April 2003

Grant Results

SUMMARY

From 1992 to 2002 staff at Columbia University, New York established and sustained the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA).

The goal was to enable CASA to become a significant national resource for addressing substance abuse problems and to serve as an influential catalyst in helping this country reduce the harm caused by substance abuse.

Key Results
Between May 1992 and April 2002, CASA:

  • Mounted demonstration programs at 60 sites in 21 states.
  • Tested the effectiveness of drug and alcohol treatment at 295 sites in 22 states.
  • Issued more than 40 reports and white papers addressing various aspects of the substance abuse problem.
  • Initiated an ongoing series of conferences to highlight the connection between substance abuse and other problems.
  • Widely disseminated the results of its research. Examples of CASA research findings include:
    • An individual who gets through age 21 without using illegal drugs, abusing alcohol, or smoking cigarettes is virtually certain never to do so.
    • Religion and spirituality have enormous potential to lower the risk of substance abuse among teens and adults and, when combined with professional treatment, to promote recovery.
  • CASA's research has provided information that has contributed to national and local substance abuse policies.
    • Evidence includes President George W. Bush's citation of the importance of CASA's work when he enacted the Drug-Free Communities Act into law in December 2001; and President Bill Clinton's citation of CASA survey findings in his 1997 announcement of a significant shift in national drug strategy.

Funding
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) provided $19,998,963 in support to establish and sustain CASA from May 1992 to April 2002.

 See Grant Detail & Contact Information
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THE PROBLEM

Substance abuse is an overarching problem in the United States with serious repercussions for health care costs and for a broad range of social issues. Success in tackling these problems has been limited. Despite billions of government dollars spent annually to interdict drugs and prevent and treat substance abuse and addiction, only about 10 percent of alcohol and drug abusers are likely to enter effective treatment programs.

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RWJF STRATEGY

In 1990, RWJF set a goal of reducing the harmful effects and the irresponsible use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs. The next year its Substance Abuse Work Group identified promising approaches for RWJF to pursue, including influencing public knowledge, attitudes and values in order to increase awareness of the harm caused by substance abuse, providing a better understanding of the problem, and developing effective solutions.

Consistent with this approach, RWJF in 1991 awarded two planning grants to Columbia University (ID# 019157 and PC254) to develop plans for an institute on addiction and substance abuse. Joseph A. Califano Jr., whose experience as special assistant to President Lyndon Johnson and as Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under President Jimmy Carter contributed to his expertise in public policy and substance abuse issues, directed the planning.

Under the planning grants, researchers identified three critical needs in the fight against substance abuse:

  1. The need for a major shift in how the nation views prevention and treatment so that addiction is recognized and addressed as a set of interrelated problems.
  2. The need for persistent attention to substance abuse and addiction problems through a multidisciplinary perspective.
  3. The need for leadership to attract more talent to the substance abuse-addiction field, stimulate new initiatives, and encourage collaboration between the public and private sectors.

The researchers proposed to establish the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University.

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THE PROJECT

These four RWJF grants provided core support to establish and sustain CASA at Columbia University from May 1992 to April 2002. The goal was to enable CASA to become a significant national resource for addressing substance abuse problems and to serve as an influential catalyst in helping this country reduce the harm caused by substance abuse. CASA has five missions:

  1. Inform Americans of the economic and social costs of substance abuse and its impact on their lives.
  2. Assess what works in prevention, treatment and law enforcement.
  3. Encourage every ividual and institution to take responsibility to combat substance abuse and addiction.
  4. Provide those on the front lines with the tools they need to succeed.
  5. Remove the stigma of substance abuse and replace me and despair with hope.

CASA organized its work into five divisions:

  1. Policy Research and Analysis to study the social and economic impact of substance abuse and addiction and make practical policy recommendations.
  2. Health and Treatment Research and Analysis to evaluate at a national level what types of substance abuse treatment are most effective for which patients under what circumstances.
  3. Program Demonstration to design and test model prevention and treatment programs in communities nationwide and identify promising practices.
  4. Communications to distribute CASA reports and publicize CASA programs, promote public understanding and conduct national surveys
  5. Development to plan and implement CASA's fundraising activities.

CASA focused its analysis activities on the economic, social and human impact of substance abuse on American systems (e.g., health care, legal, business and education) and populations (e.g., women, adolescents, young adults, families and welfare recipients). These analyses led to demonstration programs in substance abuse prevention and treatment; for example, one program, CASASTART, brings together schools, social services agencies and law enforcement in a joint effort to help high-risk children 8 to 13 years of age. Also, researchers evaluated public policy to identify areas for potential improvements.

During the project period, CASA:

  • Mounted demonstration programs at 60 sites in 32 cities in 21 states.
  • Tested the effectiveness of drug and alcohol treatment at 295 sites in 43 cities in 22 states.
  • Issued more than 40 reports and white papers addressing various aspects of the substance abuse problem — from its impact on adolescents to its consequences for state government budgets.
  • Initiated an ongoing conference series — called CASACONFERENCE — to highlight the connection between substance abuse and other problems (such as gambling and eating disorders) and to stimulate new research.
  • Widely disseminated the results of its research. (See the Communications section of this report and the Bibliography for details of many of these activities.)

These RWJF grants not only provided core support to CASA for operating and administrative expenses, but also provided direct support to two specific CASA projects: an annual national survey of public attitudes toward substance abuse (conducted from 1995 to 2000) and a study of the cost of substance abuse to American business. RWJF funded additional specific projects through separate grants. (For a list of the separate RWJF grants, see Appendix 1.)

