February 2000

Grant Results

SUMMARY

From 1992 to 1996, the American Bar Association (ABA), Chicago, worked with volunteer lawyers and community-based coalitions to ameliorate the social and legal problems of substance abuse.

ABA staff supported lawyer involvement in the formation and development of broad-based community coalitions. The purpose of these coalitions was to:

  • Facilitate on-site and telephone communication and coordination of efforts among local anti-drug groups.
  • Identify effective local programs with national potential.
  • Provide legal assistance in community anti-drug policy planning.

Staff also provided information and technical assistance to communities and courts seeking to establish drug courts that provide for mandatory treatment as an alternative to incarceration.

Key Results

  • Eleven bar associations formed drug committees or task forces.
  • The ABA convened more than a dozen national organizations into The Drug Crisis Working Group.
  • On-site and telephone technical assistance was provided to 37 bar associations.
  • 19 state and local bar associations became involved in local community anti-drug coalitions.
  • Information about drug courts was provided to more than 200 communities and courts, and direct technical assistance on drug courts was provided to approximately 50 of these.
  • Direct technical assistance was provided to more than 60 cities in 34 states.

Funding
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) supported the project with two grants totaling $678,114 between June 1992 and July 1996.

 See Grant Detail & Contact Information
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THE PROBLEM

During the 1980s and early 1990s, national drug control policies relied almost exclusively on the criminal justice system to address problems generated by substance abuse. Based on the evidence of growing numbers of substance abusers, however, this system of harsh legal penalties and disproportionate funding of law enforcement over treatment options was thought by many to be ineffective.

Some communities have taken an alternative approach, organizing broad-based community anti-drug coalitions that favor an integrated, coordinated strategy. In Cleveland, Ohio, for example, local lawyers began organizing a coalition composed of private and public organizations including schools, hospitals, police, and social service agencies. This effort inspired an 18-month field study by the American Bar Association (ABA) Special Committee on the Drug Crisis, which identified several promising projects involving bar association members.

The ABA effort complemented a number of initiatives funded by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). These include support for Join Together (ID#s 018713, 019307, 026942, 027954) and Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA) (ID#s 020046, 027047, 026903, 027953, 034748) — both are organizations that work with community-based coalitions as key vehicles for reducing demand for and harmful effects of substance abuse — and for Fighting Back®, a national program that also addresses substance abuse among youth through community coalitions in seven communities: Little Rock, Ariz.; Vallejo, Calif.; Santa Barbara, Calif.; New Haven, Conn.; Washington, D.C.; Kansas City, Mo.; and San Antonio, Texas.

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THE PROJECT

Based on the results of its field study, the ABA proposed to explore alternative approaches to addressing the drug crisis, utilizing lawyers as volunteers involved in broad-based community coalitions advocating for change. The principal objective of the first grant (ID# 019838) was to recruit leaders from the organized bar through the ABA's network of state and local bar associations.

The project would provide these leaders with models of well-constituted coalitions and assist them developing strategies for eliminating governmental and institutional barriers, such as the traditional independence of law enforcement, education, and social service agencies, which makes forging a broad-based coalition difficult.

The project would also let them know about the resources and in-kind assistance available from other national organizations working with the ABA. Additionally, it would facilitate communication between coalitions, act as a clearinghouse to collect and disseminate local anti-drug policies, evaluate the applicability of local policies to the national drug control strategy, and recommend effective policies to government leaders.

In the second grant (ID# 023195), the emphasis changed to allow for more effort in the arena of justice system reform for drug offenders. Using community coalition work as a springboard, the initiative intended to assist lawyers and coalitions to:

  • Recruit judges and prosecutors for involvement in special projects, such as drug courts, which allow for more treatment-oriented solutions and alternative sentencing for drug offenders.
  • Add intensive technical assistance to new coalitions, including workshops on strategic planning.
  • Implement site visits to effective projects.
  • Add alcohol and tobacco issues to the ABA anti-drug agenda.

Other Funding

During both grants, additional funding was secured to further the purpose of the project. Under the first grant, the primary source of additional support was the Board of Governors of the ABA, which provided approximately $250,000. During the second grant, supplementary funding from the ABA was approximately $275,000. In addition, the coalition in Atlanta, Ga., received a $500,000 grant from a foundation funded by the Coca-Cola Corporation. Community foundations in Baltimore, Boston, and Milwaukee supplied $40,000, $35,000, and $25,000 respectively for local anti-drug coalition programs. Local bar associations in Baltimore, Boston, and Milwaukee also provided their city coalitions with $6,000, $17,700, and $2,500, respectively. In addition, the Boston Coalition received nearly $200,000 from the US Department of Justice for the implementation of a drug court. Additional support and services were provided to three local coalitions in the form of full-time staff members sponsored by The United Way, Anderson Consulting, the Atlanta Chamber of Commerce, and the Kansas City County Prosecutor's Office.

