October 2001

Grant Results

SUMMARY

From 1993 to 1998, the National Center for Lead-Safe Housing (the center), Columbia, Md., provided technical assistance to cities and states to help them develop and manage comprehensive, coordinated childhood lead-poisoning-prevention programs.

The center worked collaboratively with two other organizations actively engaged in lead poisoning prevention — the Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning (the alliance), Washington, and the Consumer Law Foundation, Boston.

The three organizations chaired and staffed the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Title X Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction and Financing Task Force and actively disseminated to cities and states the national benchmark standards for lead control in private housing that grew out of the work of the task force.

Key Results
The organizations:

  • Worked with 20 states to help them design lead-poisoning-prevention programs that included the Title X benchmark standards.
  • Assisted the cities of Boston and Baltimore in developing lead poisoning prevention programs.
  • Helped nine states (Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia) develop certification programs for contractors working with lead-based paint hazards.
  • Worked with Milwaukee and Boston to initiate lead abatement work in 300 to 500 housing units per year in each city.
  • Helped develop United Parents against Lead — a national organization of parent groups concerned with lead poisoning.
  • Developed a database of lead-poisoning-prevention laws and a compendium of case studies on funding lead-poisoning-prevention programs.

Funding
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) supported the project with two grants totaling $994,239 between November 1993 and April 1998.

 See Grant Detail & Contact Information
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THE PROBLEM

Through the 1980s and into the early 1990s, as many as 3 million children — 10 to 15 percent of all preschoolers — were estimated to have blood lead levels above the lead-poisoning threshold recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The foremost cause of lead poisoning in children in the United States is deteriorating lead-based paint and paint-contaminated dust and soil in and around older homes. Because lead was not banned from residential paint until 1978, many older homes and apartments contain at least some lead-based paint.

By 1993 the federal government had mounted a lead-poisoning-prevention effort that (1) regulated levels of lead-based paint dust and soil in subsidized housing through the EPA under Title X of the 1992 Housing and Community Development Act and (2) aided cities and states in identifying and case managing children at risk for lead poisoning, as well as correcting lead-based-paint hazards in low-income, subsidized private housing.

Despite those efforts, privately owned, unsubsidized housing — which accounted for about 90 percent of the houses classified as hazardous — continued to pose a danger because the federal government did not regulate the lead-based-paint hazards in this housing stock. Primary prevention efforts at this level were left to the cities and states. Unfortunately, many of the professionals and policy makers who played a major role in fashioning state and local lead-poisoning-prevention strategies were not up-to-date on the many policy issues related to lead poisoning.

The center, alliance, and CLF were working closely with cities and states on lead-poisoning prevention. The center — based in Columbia, Md., created in 1992, and funded by a $5.5 million grant from the Fannie Mae Foundation — develops and promotes the adoption of cost-effective, practical strategies to make homes lead safe. The alliance is a national nonprofit public interest organization founded in 1990 and based in Washington, D.C., which provides public education, policy support, and advocacy to eradicate lead poisoning among children. CLF, based in Boston, is a nonprofit, public interest, member-supported environmental advocacy organization founded in 1966.

In June 1993 the center and the alliance drafted a document entitled A Framework for Action to Provide Lead-Safe Housing, which (1) offered a "middle ground" in lead-poisoning prevention that would result in lead-safe housing at a manageable cost and (2) suggested roles for landlords, lenders, insurers, and others.

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THE PROJECT

These grants from RWJF to the center provided funds for the three organizations — the center, the alliance, and CLF — to collaboratively provide technical assistance that would help cities and states develop and manage comprehensive, coordinated childhood lead-poisoning-prevention programs. The center provided overall project coordination and oversight for the grants, with the other two organizations working under subcontracts. Although these organizations had already been providing some technical assistance and consultation nationwide, the grant funding greatly expanded their abilities to offer these services and to offer them jointly.

The objective of both grants was to provide technical assistance at three levels:

  1. Broad-based assistance to reach a wide audience via electronic networking and printed materials.
  2. Short-term, targeted technical assistance that responded to requests from specific audiences or reached out to key constituents (e.g., attending state and regional conferences, convening meetings, and assisting local task forces).
  3. Intensive, in-depth technical assistance provided for a handful of cities and states with high levels of lead poisoning in low-income neighborhoods.

A major thrust of the first grant (ID# 022889) was to develop national and state benchmark standards and guidelines for health- and housing-related lead control. Title X of the 1992 Housing and Community Development Act had mandated that the secretary of HUD appoint a task force to develop "recommendations for dealing with the complex problem of lead hazards in housing." This task force, the Title X Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction and Financing Task Force, was chaired and staffed by representatives of the center, the alliance, and CLF. (See Results and Appendix 1 for details.) Implementation efforts for the guidelines focused chiefly on low-income, subsidized housing.

Grant funding was renewed in 1996 (ID# 027964) to continue the progress the three organizations had made in working with city and state government agencies and community groups. Under the renewal grant, the project team developed a new focus on private housing and worked with private industry to design economic incentives that would create lead-safe housing in a "mainstreaming" approach that attempted to share responsibility for managing housing-based lead hazards with housing owners and dwellers.

With the release of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) by the National Center for Health Statistics in 1997, which showed that lead-poisoning levels among US children had declined significantly, the organizations increased their emphasis on community-specific solutions, targeted the most-at-risk children and highest-risk housing, worked to integrate lead safety cost-effectively into existing housing systems, and promoted voluntary adherence to the Title X consensus lead-safety standards.

Additional funding was received from a number of other federal departments and foundations. (See Appendix 3 for details.)