Other Funding

CASA also received funding — for both core support and specific projects — from other foundations, corporations and the federal government. (For a list of CASA's other major funding sources, see Appendix 2.) During the grant period, CASA conducted fundraising activities aimed at building an endowment that would produce investment income sufficient to make the organization self-supporting. The effort, however, proved more difficult than anticipated. In October 1999, the RWJF Board of Trustees authorized an additional $15 million in support over five years to give CASA time to complete its development campaign. The last of these four grants (ID# 032175) represented the first two years ($6 million) of that authorization. The final three years ($9 million) was contingent on a positive assessment of CASA's effectiveness by an outside evaluator.

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RESULTS

Results from RWJF Core Support

  • CASA was established, bringing together under one roof the spectrum of professional disciplines needed to study and combat all forms of substance abuse — involving illegal drugs, prescription drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The CASA staff of 75 includes representatives of the fields of health policy, medicine and nursing, communications, economics, sociology and anthropology, law and law enforcement, business, religion and education. A board of directors evaluates projects, and an advisory board composed of the heads of various Columbia University schools and neighboring institutions provides professional expertise. (For the membership of the two boards, see Appendix 3 and Appendix 4, respectively.) Califano served as CASA president and board chair.
  • CASA conducted a communications campaign to raise awareness of the pervasiveness and costs of substance abuse and addiction. The campaign included articles, testimony, speeches, conferences and extensive media activities. (See the Communications section and the Bibliography for details.) CASA reported filling a hundred requests for information per week from decision-makers, academic researchers, journalists and others.
  • CASA established national commissions to address substance abuse and addiction among young people. The National Commission on Substance Abuse at Colleges and Universities conducted a two-year study of the problem on American campuses and recommended roles for the institutions, their trustees, students and parents. A similar effort focused on high schools.
  • CASA issued a series of white papers that provided policy-makers, experts, institutions and the general public with ready access to facts and figures on a variety of topics. For example, the first white paper, Legalization: Panacea or Pandora's Box, issued in 1995, dealt with the question of legalization of drugs.
  • CASA organized two nationally televised concerts designed to convey an optimistic message on addiction treatment in contrast to the pessimism commonly associated with the topic. The first "Concert of Hope," which featured singer Tony Bennett and included an appearance by President Bill Clinton, was staged in Los Angeles in October 1995 and aired by CBS in December as a prime-time special. CBS broadcast a second "Concert of Hope" in December 1997.
  • CASA sponsored six annual national surveys that measured American public opinion on a range of substance abuse issues and policies. The surveys (National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse) were conducted from 1995 through 2000 by the Luntz Research Companies of Washington and received widespread media attention.
  • CASA developed a model to quantify the costs of substance abuse to American business. The project also evaluated how businesses can most effectively limit such costs in the future. As of August 2002, CASA was preparing the results for dissemination.
  • CASA built an endowment fund that in August 2002 had a market value of about $22.5 million — nearly two-thirds of the organization's $35-million goal. CASA hired a full-time development staff and anticipated reaching its target in 2005.

Results of CASA Overall

CASA's research has provided information that has contributed to national and local substance abuse policies. Evidence of this impact includes the following:

  • When President George W. Bush enacted the Drug-Free Communities Act into law in December 2001, he cited the importance of CASA's work on substance use and abuse.
  • In 2001, Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson and Attorney General John Ashcroft cited CASA as the primary source of their views and approach to substance abuse in America.
  • In 2001, the co-sponsors of the Drug Education, Prevention and Treatment Act of 2001 — Senators Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), Orrin Hatch (R-Utah), Strom Thurmond (R-S.C.), Joseph Biden Jr. (D-Del.), and Mike DeWine (R-Ohio) — identified CASA's research as the foundation for much of the proposed legislation.
  • In February 1997, when announcing a significant shift in the national drug strategy to focus on children under 18 and on all substances, President Bill Clinton and General Barry McCaffrey, director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, cited CASA's conclusion that an individual who gets through age 21 without using drugs, smoking or abusing alcohol is virtually certain never to do so.
  • When he made combating substance abuse a top priority of his second term, New York Major Rudolph Giuliani cited findings from a CASA report that measured the effects of substance abuse on every aspect of New York life, from health care and foster care to crime and private security concerns. (Substance Abuse and Urban America: Its Impact on an American City, New York.)
  • San Francisco used the methods employed in CASA's New York City study mentioned above to gather data that led it to become the first American city to provide substance abuse treatment on demand.
  • In preparing litigation against the tobacco industry, state attorneys general referenced CASA studies on the cost to Medicare, Medicaid and other public health programs of treating cigarette-related diseases. Members of Congress also used the data.
  • A CASA report on the patterns and consequences of substance abuse among women 60 and older (Under the Rug: Substance Abuse and the Mature Woman) led the American Medical Association to advise physicians to be more cognizant of the problem in their clinical decision-making.

Findings

The following are among the findings reached by CASA from data collected by its various research projects:

