor and Chair, Psychology Department
Morgan State University
Baltimore, Md.

Elaine Stone, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
Bethesda, Md.

Richard F. Thompson, Ph.D.
President, American Psychological Society
Director, Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California
Los Angeles, Calif.

Group #4: Barriers to Transdisciplinary Youth Tobacco Use Prevention Research

Susanne Hildebrand-Zanki, Ph.D. (Chair)
Director, California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program
University of California
Oakland, Calif.

Lois Cohen, Ph.D.
Director of Extramural Research
National Institute of Dental Research
Bethesda, Md.

Nancy J. Kaufman, R.N., M.S.
Vice President
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Princeton, N.J.

Kenneth Perkins, Ph.D.
Professor, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa.

Denis J. Prager, Ph.D.
Strategic Consulting Services, Inc.
Portage, Wis.

Daniel Stokols, Ph.D.
Professor and Dean, School of Social Ecology
University of California, Irvine
Irvine, Calif.

Betty Tarnowski, Ph.D.
Scientific Program Director, Extramural Grants
American Cancer Society
Atlanta, Ga.

Jaylan Turkkan, Ph.D.
Branch Chief, Behavioral Sciences Research
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Rockville, Md.

Group #5: Surveillance Systems Relevant to Youth Tobacco Use Prevention

Michael Eriksen, Sc.D. (Chair)
Director, Office on Smoking and Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Ga.

Roy Cameron, Ph.D.
Director of Health Studies and Gerontology
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario

Tim Condon, Ph.D.
Associate Director, Office of Science Policy and Communication Research
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Rockville, Md.

Thomas Glynn, Ph.D.
Director, Cancer Science and Trends
American Cancer Society
Washington, D.C.

Susanne Hildebrand-Zanki, Ph.D.
Director, California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program
University of California
Oakland, Calif.

Tracy Orleans, Ph.D.
Senior Researcher and Program Officer
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Princeton, N.J.

Barbara Rimer, Dr.P.H.
Director, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences
National Cancer Institute
Bethesda, Md.

Group #6: Translating Science into Practice

William Corrigall, Ph.D. (Chair)
Bio Behavioral Research Center, Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario
Toronto, Ontario

Judith Brook, Ed.D.
Professor of Community and Preventive Medicine
Mt. Sinai School of Medicine
New York, N.Y.

Roy Cameron, Ph.D.
Director of Health Studies and Gerontology
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario

Alba DiCenso, Msc., Ph.D.
Associate Professor, School of Nursing
McMaster University
West Hamilton, Ontario

Diane Ferster
Executive Director of Demonstration Site for Ontario Tobacco Strategy
COMMIT to a Healthier Brant
Ontario Ministry of Health
Brantford, Ontario

Michael Fiore, M.D.
Director, Center for Tobacco Research Intervention
University of Wisconsin Medical School
Madison, Wis.

Sheila McNair
Research Assistant, School of Nursing
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario

Kathy Sanders-Phillips, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor in Pediatrics Research Center
UCLA Medical School
Inglewood, Calif.

Sally Squires
Health Journalist
Washington Post
Washington, D.C.

Gary Swan, Ph.D.
Director, Center for Health Sciences
SRI International
Menlo Park, Calif.

Group #7: Communication Among Grantmakers

Thomas Glynn, Ph.D. (Chair)
Director, Cancer Science and Trends
American Cancer Society
Washington, D.C.

Cathy Backinger, Ph.D.
National Cancer Institute
Bethesda, Md.

Roy Cameron, Ph.D.
Director of Health Studies and Gerontology
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario

Karen Gerlach, M.P.H., Ph.D.
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Princeton, N.J.

Susanne Hildebrand-Zanki, Ph.D.
Director, California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program
University of California
Oakland, Calif.

Robert Leischow, M.P.H.
Projects Administrator, Tobacco Education and Prevention Program
Arizona Department of Health Services
Phoenix, Ariz.

Sherry Mills, M.D., M.P.H.
Medical Officer, Cancer Control Research Branch
National Cancer Institute
Bethesda, Md.

Denis J. Prager, Ph.D.
Strategic Consulting Services, Inc.
Portage, Wis.

Elaine Stone, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
Bethesda, Md.

Jaylan Turkkan, Ph.D.
Branch Chief, Behavioral Sciences Research
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Rockville, Md.

 Back to the Table of Contents


BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Current as of date of this report; as provided by grantee organization; not verified by RWJF; items not available from RWJF.)

Books and Reports

Report from the Working Groups of the Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative. Washington, D.C.: Center for the Advancement of Health, 1998.

What it Will Take to Prevent Tobacco Use by Youth: Strategic Plan. Washington, D.C.: Center for the Advancement of Health, 1998.

"What It Will Take to Prevent Tobacco Use by Youth: Elements of Effective Action." Washington, D.C.: Center for the Advancement of Health, 1998.

Sponsored Conferences

"Growing the Field of Youth Tobacco-Use Prevention Research: Mobilizing for Action," October 16, 1998, Washington, D.C. Attended by 50 participants from agencies, institutions, and organizations specializing in youth tobacco-use prevention, including the American Cancer Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. See the Appendix for attendees.

 Back to the Table of Contents


Report prepared by: Sara Dulaney
Reviewed by: Robert Narus
Reviewed by: Molly McKaughan
Program Officer: C. Tracy Orleans