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RESULTS

The collaboration among the three organizations accomplished the following:

Broad-based technical assistance

  • The alliance disseminated its newsletter, the Alliance Alert, more widely to local lead-poisoning-prevention coalitions. This newsletter provides information on prevention resources, grants, conferences, and industry trends.
  • The center, alliance, and CLF developed a database of lead-poisoning-prevention statutes, bills, and regulations from across the country that includes a review of the material and contact information.
  • The three organizations developed a compendium of case studies on unique funding mechanisms for lead-poisoning-prevention programs in cities and states. The case studies were disseminated to CDC and HUD grantees and other organizations.
  • The collaborators disseminated information on the HUD Title X task force recommendations through a variety of channels. These channels included journal articles, conference presentations, and one-on-one technical assistance by telephone.

Short-term, targeted technical assistance

  • The collaborators helped develop the Title X task force report that provided national benchmark standards for lead control in private housing and established principles to guide cities and states in the development of the legal, financing, and insurance systems necessary to encourage owners to provide lead-safe housing. The report, entitled Putting the Pieces Together: Controlling Lead Hazards in the Nation's Housing and released in June 1995, centered on private housing and offered "a workable, comprehensive system to sharply reduce childhood lead poisoning without adversely affecting housing affordability," according to the center. The grantees subsequently helped a number of states implement the report's recommendations. The regulations became effective September 15, 2000. (See Appendix 2 for details.)
  • They helped health and housing departments in 15 states develop regulations to train and certify lead professionals and contractors and to set standards for evaluating and controlling lead hazards.
  • They assisted city and state task forces considering legislation based on task force recommendations. Assistance included staffing or providing expertise for local and state lead-poisoning task forces and making presentations at national, state, and local conferences and meetings. The states and cities were Alabama, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and New York, N.Y.
  • They helped develop a new national organization of parent groups concerned with lead poisoning, called United Parents against Lead (UPAL). The Chicago-based UPAL provides education and referrals for families of lead-poisoned children, supports legislative action, and acts as a support and resource network to encourage local prevention programs.
  • They helped the National Council of State Legislatures develop a model Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Evaluation and Control Act. The model law was widely distributed and used as a base by states considering new lead hazard legislation.
  • They helped the National Institute of Building Sciences develop model building- and housing-code language that reflected the Title X task force recommendations.
  • They devoted substantial resources to working with federal agencies considering changes to their screening guidelines. In 1997 the CDC switched from recommending universal blood-lead screening to more targeted screening designed to include all high-risk children. In 1998 the federal Health Care Financing Administration issued a new policy that all children served by Medicaid should be screened at 12 and 24 months of age.
  • They worked with the EPA to develop health-based standards for lead in paint, dust, and soil.
  • The alliance successfully persuaded the National Association of Realtors, the National Apartment Association, and the National Multi-Housing Council to support regulations that require disclosure of lead hazards during real estate transactions involving all pre-1978 properties. The organizations also approached the mortgage-lending industry and the property and casualty insurance industry to encourage both to integrate lead-safe housing principles into loan- and insurance- underwriting guidelines. Both industries showed limited willingness to embrace these measures.

Intensive technical assistance

  • The grantees helped Maryland and Massachusetts design workable lead-poisoning-prevention programs. Based on existing state lead hazard legislation, the center helped the Maryland Department of the Environment, a local consumer coalition, and a property owners association develop regulations to cover 60,00 housing units. In Massachusetts, CLF helped modify the state's lead-poisoning-prevention regulations to reduce the cost of compliance by allowing contractors to conduct a variety of less-intensive, less-expensive risk abatement activities.
  • With assistance from the alliance, the center, and CLF, a core group of cities and states organized lead hazard abatement and prevention activities. Milwaukee and Boston initiated abatement projects intended to remove lead from 300 to500 units per year. Maryland and Vermont developed local housing ordinances regulating lead hazard abatement work. Massachusetts and Maryland developed innovative financing programs for lead hazard abatement. Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia developed and implemented regulations for contractor certification. Three cities (Lynchburg, Va.; New York; and Philadelphia) formed local task forces on lead poisoning prevention.

Communications

Communicating information about lead hazards, prevention efforts, and best practices was a major part of the work under these grants. Representatives of the three organizations spoke at 68 national and state conferences, including the annual meetings of the American Public Health Association in 1995, 1996, and 1997 and the National Nurse Practitioner Symposium in 1994. They also presented information from the HUD Task Force before legislative committees in New Hampshire and Wisconsin and held three conferences on lead hazard control attended by attorneys, advocacy groups, parents, and members of community-based organizations.

The principals authored 27 articles and chapters in 11 books. The organizations published 18 reports, produced a video and slide shows, and distributed press releases. The center developed a new Web site. The alliance was able to disseminate its bimonthly newsletter, Alliance Alert, more broadly and also initiated an Action Alert Fax Network. (See the Bibliography for details.)

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LESSONS LEARNED

  1. Collaboration among the organizations and other key players in lead-poisoning prevention is resource- and labor-intensive. Without the appropriate staffing to bring together the key players on an ongoing basis, momentum can be lost. Moreover, a lengthy period of team building and consensus building is needed before the real work can begin.
  2. Assistance between national and local groups is a two-way street. While the organizations offered valuable technical, legal, and strategic assistance to state and local groups and officials, local and state organizations and individuals offered enthusiasm, commitment, and a clear picture of how the health policy issues play out — community by community.
  3. It may be difficult to persuade private industry to adopt safety standards voluntarily. The lending and insurance industries were unwilling to integrate lead-safe housing principles into their loan- and insurance-underwriting guidelines once the NHANES III data showed that lead poisoning was confined to a significantly smaller population than originally thought.

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AFTER THE GRANT

These organizations continue to work separately and collaboratively with state and local task forces, government agencies, grassroots organizations, the lending and insurance industries, and property owners to encourage the adoption and implementation of effective lead-safety standards. Among the activities planned for the post-grant period are the following.