  • An individual who gets through age 21 without using illegal drugs, abusing alcohol or smoking cigarettes is virtually certain never to do so. (Sources: National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse, 1995–98; Substance Abuse and the American Woman, 1996; Rethinking Rites of Passage: Substance Abuse on America's Campuses, 1994; and others.)
  • The more often and the earlier a child smokes, drinks and uses marijuana, the more likely that child is to use harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin later in life. (Sources: National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse, 1995–98; Substance Abuse and the American Woman, 1996; Rethinking Rites of Passage: Substance Abuse on America's Campuses, 1994; and others.)
  • Alcohol abuse is a growing problem at most colleges. Ninety percent of campus rapes occur when alcohol has been consumed, and 95 percent of violent crime and 41 percent of academic problems are attributable to alcohol abuse. (Source: Rethinking Rites of Passage: Substance Abuse on America's Campuses, 1994.)
  • Americans think too little is being done about drugs. Sixty-seven percent believe that research into drug and alcohol treatment is as important, or more so, than research into other diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. (Source: 1995 CASA National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse.)
  • A laissez-faire attitude among baby boomers may contribute to the recent rise in adolescent drug use. Forty percent of baby boomer parents believe there is little they can do to influence teenagers' decisions about alcohol, tobacco and illegal drug use. (Source: 1995 CASA National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse.)
  • Adolescents rate drugs as their number one problem. Virtually all adolescents will be forced to choose whether to use drugs by the time they graduate from high school. (Source: 1995 CASA National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse.)
  • Teenagers are increasingly using drugs. Sixty-eight percent of 17-year-olds can buy marijuana within a day of trying to do so; and nearly half of baby boomer parents believe their teens will try illegal drugs. (Source: National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse II: Teens and Their Parents, 1996.)
  • The transition from age 12 to 13 is the critical turning point for America's children. During that year their access and exposure to illegal drugs skyrockets while parental involvement in their lives dramatically diminishes. (Source: Back to School 1998 — National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse IV: Teens, Teachers and Principals.)
  • Teenagers who attend religious services four or more times a month and have dinner with their parents six or seven times a week are far less likely to smoke, drink or take drugs than other teenagers. (Source: Back to School 1998 — National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse IV: Teens, Teachers and Principals.)
  • "Hands-on" parents (those who have established rules and expectations for their teens' behavior and who monitor their TV watching, Internet access, music purchases and weekend behavior) raise children who are at one-fourth the risk of smoking, drinking and using drugs as teens of parents who are not involved in the lives of their children. (Source: Back to School 2000 — National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse IV: Teens, Teachers and Principals.)
  • Religion and spirituality have enormous potential to lower the risk of substance abuse among teens and adults and, when combined with professional treatment, to promote recovery. Teens who do not consider religion important are more than three times more likely to drink, binge drink, and smoke and seven times more likely to use illicit drugs than teens who strongly believe that religion is important. People of all ages who attend spiritually based support programs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous, in addition to receiving treatment, are more likely to stay sober than those who do not attend such programs. (Source: So Help Me God: Substance Abuse, Religion and Spirituality.)
  • Demand for alcohol and drug treatment has increased since September 11, 2001. Thirteen of 41 states and four of eight cities that responded to a survey detected an increase in the demand for substance abuse treatment since the September 11th terrorist attack; four states and New York City characterized the increase as substantial. (Source: The September 11th Survey: Increase in Demand for Drug and Alcohol Treatment.)

Communications

Findings of CASA's research were widely disseminated through the mass media, including CNN, ABC, NBC, CBS, Larry King Live, National Public Radio, USA Today, The Washington Post and The Boston Globe. CASA staff published articles in various journals, including Addictive Behaviors, American Journal of Public Health, Annals of Medicine, Journal of Addictive Diseases, Journal of Family Social Work, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Journal of Substance Abuse and The New England Journal of Medicine. (For a list of these articles and other staff-produced materials, see the Bibliography.)

Califano alone produced more than 40 articles and op-ed pieces and published a book — Radical Surgery: What's Next for America's Health Care — that included a chapter on substance abuse and addiction. Staff also testified before congressional committees and made numerous presentations, including to the National Summit on U.S. Drug Policy, American Psychological Association, American Academy of Pediatrics and Society of Adolescent Medicine. Many of CASA's published reports were made available on its Web site, which by the end of the project period received 60,000 visits per year.

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AFTER THE GRANT

In 2002, following the outside assessment, RWJF awarded a $9-million grant (ID# 039158) to continue support of the organization's core activities to April 30, 2005.

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GRANT DETAILS & CONTACT INFORMATION

Project

National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University

Grantee

The Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (New York,  NY)

  • National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse
    Amount: $ 6,000,000
    Dates: May 1992 to December 1995
    ID#:  019329

  • Continued Funding for the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse
    Amount: $ 2,000,000
    Dates: May 1995 to April 1997
    ID#:  019792

  • The Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse
    Amount: $ 5,998,963
    Dates: May 1997 to January 2001
    ID#:  031515

  • Amount: $ 6,000,000
    Dates: May 2000 to April 2002
    ID#:  032175

Contact

Joseph A. Califano Jr., L.L.B.
jcalifan@casacolumbia.org
William Foster, Ph.D.
(212) 841-5200
bfoster@casacolumbia.org

Web Site

http://www.casacolumbia.org

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APPENDICES


Appendix 1

(Current as of the time of the grant; provided by the grantee organization; not verified by RWJF.)

RWJF-Funded CASA Projects: May 1992 through April 2002

  1. Demonstration of an Aftercare Program for Substance Abusing Ex-Offenders (see Grant Results on ID#s 020660 and 019859).
  2. Communicators' Workshop to Develop New Ways of Addressing Adolescent Marijuana Use (see Grant Results on ID# 029732).
  3. Planning a Multi-Site Program to Help Low-Income Women with Substance Abuse Problems; Demonstration and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Treatment in Welfare Reform Programs (CASAWORKS) (ID#s 030586, 033275, 034776 and 044772).
  4. Survey of Americans' Attitudes on Substance Abuse (see Grant Results on ID# 028061).
  5. Survey of Californians' Understanding of Proposition 215: Medical Use of Marijuana (ID# 030762).
  6. Research on State Policies and Practices Addressing Substance Abuse Among Welfare Recipients (ID# 031606).
  7. Conference on Reducing Societal Harm from Substance Abuse (ID# 031813).
  8. Study of the Impact of Substance Abuse on State Budgets (see Grant Results on ID# 032338).


Appendix 2

(Current as of the time of the grant; provided by the grantee organization; not verified by RWJF.)

