May 2002

Grant Results

National Program

Preparing Physicians for the Future: A Program in Medical Education

SUMMARY

From 1990 to 1998, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine reshaped its curriculum to increase integration of clinical and basic science teaching, and implemented new teaching methods such as problem-based learning (PBL), standardized patients and computerized teaching.

In addition, the college established the Resource Center for Medical Education to meet the educational needs and enhance the teaching skills of faculty members. This process helped facilitate curricular innovations.

The project was part of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Preparing Physicians for the Future: A Program in Medical Education national program.

Key Results

  • The school established the Resource Center for Medical Education, consisting of a professional staff of education specialists and selected faculty noted for their interest in curriculum and expertise as teachers, to assist in faculty development.
  • The project established a Master Educator Program for recognizing and rewarding teaching excellence.
  • The school instituted closer integration between basic science and clinical teaching.
  • Project staff restructured the curriculum to include a variety of cross-disciplinary courses and clerkships.
  • The school instituted continuous reevaluation and restructuring of the curriculum.
  • The school began instruction in academic computing, along with the requirement that students purchase and use computers.
  • The school increased opportunities for learning in ambulatory and rural sites.

Funding
RWJF supported this project through two grants totaling $2,637,125.

 See Grant Detail & Contact Information
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THE PROBLEM

The University of Kentucky College of Medicine, established in 1960, had the first Department of behavioral science in a medical school, and the nation's first accelerated family practice program, which combined the fourth year of medical school with the first year of residency training. Kentucky was the first medical school to introduce PBL in the clinical years without students first having had a basic science problem-based program.

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THE PROJECT

The college used the planning grant (ID# 017242) for two main initiatives: creating a center for developing faculty enthusiasm for, interest in, and skill at teaching and designing new clinical and science curricula.

The dean and a steering committee (composed of faculty members) guided the planning process and established a total of 21 task forces. These task forces, each composed of both basic science and clinical faculty members, reviewed individual modules of the curriculum and made recommendations for changes.

Although some faculty originally expressed some hostility about PBL and the possibility of increased workload, a consensus of support evolved. When the faculty voted on the final plans for curricular change, more than 90 percent expressed approval. The school developed an evaluation component to gauge the program's institutional effectiveness and the impact of curricular revision.

For the implementation grant (ID# 019643), the project's goals were:

  • Better integration between basic science and clinical teaching.
  • Better communication and integration of curricular content.
  • Continuous re-evaluation and restructuring of the clinical curriculum.
  • Emphasis on and fostering of independent active life-long learning skills.
  • Increased learning by students in ambulatory and rural sites.
  • Development of programs to improve teaching skills.
  • Establishment of programs for recognizing and rewarding teaching excellence.

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RESULTS

  • The school established the Resource Center for Medical Education, consisting of a professional staff of education specialists and selected faculty noted for their interest in curriculum and expertise as teachers, to assist in faculty development. Through the center, the college developed a core of "master teachers" who served as resource personnel for their departments. The center was critical in the first phase of faculty development, particularly given the number of faculty that needed to be trained in the PBL method.
  • The project established a Master Educator Program for recognizing and rewarding teaching excellence. Through a process that included self-identification, departmental nomination, and evaluation by a group of peer educators, the program identified faculty who had achieved milestones in teaching, leadership, innovation, evaluation, and faculty development. Ongoing teaching awards were given out, and an academic year convocation ceremony was introduced to further reinforce attention given to teaching excellence.
  • The school instituted closer integration between basic science and clinical teaching. For every basic science course, the school instituted an accompanying clinical exercise. Resource sessions utilizing health care professionals from multiple disciplines have been integrated into the Patients, Physicians, and Society course, connecting students with the course's real-world applications. A one-week primary care preceptorship was introduced into the first year.
  • Project staff restructured the curriculum to include a variety of cross-disciplinary courses and clerkships. The restructuring enhanced communication among course directors and integrated the curriculum. In integrated clerkships, key teaching occurs with students on different clerkships learning together and faculty from different disciplines participating in the teaching. PBL situations were used in clerkships, and standardized patients (i.e., actors who pose as patients presenting a set of standardized symptoms) were used in both clinical and basic science courses.
  • The school instituted continuous reevaluation and restructuring of the curriculum. A triennial review process, which includes course review by members of the curriculum committee, medical students, course leadership, and faculty, was put into place.
  • The school began instruction in academic computing, along with the requirement that students purchase and use computers. The curriculum includes use of the World Wide Web and other information sources. Telemedicine and other distance learning modalities are being used, especially when linking students on rural rotations. Active learning initiatives included heavier use of writing exercises and independent research activities, and particular emphasis in working with healthcare professionals other than physicians.
  • The school increased opportunities for learning in ambulatory and rural sites. All students were required to participate in at least eight weeks of clinical training in Area Health Education Centers, a system that connects the academic health education programs at the University of Kentucky and the University of Louisville with medically underserved communities throughout the state. In addition, a twelve-week primary care clerkship integrates ambulatory experiences in family practice, internal medicine, and pediatrics.