  • CLF will concentrate its lead-poisoning-prevention efforts mainly in New England. A CLF representative will continue to serve on the boards of both the alliance and the center.
  • The alliance will continue to serve as the major national advocacy organization, with primary responsibility for tracking federal regulations and working with the media. Alliance and center staff will develop together a campaign to facilitate the CDC policy that requires blood-lead screening for all children served by Medicaid. The alliance will also work internationally to phase out leaded gasoline.
  • The center will continue as the authoritative source of information on the effectiveness of lead hazard control strategies for housing and will work with the alliance to mainstream lead safety into housing activities through voluntary action, including consumer demand. The center will also continue to work with HUD, the EPA, and the remodeling and painting trades to ensure that painting and remodeling activities in older housing are carried out in a lead-safe manner. The center's technical assistance work will emphasize evaluation of lower-cost lead hazard control interventions and more aggressive dissemination of information on effective and cost-effective interventions.

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GRANT DETAILS & CONTACT INFORMATION

Project

New State and City Strategies in Lead Poisoning Prevention

Grantee

National Center for Lead-Safe Housing Inc. (Columbia,  MD)

  • Amount: $ 496,192
    Dates: November 1993 to October 1995
    ID#:  022889

  • Amount: $ 498,047
    Dates: May 1996 to April 1998
    ID#:  027964

Contact

Walter G. Farr
(410) 992-0712
nfarr@enterprisefoundation.org

Web Site

http://www.centerforhealthyhousing.org

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APPENDICES


Appendix 1

(Current as of the time of the grant; provided by the grantee organization; not verified by RWJF.)

Title X Task Force Members

Cushing Dolbeare (Chair)
Consultant on Housing and Public Policy
Washington, D.C.

Lucy Billings
Director of Special Litigation
Bronx Legal Services
Bronx, N.Y.

Jim Buckley
Executive Director
University Neighborhood Housing Program
Bronx, N.Y.

Patrick Connor
President
CONNOR Environmental
Towson, Md.

Colleen Duffy
Government Relations Officer
Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency
Boston, Mass.

Walter (Nick) Farr (Chair, Finance Committee)
Executive Director
National Center for Lead-Safe Housing
Columbia, Md.

Alina Fernandez
Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine
University of Illinois — Peoria College of Medicine
Peoria, Ill.

Karen Florini
Senior Attorney
Environmental Defense Fund
Washington, D.C.

J. Michael Godfrey
Deputy Executive Director
Facilities Cabinet
Housing Authority of Louisville
Louisville, Ky.

Edward Gorman III
Executive Director
United Brotherhood of Carpenters of North America, Health and Safety Fund
Washington, D.C.

George Gould
Managing Attorney
Housing Unit
Community Legal Services
Philadelphia, Pa.

Robert Hanbury
President
House of Hanbury
Newington, Conn.

Win Hayward
Director of Multifamily Business Planning and Control
Federal National Mortgage Association
Washington, D.C.

Maurci Jackson
Executive Director
Parents against Lead
Chicago, Ill.

David Jacobs
Deputy Director
National Center for Lead-Safe Housing
Columbia, Md.

Richard Jones
Senior Vice President
Management Services Corporation
Charlottesville, Va.

James Kimble
Senior Counsel and Litigation Manager
American Insurance Association
Washington, D.C.

Peter Langhans
Superintendent of Casualty/Property Package/Loss Control
Nationwide Insurance Company
Columbus, Ohio

Michael Lappin
President and CEO
Community Preservation Corporation
New York, N.Y.

Dennis Livingston
Director
Community Resources, Inc.
Baltimore, Md.

Miles Mahoney
President and CEO
Housing Environmental Services, Inc.
Cambridge, Mass.

William McElroy
Assistant Vice President
Zurich-American Insurance Group
New York, N.Y.

Clark McNutt
Development Director
Environmental Restorations, Inc.
Baltimore, Md.

John Melone
Director of Chemical Management
Washington, D.C.

Ronald Morony
Acting Director
Office of Lead-Based Paint Abatement/Poisoning Prevention
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Washington, D.C.

William Nutt
Senior Vice President of Operations
United Guaranty Residential Insurance Company
Greensboro, N.C.

George Peek
President
Valley Realty
Reno, Nev.

Kenneth Peters
Associate General Counsel
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
McLean, Va.

Reed Petersen
Community and Business Programs Engineer
Rural Economic & Community Development
Phoenix, Ariz.

Stephanie Pollack (Chair, Insurance and Liability Committee)
Senior Attorney
Conservation Law Foundation
Boston, Mass.

Don Ryan (Chair, Implementation Committee)
Executive Director
Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning
Washington, D.C.

Douglas Sacarto
Senior Fellow
National Conference of State Legislatures
Denver, Colo.

Greg Samp
President
Sibley Mortgage Corporation
Rochester, N.Y.

Mike Schmelzer
President
Tryax Realty Management, Inc.
Great Neck, N.Y.

Ellen Silbergeld
Professor of Epidemiology and Toxicology
University of Maryland Medical School
Baltimore, Md.

Helen Walker
Parent
Bronx, N.Y.

Linda Walker
Staff Assistant to the Director
Loan Guaranty Service
Department of Veterans Affairs
Washington, D.C.

Ellen Widess
Executive Director
Lead Safe California
San Francisco, Calif.

Charles Wilkins (Vice-chair, Insurance and Liability Committee)
Senior Vice President
National Corporation for Housing Partnerships
Washington, D.C.


Appendix 2

(Current as of the time of the grant; provided by the grantee organization; not verified by RWJF.)