Other Sources of Support for CASA

Core Supporters

  • Carnegie Corporation of New York
  • Commonwealth Fund
  • Charles A. Dana Foundation
  • Ford Foundation
  • William Randolph Hearst Foundation
  • Kresge Foundation
  • Zena and Michael A. Wierner

Sources of Major Grants for Specific Projects
Corporations

  • American Express
  • American Home Products
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb
  • Coca-Cola
  • Disney
  • Kmart
  • Purdue Pharma

Foundations

  • Annie E. Casey Foundation
  • Carnegie Foundation of New York
  • Edna McConnell Clark Foundation
  • Century Foundation
  • Commonwealth Fund
  • Grand Foundation
  • Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
  • Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation
  • Kaiser Foundation
  • Pew Charitable Trusts
  • Rockefeller Foundation

U.S. Government

  • Department of Justice
  • Department of Housing and Urban Development
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy


Appendix 3

(Current as of the time of the grant; provided by the grantee organization; not verified by RWJF.)

National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA)

Board of Directors at Conclusion of the Grant Period

Joseph A. Califano Jr., Chair
President
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA)
New York, N.Y.

Columba Bush
First Lady of Florida
Tallahassee, Fla.

Kenneth I. Chenault
President, Chief Operating Officer and Director
American Express Company
New York, N.Y.

Jamie Lee Curtis
Actress and author
Santa Monica, Calif.

James Dimon
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Bank One Corporation
Chicago, Ill.

Mary Fisher
Mary Fisher Care Fund
West Palm Beach, Fla.

Douglas A. Fraser
Professor of Labor Studies
Wayne State University
Detroit, Mich.

Leo-Arthur Kelmenson
Chairman of the Board
FCB Worldwide
New York, N.Y.

Donald R. Keough
Chairman of the Board
Allen and Company
New York, N.Y.

David A. Kessler, M.D.
Dean, School of Medicine
Yale University
New Haven, Conn.

Manuel T. Pacheco, Ph.D.
President
University of Missouri System
Columbia, Mo.

Joseph J. Plumeri II
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Willis Group Limited
New York, N.Y.

E. John Rosenwald Jr.
Vice Chairman
Bear Sterns Companies
New York, N.Y.

George Rupp, Ph.D.
President
Columbia University
New York, N.Y.

Michael P. Schulhof
New York, NY

Louis W. Sullivan, M.D.
President
Morehouse School of Medicine
Atlanta, Ga.

Michael A. Wiener
Founder and Chairman Emeritus
Infinity Broadcasting Corporation
New York, N.Y.


Appendix 4

(Current as of the time of the grant; provided by the grantee organization; not verified by RWJF.)

CASA Advisory Board at Conclusion of the Grant Period

Meyer Feldberg
Dean
Columbia University School of Business
New York, N.Y.

Ronald A. Feldman
Dean
Columbia University School of Social Work
New York, N.Y.

Rev. Dr. Joseph C. Hough Jr.
President
Union Theological Seminary
Columbia University
New York, N.Y.

Tom Goldstein
Dean
Columbia University School of Journalism
New York, N.Y.

Ira B. Lamster
Dean
Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery
New York, N.Y.

David W. Leebron
Dean
Columbia University Law School
New York, N.Y.

Arthur Levine
President
Columbia University Teachers College
New York, N.Y.

Gerald W. Lunch
President
John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Columbia University
New York, N.Y.

Mary O. Mundinger
Dean
Columbia University School of Nursing
New York, N.Y.

Gerald D. Fischbach
Vice President of Health and Biomedical Sciences and Dean, Faculty of Medicine
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
New York, N.Y.

Allan Rosenfield
Dean
Columbia University School of Public Health
New York, N.Y.

Ismar Schorsch
Chancellor
Jewish Theological Seminary of America
New York, N.Y.

Judith R. Shapiro
President
Barnard College
New York, N.Y.

Bernard Tschumi
Dean
Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation
New York, N.Y.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Current as of date of this report; as provided by grantee organization; not verified by RWJF; items not available from RWJF.)

Books

Belenko S. Drugs and Drug Policy in America; A Documentary History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Califano JA. Radical Surgery: What's Next for America's Health Care. New York: Time Books, 1994.

Kleber H (ed.). Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment. Washington: American Psychiatric Press, 1994.

Book Chapters

Belenko S. "Drug Courts." In Treatment of Drug Offenders: Policies and Issues. New York: Springer, 2002.

Brizius J, Christopher G, Dyer B, Foster S, Miller M, Popovich M and Resnick-West S. "Creating High Performance Government Organizations: A Practice Guide for Public Managers." In The Alliance for Re-Designing Government. San Francisco: National Academy of Public Administration, 1998.

Califano JA. "Substance Abuse Is Responsible for Child Abuse." In Child Abuse. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

Articles

Boles SM and Johnson PB. "Gender, Weight Concerns, and Adolescent Smoking." Journal of Addictive Diseases, 20(2): 5–14, 2001. Abstract available online.

Brook JS, Richter L and Rubenstone L. "Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use on Psychiatric Disorders in Early Adulthood." Annals of Medicine, 32(6): 401–407, 2000. Abstract available online.

Califano JA. "America in Denial." Washington Post, November 14, 1993.

Califano JA. "Battle Lines in the War on Drugs: No, Fight Harder," New York Times, December 15, 1993.

Califano JA. "It's Drugs, Stupid." New York Times, January 29, 1995.

Califano JA. "Religion, Science and Substance Abuse." America, 186(4): 8–11, 2002.

Califano JA Jr. "Revealing the Link Between Campaign Financing and Deaths Caused by Tobacco," (lead editorial). Journal of the American Medical Association, 272(15): 1217–1218, 1994.

Califano JA. "The Wrong Way to Stay Slim." New England Journal of Medicine, 333(18): 1214–1216, 1995.

Fox K, Merrill JC, Chang HH and Califano JA Jr. "Estimating the Costs of Substance Abuse to the Medicaid Hospital Care Program." American Journal of Public Health, 85(1): 48–54, 1995. Abstract available online.