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RESULTS

Results of the First Grant (ID# 019838)

  • 11 bar associations formed drug committees or task forces. These included bar associations in Atlanta, Ga.; Austin, Texas; Kansas City, Mo.; Memphis, Tenn.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Oakland, Calif.; South Cook County, Ill.; St. Louis, Mo.; and the District of Columbia, as well as state bar associations in Delaware, Denver, and Colorado.
  • The ABA convened more than a dozen national organizations into The Drug Crisis Working Group. The group developed some areas of consensus regarding the formation of a national substance abuse strategy. The results were presented to President Clinton and to Congress.
  • On-site and telephone technical assistance was provided to 37 bar associations.
  • Technical assistance was provided to bar leaders in conjunction with seven bar conferences.
  • ABA staff and volunteers facilitated 115 on-site technical visits in 23 cities.
  • Linkages were established with more than a dozen national groups interested in substance abuse prevention. These included: Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA), US Department of Education, Join Together, the Fighting Back Program, National District Attorneys Association, US Department of Justice, National Association of Counties, Partnership for a Drug-Free America, National Drugs Don't Work Program, City Year, the Council of State Governments, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), The United Way, and Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC).

Results of the Second Grant (ID# 023195)

  • 19 state and local bar associations became involved in local community anti-drug coalitions (Cleveland, Ohio; Connecticut; Dallas, Texas; Delaware; Florida; Kankakee, Ill.; Las Vegas, Nev.; Maryland; Monroe, N.Y.; Nebraska; New Orleans, La.; Oklahoma; Philadelphia, Pa.; Puerto Rico; Richmond, Va.; Rochester, N.Y.; Tennessee; Utah; Wichita, Kan.).
  • Information about drug courts was provided to more than 200 communities and courts, and direct technical assistance on drug courts was provided to approximately 50 of these. With this assistance, drug courts started in Rochester, N.Y., Tulsa, Okla., Camden, N.J., and Bridgeport, Conn. The drug court program in Camden, N.J., was the recipient of two other RWJF grants (ID# 030315 and 033796) to the Genesis Counseling Center.
  • Direct technical assistance was provided to more than 60 cities in 34 states.
  • A workshop for the judiciary was held in Pensacola, Fla., and a meeting of judicial and community leaders was convened in St. Louis, Mo., in order to educate judges and other court officials about the benefits and difficulties of drug court administration.
  • Relationships were formed with the American Medical Association, the National Associations of Attorneys General, the American Psychological Association, the US Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Counties, the National Association of Social Workers, and the American Public Health Association to publicize collaborative community efforts of national and local associations against substance abuse.
  • More than 325 requests for information about coalition building, teen courts, drug courts, mentoring programs, and working with business and law enforcement agencies were answered.

Communications

The project produced several dozen brochures and program guides on the community anti-drug coalition initiative, which were disseminated to state and local bar associations nationwide. Several articles on the project appeared in an ABA newsletter, Call to Action, as well as in national publications, such as The Washington Times Post. A book entitled American Bar Association Primer on Community Anti-Drug Coalitions was produced and distributed to every state and local bar association. Successful anti-drug programs and coalitions were showcased at all ABA midyear and annual conferences. The ABA cosponsored with the US Department of Justice a national conference on drug courts in December 1993. Project personnel also made presentations at more than two dozen local and national workshops and meetings. (See the Bibliography for complete details.)

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AFTER THE GRANT

Continuation of much of the work of these two grants moved in the direction of support for drug courts and unified family courts, which include treatment options for drug offenders. RWJF currently supports an American Bar Association initiative (See Grant Results on ID# 029319) to aid in the development of unified family courts, which assist families with substance abuse problems by streamlining their contact with the judicial system.

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GRANT DETAILS & CONTACT INFORMATION

Project

Recruitment of ABA Members for Community Anti-Drug Coalitions

Grantee

American Bar Association Fund for Justice and Education (Chicago,  IL)

  • Amount: $ 197,094
    Dates: June 1992 to April 1994
    ID#:  019838

  • Amount: $ 481,020
    Dates: February 1994 to July 1996
    ID#:  023195

Contact

Gloria H. Danziger
(202) 662-1000 ext. 1784
gdanziger@attmail.com

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Current as of date of this report; as provided by grantee organization; not verified by RWJF; items not available from RWJF.)

Books and Reports

American Bar Association Special Committee on the Drug Crisis. New Directions for National Substance Abuse Policy. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, 1994.

Danziger G (ed.). Attorney's Guide to Drugs in the Workplace, Chicago, Ill.: American Bar Association, 1996. 3,000 copies sent to state and local ABA, including Labor and Employers Law Section, and distributed at ABA meetings and conventions to November, 1998.