Key Recommendations of the Title X (Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction and Financing) Task Force

  1. Adopt benchmark lead-based-paint maintenance and hazard control standards for rental housing. In designing these benchmark standards, the task force followed two key principles: (1) find health-protective solutions that are also cost-effective and (2) consider both permanent (e.g., abatement) and ongoing controls (e.g., specialized cleaning).
  2. Provide public financing for lead-based-hazard control in economically distressed housing.
  3. Modify the liability and insurance systems. Changes in the system are required to ensure that poisoned children get compensated fairly and property owners receive clear signals about the preventive measures they should take to control lead-based-paint hazards.
  4. Increase public awareness. Everyone — property owners and tenants, maintenance workers and contractors, health professionals, educators, local code enforcement officials, appraisers, lenders, and insurers — needs more and better information about lead hazards.
  5. Follow matching strategies. To the extent allowable under fair-housing laws, households with young children should be matched with housing units that do not contain lead-based-paint hazards.
  6. Promote more research on cost-effective strategies to control lead-based-paint hazards.

Source: Title X Task Force Report: Putting the Pieces Together: Controlling Lead Hazards in the Nation's Housing


Appendix 3

(Current as of the time of the grant; provided by the grantee organization; not verified by RWJF.)

Additional Funders

US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
$753,000 in funding to the alliance to help implement Title X task force recommendations; the alliance subcontracted a portion of that work to the center.

HUD
$400,000 in funds to the alliance to focus on strategies for economically distressed housing

HUD
$407,000 to the center to evaluate lead abatement programs and develop new HUD guidelines

US Environmental Protection Administration
A $72,000 contract to the center to develop a manual of lead-safe work practices for the remodeling and renovation industries

Vira I. Heinz Endowment
$100,000 to the alliance to advance universal screening of children for lead poisoning

W. Alton Jones Foundation
$60,000 for its community organizations and advocacy programs

Public Welfare Foundation
$25,000 to CLF for its grassroots assistance work

Boston Globe Foundation
$25,000 to CLF to support its work in Massachusetts

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Current as of date of this report; as provided by grantee organization; not verified by RWJF; items not available from RWJF.)

Books and Reports

Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning. Building a Lead-Safe Future: Second Comprehensive National Conference Final Report. Washington, D.C.: The Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1994.

Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning. Directory of State and Local Lead Poisoning Prevention Advocates. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1995.

Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning. Innovative Financing Sources for Lead Hazard Control. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1996.

Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning. Lead-Based Paint and the IRS: Options for Deductions. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1995.

Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning. Resource Handbook on Lead Hazard Disclosure for Homes and Apartments. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, September 1996.

Anderson J and Santucci R. Technical Assistance Bulletin 2: Creating a Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Policy: A Practical, Step-by-Step Approach for Nonprofit Housing Organizations. Columbia, Md.: National Center for Lead-Safe Housing, 1994.

Conservation Law Foundation. Understanding the Massachusetts Lead Law. Boston, Mass.: Conservation Law Foundation, 1994.

Erville P. Avoiding Lead-Based Paint Hazards on Bridges and Other Steel Structures: A Report to the Federal Highway Administration. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1994.

Jacobs DE (ed). Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing (draft). Washington, D.C.: US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1994.

McManus M and Dunbar J. Would Your Child Be Covered Lessons for Health Care Reform from Private Health Insurance Lead Poisoning Coverage. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1994.

Most H (primary author). Designing and Administering Lead Hazard Control Programs: Lessons Learned to Date. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, April 1997.

Most H. Financing for Lead Hazard Control: Description of Programs that Work. Columbia, Md.: National Center for Lead-Safe Housing, 1994.

National Council of State Legislatures. The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Evaluation and Control Act: Model Legislative Language. Washington, D.C.: National Council of State Legislatures, August 1996.

Pollack S. Summary of the HUD (Title X) Task Force Working Draft Report. Boston, Mass.: Conservation Law Foundation, 1994.

Rochow KW and Rapuano M. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Developing Prevention Programs and Mobilizing Resources. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1994.

Rochow KW and Rapuano M (eds.). Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1994.

Ryan D and Tohn E. EPA's National Guidelines for Lead Hazards in Dust, Soil and Paint: A Summary and Analysis. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1994.

Tohn E. A Preliminary Review of the Vermont Experience with Essential Maintenance Practices and Lead Disclosure. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, October 1997.

Book Chapters

Anderson J. "How ASTM's New Standard Provisional Guide Addresses the Insurability of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Private Housing." Lead Liability Litigation: Legal and Business Issues. New York, N.Y.: Law Journal Seminars-Press, 1997.

Anderson J. "Lead Liability Insurance for Habitational Properties: So What's the Big Deal, Anyway?!" Lead Tech '97 Conference Proceedings. Chevy Chase, Md.: IAQ Publications, Inc., 1997.

Anderson J. "Lead Liability Insurance: Should You Require This Special Coverage?" Lead Tech '96 Conference Proceedings. Chevy Chase, Md.: IAQ Publications, Inc., 1996.

Anderson J. "Legal Liability, Loss, Risk Management, and Insurance Considerations for Lead Hazard Control Professionals." Lead-Based Paint Hazards — Assessment and Management. Vincent M. Coluccio, Dr.P.H. (ed.). New York, N.Y.: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994.

Anderson J. "Major Issues Affecting the Availability and Affordability of Lead Liability Coverage for Private Property Owners and Managers." Lead & the Law '97: Regulation, Litigation & Liability. Chevy Chase, Md.: IAQ Publications, Inc., 1997.

Most H. "Lead Hazard Reduction and Historic Preservation." Guidelines published by the National Parks Department and National Trust for Historic Preservation.

Most H. "Lead-Safety Issues for First Time Homebuyers." Realizing the American Dream, A Workbook: Series for First Time Homebuyers. Edited by the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation. Washington, D.C.: NRC, 1995, 1998.