Johnson PB and Best D. "Relationships Between Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use and Self-Perceived Health." Pediatric Research, 47(4 Pt. 2 Suppl.): 6A INT, 199A, 2000.

Johnson PB, Boles SM and Kleber HD. "The Relationship Between Adolescent Smoking and Drinking and Likelihood Estimates of Illicit Drug Use." Journal of Addictive Diseases, 19(2): 75–81, 2000. Abstract available online.

Johnson PB, Boles SM, Kleber HD, Vaughan RD and McVeigh KH. "Age-Related Differences in Adolescent Smokers' and Nonsmokers' Assessments of the Relative Addictiveness and Health Harmfulness of Cigarettes, Alcohol, and Marijuana." Journal of Substance Abuse, 11(1): 45–52, 2000. Abstract available online.

Johnson PB, Boles SM, Vaughan R and Kleber HD. "The Co-occurrence of Smoking and Binge Drinking in Adolescence." Addictive Behaviors, 25(5): 779–783, 2000. Abstract available online.

Johnson PB and Glassman M. "The Moderating Effects of Gender and Ethnicity on the Relationship Between Effect Expectancies and Alcohol Problems." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60(1): 64–69, 1999. Abstract available online.

Johnson PB and Johnson HL. "Reaffirming the Power of Parental Influence on Adolescent Smoking and Drinking Decisions." Adolescent and Family Health, 1: 37–43, 2001.

Johnson P and Johnson HL. "Teens and Alcohol." Professional Counselor, 14(6): 1–3, 1999.

Johnson P and Malgady R. "Cultural/Ethnic Comparisons: A Research Agenda." Journal of Gender, Culture, and Health, 4(3): 171–185, 1999.

Johnson P and Richter L. "College Drinking: Where There May Be Less than Meets the Eye." Unpublished.

Johnson PB and Richter L. "The Relationship Between Smoking, Drinking, and Adolescents' Self-perceived Health and Frequency of Hospitalization: Analyses from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse." Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(3): 175–183, 2002. Abstract available online.

Johnson P and Richter L. "What Went Wrong? Some Possible Implications of Systematic Distortions on Adolescents' Self-Reports of Sensitive Behaviors." Unpublished.

Lang MA and Belenko S. "Predicting Retention in a Residential Drug Treatment Alternative to Prison Program." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19(2): 145–160, 2000. Abstract available online.

Man D. "Libraries on the Web." SALIS News, 20(3): 4–6, 2000.

Murray LF. "Preventing Substance Abuse Using a Community-Based Collaborative Alternative." Georgia Academy Journal, 6(3): 8–11, 1999.

Nakashian M. "Substance Abuse and Welfare Reform." Journal of the American Women's Medical Association, 57(1): 36–34, 40, 2002. Abstract available online.

Richter L and Johnson P. "Current Methods of Assessing Substance Use: A Review of Strengths, Problems, and Developments." Journal of Drug Issues, 31(4): 809–830, 2001.

Richter L and Johnson P. "Substance Use Assessment and Measurement Administration." Unpublished.

Richter L and Richter D. "Exposure to Parental Tobacco and Alcohol Use: Effects on Children's Health and Development." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71(2): 182–203, 2001. Abstract available online.

Rosenthal MS and Kleber HD. "Making Sense of Medical Marijuana." Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians, 111(2): 159–165, 1999. Abstract available online.

Woolis DD, Cyphers G and Roth D. "Recovery, an Act of Work." Policy and Practice of Public Human Services, 58(2): 33–40, 2000.

Woolis DD, Nakashian M, Fox L, James S, Gephart MA and Marsick VJ. "Learning Our Way Through Welfare Reform." Policy and Practice of Public Human Services, 59(2): 28–33, 2001.

Reports

1995 CASA National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1995, 510 copies disseminated.

Back to School 1997 — National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse III: Teens, Teachers, and Principals. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, September 1997, 375 copies disseminated.

Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, January 1998.

Belenko S. Research on Drug Courts: A Critical Review 2001 Update. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2001.

CASA. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, December 2001.

CASAWORKS Field Guide. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, November 2001.

CASAWORKS for Families: The Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, June 2001.

Children of Substance-Abusing Parents. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, January 1999.

Cigarettes, Alcohol, Marijuana: Gateways to Illicit Drug Use. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1994, 600 copies disseminated.

Dangerous Liaisons Substance Abuse and Sex. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, December 1999.

Fiscal Analysis and Needs Assessment of Broward County, Florida's Substance Abuse Treatment Programs. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, December 2001.

International Demand Reduction Policy. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, May 1993, 100 copies disseminated.

Legalization: Panacea or Pandora's Box. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, September 1995.

Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's Schools. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, September 2001.

National Drug Court Institute Monograph. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, June 2001.

National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse II: Teens and Their Parents. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, September 1996, 445 copies disseminated.

No Place to Hide: Substance Abuse in Midsize Cities and Rural America. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, January 2000.

Non-Medical Marijuana: Rite of Passage of Russian Roulette? New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, July 1999.

Report of the United States Postal Service Commission on a Safe and Secure Workplace. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, August 2000.

Rethinking Rites of Passage: Substance Abuse on America's Campuses. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, Commission on Substance Abuse at Colleges and Universities, June 1994, 4,000 copies disseminated.

Shoveling Up: Substance Abuse and State Budgets. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, January 2001.

So Help Me God: Substance Abuse, Religion and Spirituality. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, November 2001.

Substance Abuse and Federal Entitlement Programs. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1995, 460 copies disseminated.

Substance Abuse and Spirituality. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, December 2001.

Substance Abuse and the American Woman. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, June 1996.

Substance Abuse and Urban America: Its Impact on an American City, New York. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, February 1996.

Substance Abuse and Women on Welfare. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, June 1994, 600 copies disseminated.

Teen Tipplers: America's Underage Drinking Epidemic. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, February 2002.