Kimbrough R (ed.). Lawyers as Volunteers: Addressing Substance Abuse and Violence in Communities. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, June 1995. 1,500 copies sent to state and local ABA groups and distributed at all ABA midyear conventions to November 1998.

Patterson J (ed.). American Bar Association Primer on Community Anti-Drug Coalitions, Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, 1992. 3,100 copies sent to all state and local bar associations, distributed at ABA functions and upon request to November 1998.

Weitzman JH, and Kimbrough R. Drug Courts: A Manual for Planning and Implementation. Washington, D.C.: 1995. 2,100 copies sent to ABA state and local associations and all drug court judges nationwide to November 1998.

Special Advisory Panel to the Anti-Drug Committee. Report to the Jackson County Legislature Anti-Drug Committee. Kansas City, Mo.: The Session Law Firm, December 27, 1993.

Newsletters

Danziger G. "Drug Courts Stem Addiction," Call To Action: The Newsletter of the Special Committee on the Drug Crisis of the ABA, Volume II, Issue 1, February 1994.

Danziger G. "Summits Show Coalitions How To Build Relationships With the Media," Call To Action: The Newsletter of the Special Committee on the Drug Crisis of the ABA, Volume II, Issue 2, July 1994.

Danziger G. "Boston Coalition Receives Funding for Drug Court Program" Call To Action: The Newsletter of the Special Committee on the Drug Crisis of the ABA, Volume III, Issue 1, January 1995.

Driscoll J. "From the Chairman," Call To Action: The Newsletter of the Special Committee on the Drug Crisis of the ABA, Volume I, Issue 2, April 1993.

Driscoll J. "Drug-Related Violence: A New Focus," Call To Action: The Newsletter of the Special Committee on the Drug Crisis of the ABA, Volume I, Issue 3, July 1993.

Kobil B. "Drug Coalitions Make A Difference," Call To Action: The Newsletter of the Special Committee on the Drug Crisis of the ABA, Volume III, Issue 1, January 1995.

Lewis, S. "Anti-Drug Leaders Meet to Shed Light on Drug Problem," Call To Action: The Newsletter of the Special Committee on the Drug Crisis of the ABA, Volume III, Issue 3, January 1996.

Shaw P. "Targets Technical Assistance Workshops: An Insiders Look At Coalitions," Call To Action: The Newsletter of the Special Committee on the Drug Crisis of the ABA, Volume I, Issue 3, July 1993.

Brochures and Fact Sheets

"State and Local Bar Association Guide to Community Anti-Drug Coalition Initiatives," American Bar Association, 1992.

"Special Committee on the Drug Crisis: Community Anti-Drug Coalition Initiative" American Bar Association, 1993.

ABA, in collaboration with Community Anti-Drug Coalition (CADCA), Alexandria, Va., in 1995 published "CADCA Strategizers," a series of technical assistance manuals for community coalitions:

  • "Strategic Planning for Funding of Operations and Program for Community-Based Coalitions"
  • "Long-Range Planning: Vision Translated into Action"
  • "Youth and Gang Violence: Comprehensively Meeting the Challenge"
  • "Community Coalitions: Developing A Public Relations Plan"
  • "Public Service Media Campaign Plan for Coalitions"
  • "Community Substance Use/Abuse Indicators"
  • "Evaluation of Substance Abuse Coalitions"
  • "Coalition Mini-Grant Programs"
  • "Coalitions Address Americans with Disabilities"
  • "Lobbying Strategies for Community Coalitions"
  • "Coalitions Hold Town Meetings"
  • "Coalitions Sponsor Media Summits"
  • "Addressing Drug-Exposed Babies and Substance-Using Mothers"
  • "Red Ribbon Celebration"
  • "Treatment Oriented Drug Courts"

"Wanted: Lawyers as Volunteers in Community Anti-Drug Coalitions." ABA Special Committee on the Drug Crisis. 1995.

"The Community Anti-Drug Coalition Initiative." ABA Special Committee on the Drug Crisis. 1995.

"Community Coalitions: Facts and Resources." ABA Standing Committee on the Drug Crisis. 1995.

"Overview of Diversionary Drug Courts." ABA Special Committee on the Drug Crisis, 1995.

Sponsored Conferences

"First National Drug Court Conference," cosponsored by the American Bar Association and the US Department of Justice, December 1993, Miami, Fla. 500 participants attended the two days of panels and workshops, and were addressed by Attorney General Janet Reno, ABA President William Ide III, and "Drug Czar" Lee Brown.

"Just Solutions: Seeking Innovation and Change in the American Justice System," May 1–3, 1994, Leesburg, Va. 380 conferees included lawyers, educators, civic leaders, citizen activists, media representatives, business people, elected and appointed officials, and others. Format included moderated panel discussions and small groups of conferees examining innovative solutions for problems in the justice system.