Pollack S. "Massachusetts Lead Law." Legal Handbook for Boards of Health. Boston, Mass.: Massachusetts Association of Health Boards, 1995.

Pollack S and Sole J. "Federal and State Lead Laws and Regulations." Lead Poisoning in Children. Sigmund Pueschel (ed.), Providence, R.I.: Brown University School of Medicine, 1995.

Pollack S and Sole J. "Lead-Based Paint Legislation." In Lead Poisoning in Childhood, Pueschel SM, Linakis JG, and Anderson AC (eds.). Baltimore, Md.: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 1996.

Articles

Anderson J. "An Evaluation of Maryland's New Lead Poisoning Prevention Law." Lead Perspectives, 2(1): 30–32, 1997.

Anderson J. "Lead-Based Paint Hazard Insurability Addressed." National Underwriter, 101(8): 45–46, 1997.

Anderson J. "Lead Hazards in Housing: What Nonprofits Need to Know." Costs Cuts, 11(2): 4–5, 1994.

Anderson J. "Lead Liability." Journal of Property Management, 61(5): 76–77, 1996.

Anderson J. "Lead Liability Insurance: Going, Going, Gone?" Today's Realtor, 30(7): 32, 1997.

Anderson J. "Lead Liability Insurance: Should You Require This Special Coverage?" Cost Cuts, 13(3): 6–7, 1996.

Anderson J. "Major Issues Affecting the Availability and Affordability of Lead Coverage for Private Property Owners and Managers." Examiner, 21(4): 22–26, 1997.

Anderson J. "Maryland's Lead Poisoning Prevention Program." Deleading, 3(11): 5–9, 1994.

Anderson J. "The Realities (and Myths) of Lead Liability Insurance: Lead Safety Could Be Key to Coverage." Lead Detection & Abatement Contractor, 4(11): 20–21, 1997.

Anderson J and Kershner L. "Maryland's Lead Poisoning Prevention Program: How New State Legislation Addresses the Insurability of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Private Rental Housing." CPCU Journal, 48(1): 50–57, 1995.

Conservation Law Foundation and Massachusetts Law Reform Institute. "What You Can Do about Lead Poisoning." Housing Matters, 6(3): 1994.

Farr N. "The Impact of Childhood Lead Poisoning on Affordable Housing." Real Estate Finance Journal, 10(3): 14–21, 1995.

Farr N. "Led by Lead: Health, Housing, Jobs and the Environment." Economy and the Environment, 3(2): 1–4, 1994.

Farr N and Dolbeare C. "Childhood Lead Poisoning: Solving a Health and Housing Problem." Cityscape, 2(3): 1996.

Most H. "Designing and Managing Lead Hazard Control Programs: Methods That Work." Lead Perspectives, 2(2): 25–27, 1997.

Most H. "Financing Lead Hazard Control Work." The Forum, Fall 1995.

Most H. "Getting the Word Out on Lead." Stone Soup, 15(1): 10–11, 1996.

Most H. "How New HUD Regulations on Lead Hazard Control, Lead Hazard Disclosure Impact Housing Market." Deleading, 5(7): 4, 15, 1996.

Most H. "How to Finance Lead Hazard Control." Cost Cuts, 12(1): 10–11, 1995.

Most H. "Lending for Lead Hazard Control: A New Business Opportunity." Directions in Affordable Housing Finance, 7(2): 1996.

Most H. "New Regulations on Lead Hazard Disclosure and Lead Hazard Control." Cost Cuts, 13(4): 10–11, 1996.

Most H. "So What Do We Do Now? How to Approach LBP Hazard Control in the Absence of Title X Regulations." Cost Cuts, 12(2): 1995.

Most H. "Structuring a Lead Hazard Control Program: Where to Begin." Deleading, 5(5): 6–7, 1996.

National Center for Lead-Safe Housing discussion paper. "Expanding and Improving Lead Hazard Evaluation Services for Home Buyers." Lead Perspectives, 2(2): 22–24, 1997.

Ryan D and Dolbeare C. "Getting the Lead Out." Shelterforce, September/October 1997.

Tohn E (contributor). "How to Find a Qualified Lead Paint Contractor." Assisted Housing Management Insider, June 1997.

Wengrovitz AG. "Lead Disclosure: Eight Reasons Why You Should Care." Today's Realtor, November 1996.

Wengrovitz AG. "Where Can I Find a Qualified Lead Inspector?" Today's Realtor, March 1997.

Newsletters

Alliance Alert (bimonthly publication). Washington, D.C.: The Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, six issues in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998.

Survey Instruments

"Lead Listing Survey." Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, fielded January 1997.

Sponsored Conferences

"1997 Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning Meeting, Strategies for Making Disclosure Word in Lower Income Rental Properties," September 1997, Crystal City, Va. Attendees included legal services attorneys and representatives, members of local and community-based organizations, and parents of lead-poisoned children, including representatives from Lisbon Avenue Neighborhood Development, Milwaukee, Wis.; North State Legal Services, Hillsborough, N.C.; Childhood Lead Action Project, Providence, R.I.; United Parents against Lead of Ohio, North Ridgeville, Ohio; and Legal Aid Society of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.

"1998 Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning Meeting, Using Results-Oriented Enforcement of Disclosure for Local Lead Hazard Control," January 1998, Arlington, Va. Attended by parents, tenant advocates and community-based groups from across the country, including representatives from Citizens for Lead Poisoning Prevention, Birmingham, Ala.; MFY Legal Services, New York, N.Y.; Lead Elimination Action Drive, Chicago, Ill.; San Francisco Housing Rights Committee, San Francisco, Calif.; Virginia Parents against Lead, Richmond, Va.; and Childhood Lead Action Project, Providence, R.I.