The Cost of Substance Abuse to America's Health Care System: Report 2: Medicare Hospital Costs. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, May 1994, 550 copies disseminated.

The September 11th Survey: Increase in Demand for Drug and Alcohol Treatment. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, December 2001.

Under the Rug: Substance Abuse and the Mature Woman. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, June 1998.

Winning at Any Cost: Doping in Olympic Sports. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, September 2000.

Survey Instruments

"National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse." Luntz Research Companies, fielded May—June 1995.

"National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse." Luntz Research Companies, fielded May—June 1996.

"Back to School 1997 — National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse." Luntz Research Companies, fielded June—July 1997.

"Back to School 1998 — National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse." Luntz Research Companies, fielded May—June 1998.

"Back to School 1999 — National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse." Luntz Research Companies, fielded 1999.

"Back to School 2000 — National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse." Luntz Research Companies, fielded 2000.

"Casey Family Programs Youth Survey." National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, fielded 2000.

"Missed Opportunity: National Survey of Primary Care Physicians and Patients on Substance Abuse," fielded 2000.

World Wide Web Sites

www.casacolumbia.org. Contains information about the activities of the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, including its reports, publications, press releases, a quiz about substance abuse, and links to other substance abuse-related Web sites.

Sponsored Conferences

"Substance Abuse in the 21st Century: Positioning the Nation for Progress," February 29–March 3, 2000, Simi Valley, Calif. Attended by 225 registrants from organizations that included schools, religious institutions, corporations, law enforcement agencies, and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Four keynote addresses and 10 panel discussions.

Keynote Presentations

  • Steven E. Hyman, director, National Institute of Mental Health (Bethesda, Md.), "Free Will, Personal Responsibility and the Brain."
  • Alan I. Leshner, director, National Institute on Drug Abuse (Bethesda, Md.), "What Treatment Works for Whom?"
  • Barry R. McCaffrey, director, Office of National Drug Control Policy (Washington), "Public Responsibility in the 21st Century."
  • James E. Burke, chairman, Partnership for a Drug-Free America (New York), "Private Responsibility in the 21st Century."

Panel Discussions

  • "Drug-Free School: An American Oxymoron?" Chris Matthews, Washington bureau chief, San Francisco Examiner, and host, MSNBC's and CNBC's Hardball (Washington), moderator; Theodore J. Forstmann, chairman and CEO, Children's Scholarship Fund, and senior founding partner, Forstmann Little & Co. (New York); Sharon Draper, author and educator, University of Cincinnati; Yvonne Gelpi, president/principal De La Salle High School (New Orleans); and Paul G. Vallas, CEO, Chicago Public Schools.
  • "The Substance Abuse Research Agenda: Is It All in the Brain?" William Safire, columnist, The New York Times, moderator; Floyd E. Bloom, chairman, Department of Neuropharmacology, Scripps Research Institute (La Jolla, Calif.); Enoch Gordis, director, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Bethesda, Md.); Eric J. Nestler, professor of psychiatry and neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, Conn.); and Nora D. Volkow, associate director for life sciences, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, N.Y.).
  • "Religion, Spirituality and Substance Abuse: Is God Relevant?" Edward A. Malloy, president, University of Notre Dame (South Bend, Ind.), moderator; H. Brent Coles, mayor of Boise, Idaho; Rev. Carl W. Daniels-Kenney, Orange Grove Missionary Baptist Church (Durham, N.C.); Sister Mary Rose McGeady, president and CEO, Covenant House; and Rabbi David Wolpe, Sinai Temple (Los Angeles).
  • "Law, Order and Substance Abuse." Joseph A. Califano Jr., chairman and president, National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (New York), moderator; William J. Bratton, former police commissioner, New York Police Department; Rudolph Diaz, drug court judge (Los Angeles); Donnie R. Marshall, acting administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration (Washington); Edwin Meese III, fellow in public policy, Heritage Foundation (Washington); and James Q. Wilson, professor of public policy, Pepperdine University (Malibu, Calif.).
  • "The Future of American Drug Policy." William J. Bennett, co-director, Empower America and Kurt L. Schmoke, former mayor of Baltimore.
  • "The Future of American Policy on Legal Drugs: Alcohol and Tobacco." Sander Vanocur, host, History Channel, moderator; Peter Coors, CEO, Coors Brewing Company; David A. Kessler, dean, Yale University School of Medicine; Steven C. Parrish, senior vice president for corporate affairs, Philip Morris Companies; and Robert Pitofsky, chairman, Federal Trade Commission.
  • "What Treatment Works for Whom?" Steven A. Schroeder, president and CEO, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, moderator; Marina Forstmann Day, board member, Clare Foundation; Charles J. Hynes, Kings County district attorney; Herbert D. Kleber, executive vice president and medical director, National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse; and Alan I. Leshner, director, National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • "Combating Substance Abuse: Whose Business Is It?" Sander Vanocur, host, History Channel, moderator; Thomas J. Donohue, president and CEO, United States Chamber of Commerce; Raymond C. Kubacki Jr., president and CEO, Psychemedics Corp.; Joseph J. Plumeri II, former chairman, Primerica Financial Services; Nadine Strossen, president, American Civil Liberties Union, and professor of law, New York Law School; and Robert Tobias, professor, American University School of Public Affairs.
  • "The Hollywood Connection: Substance Abuse in Movies, Music and Television." Lesley Stahl, correspondent and co-editor, CBS's 60 Minutes, moderator; Vicky Rideout, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; Donald F. Roberts, professor, Stanford University; Michael Medved, film critic; Hilary B. Rosen, president and CEO, Recording Industry Association of America; C. DeLores Tucker, national chair, National Political Congress of Black Women; Jack J. Valenti, chairman and CEO, Motion Picture Association of America; and Malcolm-Jamal Warner, director/actor, UPN's Malcolm & Eddie.
  • "Substance Abuse and the American Physician." Reed V. Tuckson, senior vice president, professional standards, American Medical Association, moderator; H. Westley Clark, director, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Sara Giordano, alumna, Betty Ford Center; June Osborn, president, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation; Leonard D. Schaeffer, chairman and CEO, Wellpoint Health Networks; and Louis W. Sullivan, president Morehouse School of Medicine.