Principal Problems

The project director reported the following principal problems to RWJF:

  • Faculty resistance to new modes of course and faculty evaluation was greater than anticipated.
  • External factors — particularly the pressure on faculty to focus on patient service — impeded the reform effort.

(For lessons learned by the sites in the PBL, see Lessons Learned.)

Communications

Key communication activities during the implementation grant period included more than 20 presentations at regional and national levels, more than 110 abstracts and articles published in a variety of specialty and medical education journals, as well as other instructional activities. (For a listing of publications, see the site's Bibliography.)

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AFTER THE GRANT

Funds from the dean of the College of Medicine has allowed continuation of major key elements of grant supported activities, including support of a centralized curriculum consultant support staff, an Academic Computing in Medical Education Center (to facilitate student learning with computers), and testing and evaluation activities.

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GRANT DETAILS & CONTACT INFORMATION

Project

Preparing Physicians for the Future, University of Kentucky

Grantee

University of Kentucky Research Foundation (Lexington,  KY)

  • Amount: $ 148,524
    Dates: September 1990 to February 1992
    ID#:  017242

  • Amount: $ 2,488,601
    Dates: March 1992 to August 1998
    ID#:  019643

Contact

Emery A. Wilson, M.D.
(859) 323-5567
ewilson@pop.uky.edu

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Current as of date of this report; as provided by grantee organization; not verified by RWJF; items not available from RWJF.)

Articles

Donnelly MB, Sisson JC, and Woolliscroft J. "The Reliability of a Hypothesis Generation and Testing Task." Medical Education, 24: 507–11, 1990.

Haist SA, Nash PP, Elam CL, and Rich EC. "Attitudes and characteristics of Internal Medicine Faculty Teaching Physical Diagnosis." Clinical Research, 38: 728A, 1990.

Kaplan C, Elam CL, and Fosson SE. "A Learner Centered Curriculum in Medical Interviewing." Teaching and. Learning Medicine, 2: 161, 165, 1990.

Nash PP, Wilson EA, Wilson HD, and Schwartz RW. "Administrative and Educational Perspectives on Problem-Based Learning in a Third Year Surgical Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 65(Suppl.): S62, 1990.

Richardson DR. "A Survey of Students' Notions of Body Functions as Teleologic or Mechanistic." American Journal of Physiology, 258: S8–10, 1990.

Rubeck RF. "The Interactive Videodisc in Healthcare." Academic Medicine, 65: 624, 1990.

Collins TR, Goldenberg K, Ring A, Nelson K, and Konen J. "The Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine's Recommendations for Postgraduate Education in Prevention." Academic Medicine, 66: 317–320, 1991.

Jarecky RK, Schwartz RW, Haley JV, and Donnelly MB. "Stability of Medical Specialty Selection: The University of Kentucky Experience." Academic Medicine, 66: 756–761, 1991.

Jones RO, Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, and Nash PP. "The Ongoing Development of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum in a Surgical Clerkship." Focus on Surgical Education, 8: 12–13, 1991.

Nash PP, Schwartz RW, Middleton JL, Witte FM, and Young AB. "A Student-Centered, Problem-Based Surgery Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 66: 415–417, 1991.

Rubeck RF. "Hypertext Programs for Computer-Assisted Learning." Academic Medicine, 66: 193, 1991.

Schwartz RW. "Commentary on 'Problem-Based Learning in a Surgery Clerkship: The Student Perspective.'" Medical Teaching, 13: 295–298, 1991.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Nash Pp, and Young AB. "Interrelationships Between Knowledge and Performance-Based Testing in a Surgery Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 66(suppl): S19–21, 1991.

Schwartz RW, Middleton JL, Nash PP, Witte FM, and Young AB. "The History of Developing a Student-Centered Problem-Based Surgical Clerkship." Teaching and Learning Medicine, 3: 38–44, 1991.

Schwartz RW, Nash PP, Middleton JL, Witte FM, Weeks LE, and Young AB. "Problem-Based Learning in the Surgery Clerkship: A Change in Philosophy." Focus on Surgical Education, 8: 16, 1991.

Sisson JC, Donnelly MB, Hess GE, and Woolliscroft JO. "The Characteristic of Early Diagnostic Hypotheses Generated by Physicians (experts) and Students (novices) at One Medical School." Academic Medicine, 66: 607–612, 1991.

Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, Rubeck RF, and Schwartz RW. "Performance-Based Testing in Medical Education." Current Surgery, 49: 566–572, 1992.

Drake D, Donnelly MB, Mayo P, and Schwartz RW. "Faculty Evaluation of Problem-Based Learning in a Surgery Clerkship." Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 1992

Engelberg JE. "A Program of Integrative Humanistic Study for Medical Students." Academic Medicine, 67: 455–456, 1992.

Engelberg JE. "Complex Medical Case Histories as Portals to Medical Practice and Integrative, Scientific Thought." American Journal of Physiology, 263: S45–S54, 1992.

Kearl GW, Mainous AG, and Harrel PL. "Relationship Between Medical Student Tolerance of Ambiguity and Selection of a Practice Site." Academic Medicine, 67: 375–377, 1992.