Sponsored Workshops

"New Tools for Community-Based Lead Poisoning Prevention," August 1996, Cleveland, Ohio. Attended by 22 local and community-based lead poisoning prevention advocates from across the country, including parents of lead-poisoned children.

Presentations and Testimony

Pat McLaine, "Lead in Children," at the National Nurse Practitioner Symposium, September 22, 1994, Baltimore, Md.

Pat McLaine, "Lead and Housing," at the South Carolina Annual Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Workshop, June 8, 1995, Columbia, S.C.

Pat McLaine, "State and Local Model Lead Programs," at the Lead Tech '95 Conference, October 9–11, 1995, Arlington, Va.

Pat McLaine, "Public Health Successes in Lead Poisoning Prevention: Stories for Hard Times," at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, October 29–November 2, 1995, San Diego, Calif.

Pat McLaine, "An Update on the HUD Evaluation" and "Case Management Issues," at the CDC Grantee Meetings, November 1995 and November 1996, Atlanta, Ga.

At a CPCU Society seminar entitled "Evaluating and Controlling Lead-Based Paint Hazards," February, March, April, and May 1996, Albany, N.Y.; Vienna, Va.; Elmhurst, N.Y.; and Hartford, Conn.

  • Heidi Most, "History, Use and Health Effects of Lead and Lead-Based Paint, and the Nature of Lead-Based Paint Hazards."
  • Patrick Connor, "Strategies for Evaluating Lead-Based Paint Hazards."
  • Patrick Connor, "Strategies for Controlling Lead-Based Paint Hazards."
  • Vincent Coluccio, "Lead Paint Inspections: Accurately Characterizing Conditions in Housing Units."
  • Jackson Anderson, "HUD Task Force on Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction and Financing."
  • Heidi Most, "State and Local Laws and Regulations: Current and Emerging Requirements."
  • Jackson Anderson, "Integrating Lead-Based Paint Hazard Evaluation and Control Strategies into Insurance Underwriting Guidelines and Decisions."

Pierre Erville, "Lead Hazard Disclosure Notification in Real Estate Transactions," at the 1996 Real Estate Educators Association Annual Conference, May 1996, Atlanta, Ga.

Stephanie Pollack, "The Massachusetts Lead Law" at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Lead Nurses Association, May 2, 1996, Springfield, Mass.

Jackson Anderson, "The HUD Task Force Report and Recommendations: Putting the Pieces Together," at a meeting of the New Hampshire Legislative Study Subcommittee, June 1996, Concord, N.H.

Ellen Tohn, "Lead Hazard Disclosure Notification in Real Estate Transactions," at an Environmental Law Institute continuing education course, June 1996, Columbia, Md.

David Batts, "Lead-Based Paint Hazards in the Home and Lead Hazard Disclosure Regulations," at Stand for Children, June 1, 1996, Washington, D.C.

Heidi Most, "Lead Hazard Control and Lead Safety as Part of Housing Development and Management," at the Neighborhood Reinvestment Training Institutes, June 9, 1996, Philadelphia, Pa.; November 12, 1996, Oakland, Calif.; November 13, 1996, Los Angeles, Calif.; September 1997, Washington, D.C.; and February 11, 1998, Atlanta, Ga.

Jackson Anderson, "Lead-Based Paint Hazard Evaluation and Control in Private Housing," at the National Conference of State Legislatures Annual Meeting, July 1996, St. Louis, Mo.

Jackson Anderson, "Lead Paint Liability: Implications for Insurers and Bankers," at the Society of Financial and Insurance Examiners' Bridges to the Future Career Development Seminar, July 1996, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Jackson Anderson, "Insurance and Lead Poisoning: A Multidisciplinary Perspective," at IAQ's Lead Tech '96 — Solutions and Strategies for the New Era of Regulation, October 1996, Washington, D.C.

Heidi Most and Bob Santucci, "The Laws and Regulations Regarding Lead Hazard Control," "How to Develop a Lead-Safe Housing Policy," "How to Build Lead Safety into Rehabilitation Activities," and "Low-Cost Intervention Strategies," at the Ohio Community Development Corporation Association Workshop, Cleveland, Ohio, October 21–22, 1996.

Anne Guthrie, "Lead Hazard Disclosure Notification and Today's Realtor," at a seminar sponsored by Chase Realty, November 1996, McLean, Va.

Pat McLaine, "Policy Implications of Relocation — Preliminary Interim Data from the National HUD Evaluation" and "Public Health and Lead: What's the Fit with Primary Prevention?" at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, November 1996, New York, N.Y.

Don Ryan, "Owner and Manager Property Rights" and "The Nuts and Bolts of Lead Hazard Disclosure Notification Compliance," at the 1996 Realtors Annual Convention and Trade Show Exposition, November 1996, San Francisco, Calif.

Stephanie Pollack, roundtable panelist in "Preventing Lead Paint Poisoning in Children: A Roundtable Discussion" sponsored by the Connecticut Institute for Municipal Studies, November 12, 1996, Farmington, Conn.

Heidi Most, "Issues That Divide the Health and Housing Fields Concerning Lead Poisoning," at the New England Lead Hazard Control Conference, November 19, 1996, Springfield, Mass.

Heidi Most, "Laws and Regulations regarding Lead Hazard Control and Building Safety into Housing Development," at the Enterprise Foundation Network Conferences, December 5, 1996, Miami, Fla., and November 6, 1997, Washington, D.C.

Anne Guthrie, "The Implementation and Enforcement of Lead Hazard Notification Disclosure," CDC Annual Grantee Meeting, January 1997, Atlanta, Ga.

Stephanie Pollack, "The Five I's of Lead Poisoning Prevention: Infrastructure, Implementation, Investment, Information and Involvement" to the Commission to Study and Identify Incentives to Achieve Lead-Safe Housing in Rhode Island, January 6, 1997, Providence, R.I.