"CASA CONFERENCE: Food for Thought: Substance Abuse and Eating Disorders," January 23, 2001, New York. Attended by 116 registrants representing organizations in the fields of substance abuse prevention and treatment, schools and universities, eating disorder treatment, nutrition and health care. Five presentations and four panel discussions.

Presentations

  • Alan I. Leshner, National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • Steven Levenkron, author.
  • Steven E. Hyman, National Institute of Mental Health.
  • Margo Maine, Ph.D., clinical psychologist and author.
  • Jean Kilbourne, lecturer and author.

Panel Discussions

  • "Who, What and Why: What Links Co-Morbid Substance Abuse and Eating Disorders?" Peggy Girshman, producer, Dateline NBC, moderator; Christian S. Crandall, associate professor of psychology, University of Kansas; Caroline Davis, professor of psychology, York University; Dean Krahn, chief of mental health service, Madison VAMC; and Lisa R. Lilenfeld, assistant professor of psychology, Georgia State University.
  • "Blaming the Messenger?: The Cultural, Historical and Social Landscapes of Substance Abuse and Eating Disorders." Perri Peltz, anchor, CNN NewsStand; William N. Davis, Renfrew Center; Jean Kilbourne, lecturer and author; Elizabeth Lambert, actress and former dancer; and Margo Maine, clinical psychologist and author.
  • "When, Where and How: Treatment and Diagnosis of Co-Morbid Substance Abuse and Eating Disorders." Judith Reichman, physician correspondent, NBC's Today, moderator; Craig Johnson, director, eating disorders clinic, Laureate Clinic; Karin Eklund, in-patient counselor, Betty Ford Center; Karen L. Spedowfski, Kaiser Permanente Chemical Dependency Recovery Program; and G. Terence Wilson, professor of psychology, Rutgers University.
  • "Nip it in the Bud: Prevention of Substance Abuse and Eating Disorders." Deborah Amos, ABC News, moderator; W. Stewart Agras, Stanford University School of Medicine; Diane L. Elliot, Oregon Health Sciences University; Mark S. Gold, University of Florida Brain Institute; and Niva Piran, University of Toronto.

"CASACONFERENCE: High Stakes: Substance Abuse and Gambling," June 12, 2001, New York. Attended by 70 registrants from organizations in the fields of gambling addiction treatment, mental health, law enforcement, health care, gaming/casinos, and substance abuse treatment and prevention. Two keynote presentations and four panel discussions.

Keynote Presentations

  • Alan I. Leshner, director, National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • Steven E. Hyman, director, National Institute of Mental Health.

Panel Discussions

  • "Panel: The Science of Addiction." Timothy Johnson, medical editor, ABC News, moderator; Mark Griffiths, research coordinator, department of psychology, Nottingham-Trent University; Eric Hollander, professor of psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Marc N. Potenza, assistant professor of psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine; and Loreen Rugle, clinical/research director, Trimeridian.
  • "Panel: Problem Gamblers, Substance Abusers and the Legal Gambling Boom." Diane Davis, associate professor, School of Social Work and Human Services, Eastern Washington University; Jeff Griffin, mayor of Reno, NV; Eric Newhouse, projects editor, Great Falls Tribune; Howard J. Shaffer, director, division on addictions, Harvard Medical School; and William N. Thompson, professor of public administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
  • "Panel: Treatment and Prevention." Herbert D. Kleber, professor of psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, moderator; Joanna Franklin, director of network development and training, Trimeridian; Marilyn Lancelot, board member, Arizona Council on Problem Gambling; Ray Looney, student and recovering compulsive gambler and substance abuser; Roger Svendsen, director of gambling programs, Minnesota Institute of Public Health; and Ken C. Winters, associate professor of psychiatry, University of Minnesota.
  • "Panel: The Politics of Gambling and Substance Abuse." Lesley Stahl, correspondent and co-editor, CBS's 60 Minutes, moderator; Scott Harshbarger, president and CEO, Common Cause; Richard C. Leone, president, Century Foundation; and Philip G. Satre, CEO, Harrah's Entertainment.

"CASACONFERENCE: Dangerous Liaisons: Substance Abuse and Sexual Behavior," February 7, 2002, New York. Attended by 131 registrants representing organizations in the fields of substance abuse prevention and treatment, teen pregnancy prevention, sexual violence, AIDS/HIV, pharmaceuticals, schools and criminal justice. Two keynote presentations and four panel discussions.

Keynote Presentations

  • Alan I. Leshner, CEO, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and former director, National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • Mary Fisher, founder, Mary Fisher Center for Aids Research and Education Fund, University of Alabama/Birmingham.

Panel Discussions

  • "What's the Connection?" Timothy Johnson, medical editor, ABC News, moderator; Perry N. Halkitis, assistant professor, New York University; Richard R. Irons, president, Professional Renewal Center; Alan I. Leshner, CEO, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and former director, National Institute on Drug Abuse; Maureen Miller, assistant professor, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University; John S. Santelli, chief, Program Services and Development Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • "What Can We Do?" Chris Matthews, host, MSNBC's Hardball, moderator; Calvin O. Butts III, pastor, Abyssinian Baptist Church; Linda Fairstein, bureau chief, sex crimes prosecution unit, Office of the New York County District Attorney; Lisa M. Najavits, associate professor of psychology, Harvard Medical School; Ronald D. Stall, chief, Behavioral Intervention Research Group, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and Susan S. Witte, assistant professor, Columbia University School of Social Work.
  • "Drugs and Sex: Teens Talk Back." John Norris, correspondent, MTV News, moderator; a panel of four teenagers.
  • "Education, Prevention and Intervention." Lesley Stahl, correspondent and co-editor, CBS's 60 Minutes, moderator; Dominic Cappello, author; Angela Diaz, professor of pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Bruce J. Henry, executive director, Covenant House New York; and Shepherd Smith, president and founder, Institute for Youth Development.