Sponsored Workshops

Robin Kimbrough, "On the ABA Community Anti-Drug Coalition Initiative," at the Council of State Governments Annual Meeting, Des Moines, Iowa, 1992.

Judy Patterson, "Technical Assistance for Bar Leaders," at the National Leadership Forum III Conference (President's Drug Advisory Council), Washington, D.C., December 1992.

Patti Garcia, "On a Drug Diversion Program," at the American Bar Association Mid-Year Meeting, Boston, Mass., February 1993.

Panel Presentation at the ABA Young Lawyers Division Affiliate Outreach Annual Conference, San Diego, Calif., April 1993.

Robin Kimbrough, Mike Walker, and Claire McCaskill, "The Role of Lawyers in Community Coalitions; How to Build A Community Coalition," Project Freedom and Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America, Wichita, Kan., May 1993.

Robin Kimbrough and Jack Driscoll, "The Role of Lawyers in Community Coalitions," at the Increase the Peace Conference, sponsored by Boston ABA Anti-Drug Coalition, Boston, Mass., June 1993.

Judge Robert Fogan, Ben Loring, Claire McCaskill, Judge Braxton Kettrell, Davis Skeen, Judge Jeffrey Touber, and Mark Tuohey, "A Lawyer in Your Corner," and "Drug Courts: Promising Choice fir the Criminal Justice System," at the National Leadership Forum, CADCA, Washington, D.C., November 1993.

Robin Kimbrough, Jack Driscoll, "Drug Courts: The Next Steps," for the National Institute of Justice, Dade County Office of Substance Abuse in cooperation with CSAT, SJI, and ABA, Miami, Fla., December 1993.

Robin Kimbrough, "On Drugs and the Need for Treatment," at the Fourth Annual Conference on Drugs and Crime, Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC), Chicago, Ill., February 1994.

Robin Kimbrough, "On Drug Court Programs," at the Chicago Innovations Forum, Chicago, Ill., March 1994.

Robin Kimbrough and Jack Driscoll, "Mobilizing Lawyers to Participate in Community Anti-Drug Activities and Other Coalition Efforts," at the Eastern Seaboard Conference, American Bar Association (ABA), Washington, D.C., April 1994.

Jack Driscoll, Bob Ferguson, and Robin Kimbrough, "Gaining Access to Lawyers as Volunteers," at the National Head Start Conference, Washington, D.C., April 1994.

Jeffrey Kuhn and Robin Kimbrough, "On the Justice System of the Future," at Just Solutions: an ABA Public Policy Forum, Leesburg, Va., May 1994.

Jack Driscoll and Mike Walker, "On Coalition Building," to the National Association of Bar Executives (NABE), Cincinnati, Ohio, August 1994.

William Ide, Patti Garcia, and Robin Kimbrough, "On the Role of Lawyers in Coalitions" at the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA) National Leadership Forum, Washington, D.C., October 1994.

Kellie Foster, "Getting Started: What It Takes to Form a Drug Court," Jim Copple, Betsy Griffith, Robin Kimbrough, and Dan Todd, "On Accessing Community Resources," at the First National Association of Drug Court Professional Training Conference, Las Vegas, Nev., January 1995.

Robin Kimbrough, "On Drugs, Violence and Drug Courts," at the First Annual Training Conference, National Association of Drug Court Professionals, January 1995.

Jack Driscoll, David Skeen, and Robin Kimbrough, "On Drug Courts," at the National Conference of Bar Presidents, ABA Mid-Year Meeting, Miami, Fla., February 1995.

Robin Kimbrough, "Building Coalitions to Improve the Justice System," to the Litigation Section at the ABA Midyear Meeting, Miami, Fla., February 8–14, 1995.

Patti Garcia and Dan Todd, "Lawyers as Volunteers in Community Anti-Drug Coalitions," at the CADCA National Leadership Forum, November 1995.

Press Kits and News Releases

Press release on White House ceremony launching of the National Drug-Free Workplace Initiative, July 24, 1992.

Print Coverage

"Real Justice? Editorial," also "Do Drug Courts Work?" in The National Law Journal, Nov. 2, 1992.

"Memphis youth drug prevention team to receive $1 million grant" in The Commercial Appeal August 13, 1992.

"District Leaders Unite Against Violence, Drugs," in The Washington Post, July 19, 1994.

"Public-Private Effort Targets Drugs, Violence," in The Washington Times, July 19, 1994.

"Drugs/Violence Attacked," in The Capitol Spotlight, July 28, 1994.

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Report prepared by: Avery Hart
Reviewed by: Richard Camer
Reviewed by: Robert Narus
Reviewed by: Molly McKaughan
Program Officer: Pauline Seitz
Program Officer: Rush Russell

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