Jackson Anderson, "Essential Elements of New Lead Legislation: Addressing Standards of Care, Liability and Insurance Availability," at a meeting of the Special Committee on Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control, Wisconsin Joint Legislative Council, February 1997, Madison, Wis.

Jackson Anderson, "The HUD Task Force Benchmark Standards and ASTM Standard PS 61–96: How New Standards Address the Insurability of Lead Hazards in Residential Rental Properties," at the National Association of Realtors winter meetings, February 1997, San Antonio, Texas.

Anne Guthrie, "The Role of Disclosure in the Prevention of Lead Poisoning," at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Annual Grantee Meeting, February 1997, Atlanta, Ga.

Stephanie Pollack, Panelist for discussion on "Making the Connections: Where Do We Go from Here?" at a meeting of the EPA-sponsored New England Lead Coordinating Committee on Preserving Our Communities: Integrating Affordability, Historic Preservation & Lead Safety in Renovation and Rehabilitation Programs, February 13, 1997, Durham, N.H.

Pat McLaine, "Guidelines for Care Coordination and Follow-Up" and "An Update on the HUD Evaluation," at the CDC Grantee Meeting, February 24–27, 1997, Atlanta, Ga.

Jackson Anderson, "ASTM PS 61–96: How This New Provisional Guide Addresses the Insurability of Lead Paint in Residential Rental Properties," at a meeting of the Pennsylvania chapter of the Society of Financial and Insurance Examiners, March 1997, Plymouth Meeting, Pa.

Jackson Anderson, "ASTM PS 61–96: How This New Provisional Guide Addresses the Insurability of Lead Paint in Residential Rental Properties," at a meeting of the Property Insurance Committee of the American Insurance Association, March 1997, Washington, D.C.

Pierre Erville, "Lead Hazard Disclosure and Its Opportunities," at Indoor Air Quality's Lead and the Law Conference, March 1997, Washington, D.C.

Don Ryan, "Lead Hazard Disclosure and Its Relationship to Trends in Lead Poisoning Prevention," at Indoor Air Quality's Lead and the Law Conference, March 1997, Washington, D.C.

Heidi Most, "Developing Lead Hazard Control Plans and Building Lead-Safe Practices into Development and Maintenance Activities" and "Background on the Lead and Task Force Recommendations, including the Benchmark Standards and Possible Lending Institution Participation," at the Denver Lead Safety Presentation, March 27, 1997, Denver, Colo.

Jackson Anderson, "Essential Elements of New Lead Legislation," at the State Regulators roundtable session of the National Lead Safe Housing Conference, April 1997, Washington, D.C.

Pierre Erville, "Community Approaches to Prevention," at a meeting sponsored by the Virginia Department of Health, April 1997, Lynchburg, Va.

Heidi Most, "Lessons Learned on Designing and Administering Lead Hazard Control Programs," "Building Lead Safety into Housing Rehabilitation Programs," "How to Develop a Lead-Safe House and Housing Registry," and "Low-Cost Strategies for Lead Hazard Control," at the National Lead Safe Housing Conferences, April 27–29, 1997, Washington, D.C., and April 20–22, 1998, Philadelphia, Pa.

Jackson Anderson, "Current Trends in the Market for Handling Lead Paint Exposures," at a Regional Custom Focus Meeting of Crum & Forster Insurance Company, May 1997, St. Michaels, Md.

Jackson Anderson, "Lead Liability Insurance for Habitational Properties: So What's the Big Deal, Anyway?!" at the Lead Liability Litigation Seminar, Law Journal Seminars Press, May 1997, New York, N.Y.

Don Ryan, "National Lead Poisoning Prevention Development," at Look Out for the Lead, May 1997, Madison, Wis.

Stephanie Pollack, "The Massachusetts Lead Law," at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Lead Nurses Association, May 8, 1997, Andover, Mass.

Heidi Most, "The Real Estate Disclosure Law and How It Can Be Used to Encourage Lead-Safe Housing" and "Findings from the National Evaluations and How They May Affect Choices Local Lead Poisoning Prevention Programs Make," at the Look Out for Lead Conference, May 20–21, 1997, Madison, Wis.

Stephanie Pollack, panelist for discussion entitled "Where We Stand Now: An Update on State Policy and Legislation," at Look Out for Lead '97, May 20–21, 1997, Madison, Wis.

Jackson Anderson, "Lead Liability Insurance for Habitational Properties: Understanding the Challenges," at a meeting of the EPA-sponsored New England Lead Coordinating Committee, June 1997, Boston, Mass.

Jackson Anderson, "Tort Liability and Insurance Reform: Model Legislation," at a regional lead conference — the Community Challenge: Management of Environmental Lead Hazards, Allegheny County Health Department, June 1997, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Anne Guthrie, "Medicaid and Managed Care," at the New England Coordinating Committee, June 1997, Boston, Mass.

Don Ryan, "Opportunities for Raising Awareness and Triggering Action to Control Lead Hazards," at the Northwest Tri-State Lead Conference, June 1997, Portland, Ore.

Don Ryan and Pierre Erville, "Using Disclosure as a New Means of Prompting Action to Control Lead Hazards" and "State Legislative Developments and Financing Issues," at the Community Challenge: Management of Environmental Lead Hazards — the Tri-State Regional Conference, June 1997, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Heidi Most, "Building Lead-Safe Practices into Rehabilitation and Maintenance Activities" and "Financing for Lead Hazard Control," at the Community Challenge: Management of Lead Hazards — Tri-State Regional Conference, June 10–11, 1997, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Stephanie Pollack, panelist for discussion entitled "Insurance and Liability for Lead Poisoning," at a meeting of the EPA-sponsored New England Lead Coordinating Committee, June 18, 1997, Amherst, Mass.