Presentations and Testimony

Joseph A. Califano Jr., "America's Substance Abuse Problems," at the Inaugural Conference, Department of Health and Human Services' Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, December 1992.

Joseph A. Califano Jr., "Substance Abuse," at the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Conference, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, February 8, 1993.

Herbert D. Kleber, "International Demand Reduction," at the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Conference, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, February 1993.

Joseph A. Califano Jr., panelist, "Are We Winning or Losing the War on Drugs and How Can We Tell? How Do We Define Success?" at the National Summit on U.S. Drug Policy, May 1993.

Herbert D. Kleber, at the National Summit on U.S. Drug Policy, May 7, 1993.

Herbert D. Kleber, to the Senate Judiciary Committee and the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, May 1993, Washington.

Joseph A. Califano Jr., "The Relationship of Drug and Alcohol Treatment to the President's Health Reform Proposals," to the House of Representatives Ways and Means Committee, Subcommittee of Select Revenue Measures, November 9, 1993.

Joseph A. Califano Jr., "EAP's Linkage with Safety," at the National Convention of the Employee Assistance Professionals Association, November 14, 1993.

Joseph A. Califano Jr., "Statement About America's Healthcare System," to the Senate Committee on Finance, March 10, 1994, Washington.

Joseph A. Califano Jr., "The Tobacco Industry's Campaign to Deny the Health Effects of Smoking," to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, May 17, 1994, Washington.

Joseph A. Califano Jr., at the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America, October 1994, Washington.

Mary Nakashian and Diana Woolis, "Substance Abuse, Economic Self-Sufficiency, and Welfare Reform," at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, State Team-Building Workshop, September 1997, St. Paul, Minn.

Sharon Boles and Patrick Johnson, "Age-Related Changes in Adolescents' Perception of Substance Use Behaviors," and "Ethnicity, Parental Substance Use, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use," at the Eighth International Conference on Treatment of Addictive Behaviors, January 1998.

Patrick Johnson, Sharon Boles, Katharine McVeigh and Herbert Kleber, "The Relationship Between Adolescent Smoking and Drinking and Likelihood Estimates of Illicit Drug Use," at the College on Problems of Drug Dependence Annual Meeting, June 1998.

Patrick Johnson, H.L. Johnson, E. Anastasio and Sharon Boles, "The Relationship Between Heavy Alcohol and Cigarette Use in Adolescents," at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, June 1998.

Patrick Johnson, H.L. Johnson, Sharon Boles and Katharine McVeigh, "The Impact of Parental Alcohol Use and Monitoring on Adolescent Alcohol Use," at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, June 1998.

Patrick Johnson, Katharine McVeigh, Sharon Boles and H.L. Johnson, "Gender, Weight, and Adolescent Smoking," at the American Psychological Association Annual Meeting, August 1998.

Susan Foster, "Prevalence, Patterns, and Trends of Female Drug Use Across the Life Cycle," at the Women, Gender Differences and Drug Abuse Conference, National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, February 1999.

Patrick Johnson, "Organismic Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Abuse," and "Culture and Adolescent Substance Use," at the American Orthopsychiatry Association," April 1999.

Sharon Boles, M. Johnson, Patrick Johnson, H.L. Johnson and Herbert Kleber, "Current Substance Use Patterns and Perceived Peer Pressure to Use Specific Substances," at the College on Problems of Drug Dependence Annual Meeting, June 1999.

Sharon Boles, Patrick Johnson and Herbert Kleber, "The Relationship Between Adolescent Smoking and Adherence to the Gateway Sequencing Hypothesis," at the College on Problems of Drug Dependence Annual Meeting, June 1999.

Patrick Johnson and Sharon Boles, "Positive and Negative Expectancies as Predictors of Freshmen Alcohol Problems," at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, June 1999.

Susan Foster, "Demand Reduction," at the International Drug Control Summit, February 2000, Washington.

Dana Best and Patrick Johnson, "Differences Between Adolescent Smokers' and Nonsmokers' Attitudes About Smoking by a Member of the Opposite Sex," at the Society for Adolescent Medicine, March 2000, Washington.

Alyse Booth, "Risky Behavior: Sex? Drugs? Rock & Roll? Helping Your Kids Say 'No' When you Said 'Yes.' Findings of the 1999 CASA Survey of Teens and Their Parents," at the Alcoholism and Drug Dependency Council, March 2000, Westport, Conn.

Dana Best and Patrick Johnson, "Relationship Between Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use and Self-Perceived Health," at the Year 2000 Pediatrics Academic Societies and American Academy of Pediatrics Joint Meeting, May 2000.

Patrick Johnson and Dana Best, "Relationships Between Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use and Self-Perceived Health," at the Pediatrics Academic Societies and American Academy of Pediatrics Joint Meeting, 2000, Boston.

Patrick Johnson, "The Unintended Consequences of School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs," at the Research and Practice in Substance Abuse Prevention Panel, Society for Research on Adolescence, 2000, Chicago.

 Back to the Table of Contents


Report prepared by: Lori De Milto
Report prepared by: Linda Prager
Reviewed by: Karyn Feiden
Reviewed by: Michael H. Brown
Reviewed by: Molly McKaughan
Program Officer: Robert G. Hughes
Program Officer: Constance M. Pechura

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