Stephanie Pollack, "Living with Lead: Making Oregon and the Pacific Northwest a Model of Lead-Safe Living," at Lead in the Northwest 2: Changing Solutions to an Emerging Problem, June 25, 1997, Portland, Ore.

Stephanie Pollack, "Tort Cases: Current Status and Future Trends," at Lead in the Northwest 2: Changing Solutions to an Emerging Problem, June 25, 1997, Portland, Ore.

Heidi Most and Bob Santucci, "How to Build Lead Safety into Rehabilitation Activities," at the Kansas Regional Workshop, August 1997, Kansas City, Kan.

Heidi Most, "The New Operations and Maintenance Course Developed by NETA" and "The Results of the National Evaluation and Its Implications for Lead Hazard Control Activities in New England," at the New England Lead Coordinating Council Conference, September 16–17, 1997, Boston, Mass.

Jackson Anderson, "Insurance and Lead Poisoning: Protecting Your Business, Your Project and Your Career," at IAQ's Lead Tech '97 — Achieving Success in Lead Hazard Control, October 1997, Arlington, Va.

Don Ryan, "Squaring Expectations and Reality about Consumer Demand for Lead Inspections and Risk Assessments and the Need for the Industry to Target Consumer Demand," at Indoor Air Quality's Lead Tech '97, October 1997, Crystal City, Va.

Stephanie Pollack, panelist for seminar "Get the Lead Out! Landlords' and Tenants' Options for Dealing with Lead Paint," presented by Massachusetts Continuing Legal Education, October 21, 1997, Newton, Mass.

Anne Guthrie, "The Status of Lead Hazard Disclosure and Its Implications," at the American Public Health Association Annual Conference, November 1997, Indianapolis, Ind.

James Rochow, "Integrating Lead Hazard Control into Local Housing Enforcement," at the American Public Health Association Annual Conference, November 1997, Indianapolis, Ind.

Ellen Tohn, "Using Lead Hazard Disclosure to Advance Essential Maintenance Practices," at the American Public Health Association Annual Conference, November 1997, Indianapolis, Ind.

Stephanie Pollack, panelist on "Working Together to Prevent Lead Poisoning: A Dialogue among Stakeholders," at Lead around the House: Controlling Hazards in Place, November 19, 1997, Springfield, Mass.

Pat McLaine, "The New CDC Screening Guidelines," at the National Lead Abatement Council's Lead in the Northeast 1997 Conference, November 29, 1997, Trenton, N.J.

Stephanie Pollack, "Keynote: Working Together to Create a Lead-Safe Future for Rhode Island's Children," at Lead-Safe Homes, Lead-Safe Children: Rhode Island's First Conference on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention, December 5, 1997, Providence, R.I.

Pierre Erville, "Lead Hazard Disclosure," at the Lead Busters Annual Conference, January 1998, Kansas City, Mo.

Pat McLaine, "Update on the HUD Evaluation," at the CDC Grantee Meeting, January 27–30, 1998, Atlanta, Ga.

Jackson Anderson, "Lead-Safe Renovation, Remodeling and Repainting: How to Achieve Consumer Outreach and Education," at a meeting of the EPA-sponsored New England Lead Coordinating Committee, February 1998, Concord, N.H.

Stephanie Pollack, "Keynote: Creating a Home for Housing Policy in Rhode Island," at the Rhode Island Housing Summit: Rebuilding Rhode Island — a Housing Strategy to Improve Neighborhood Stability and Community Health, March 20, 1998, Warwick, R.I.

Jackson Anderson, "Creating Lead Dust Minimization Work Practices for Residential Renovation, Remodeling, and Repainting," at the National Lead Safe Housing Conference of the National Lead Abatement Council, April 1998, Philadelphia, Pa.

Stephanie Pollack, "The Importance of Working Together," at the first meeting of the Mayor's Safe Housing Lead Task Force, April 2, 1998, Providence, R.I.

Pat McLaine, "Lead Screening: the Managed Care Experience" and "What Constitutes Appropriate Case Management of Lead-Poisoned Children?" at the National Lead Safe Housing Conference, April 20–22, 1998, Philadelphia, Pa.

Pat McLaine, "An Overview of Federal Agency Directions (including an update on the HUD Evaluation)," at the Massachusetts Nurses Association, May 13, 1998, Westboro, Mass.

World Wide Web Sites

www.centerforhealthyhousing.org provides information on childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts, especially those related to housing, 1998.

Audio-Visuals and Computer Software

Lead Hazard Disclosure in Residential Real Estate Transactions, a 45-minute media projector slide show. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1996. Approximately 150 copies produced; 125 copies distributed and sold as of November 2000.

Lead Hazard Disclosure in Residential Real Estate Transactions Slide Show for Property Owners and Managers, a media projector slide show. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1996. Over 50 copies distributed and sold as of November 2000.

Training for Housing Counselors, a Powerpoint presentation on diskette. Washington, D.C.: Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning. 200 copies distributed.

Ending Childhood Lead Poisoning, a 13.2-minute videocassette. Washington, D.C.: Chicago Video Project, 1996. Distributed to news reporters across the country.

News Conferences and Briefings

Press conference on the US General Accounting Office study that found rampant noncompliance with the Medicaid Lead Screening Law, produced the Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, D.C., February 1998.

Television Coverage

"Darryl Beasley's Real Estate Show," notification and disclosure of lead hazards in real estate, Louisiana, July 2, 1996.

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Report prepared by: Karin B. Gillespie
Reviewed by: Robert Crum
Reviewed by: Karyn Feiden
Program Officer: Janet Heroux
Program Officer: Susan Hassmiller