Mayo WP, Donnelly MB, Nash PP, and Schwartz RW. "Characteristics of the Effective Tutor in a Problem-Based Surgery Clerkship." Focus on Surgical Education, 9: 16–17, 1992.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Nash PP, Johnson SB, Young AB, and Griffen WO. "Problem-Based Learning: An Effective Educational Method for a Surgery Clerkship." Journal of Surgical Research, 53: 326–330, 1992.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Nash PP, and Young AB. "Developing Students' Cognitive Skills in a Problem-Based Surgery Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 67: 694–696, 1992.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Young AB, Nash PP, Witte FM, and Griffen WO. "Undergraduate Surgical Education for the Twenty-First Century." Annals of Surgery, 216: 639–647, 1992.

Schwartz RW, Nash PP, Middleton JL, Witte FM, Weeks LE, and Young AB. "Problem-Based Learning in the Surgery Clerkship: A Change in Philosophy." Journal of Clinical Anatomy, 5: 69–77. 1992.

Caudill TS; Johnson MM, and Rich EC. "Resident Attitudes Toward and Use of Original Research Literature." Clinical Research, 40: 555A, 1993.

Caudill TS, Johnson MM, and Rich EC. "The Effect of Journal Club on Medicine Resident Interaction with Original Research Literature." Clinical Research, 41: 816A, 1993.

Donnelly MB, Mayo WP, Drake DB, and Schwartz RW. "Faculty Evaluation of Problem-Based Learning in a Surgical Clerkship." Focus on Surgery Education, 10: 13–15, 1993.

Elam CL, Johnson MM, and Johnson R. "Students' Premedical Preparations and Academic Performances in Medical School and Residency." Academic Medicine, 68: 229–230, 1993.

Griffith CH, Haist SA, Wilson JF, and Rich EC. "The Relationship of House Staff Knowledge of Their Patients' Social History and Evaluation by Attendings, Nurses, and Standardized Patients." Clinical Research, 41: 818A, 1993.

Griffith CH, Rich EC, and Wilson JF. "Housestaff Knowledge of Their Patent's Social History." Clinical Research, 41: 577A, 1993.

Haist SA, Elam CL, Nash PP, et al. "Physical Diagnosis Courses: A Survey of Coordinators." Clinical Research, 41: 558A, 1993.

Haist SA, Nash PP, Elam CL, and Rich EC. "Teaching in a Physical Diagnosis Course: Identifying Faculty Characteristics and Motivational Factors." Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 5: 72–76, 1993.

Haist SA, Wilson JF, Fosson SE, and Mayo PL. "Are Fourth Year Medical Students Effective Teachers of the Physical Examination to First Year Medical Students?" Clinical Research, 41: 818A, 1993.

Harrell PL, Kearl GW, Reed EL, Grigsby DG, and Caudill TS. "Medical Students' Confidence and the Characteristics of Their Clinical Experiences in a Primary Care Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 68: 577–579, 1993.

Jones RO, Donnelly MB, Nash PP, Young AB, and Schwartz RW. "The Ongoing Development of a Problem-Based Surgery Clerkship: Year Three." Medical Teacher, 15: 207–215, 1993.

Kearl GW and Mainous AG. "Physicians' Productivity and Teaching Responsibilities." Academic Medicine, 68: 166–167, 1993.

Peck D, Murphy AE, Rubeck RF, and Zegeer L. "Comparison of Subjective Multipoint Course Evaluations By Students with an Objective Evaluation By One of the Colleges for Which This Course is Critical." Clinical Anatomy, 6: 374, 1993.

Ramsbottom-Lucier M and Rich EC. "Nontraditional Medical Students — A Potential Source of Primary Care Physicians." Clinical Research, 41: 548A, 1993.

Schwartz RW, Burgett JE, and Donnelly MB. "An Overview of the Clinical Reasoning Process and its Relationship to Problem-Based Learning." Current Surgery, 50: 66–70, 1993.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Drake DB, and Sloan DA. "Faculty Sensitivity in Detecting Medical Students' Clinical Competence." Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 16: B87, 1993.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Mayo WP, and Strodel WE. "Problem-Based Learning: A Formal Curriculum for Postgraduate Surgical Education." Current Surgery, 50: 285–290, 1993.

Sloan DA, Donnelly MB, Johnson SB, Schwartz RW, and Strodel WE. "The Use of an Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to Measure Improvement in Clinical Competence During the Surgical Internship." Surgery, 114: 343–351, 1993.

Vasconez HC, Donnelly MB, Mayo WP, and Schwartz RW. "Student Perceptions of the Effectiveness of a Surgery Problem-Based Curriculum." Academic Medicine, 68: S28–30, 1993.

Blue AV, Schwartz RW, and DeSimone PA. "Combined Third-Year Medicine and Surgery Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 69: 417–8, 1994.

Donnelly MB, Miller R, Rubeck RF, Drake DB, Sloan DA, and Schwartz RW. "Patterns of Choice Behavior in a Clinical Problem Solving Task." Interdisciplinarian, 57: 613–617, 1994.

Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, Schwartz RW, and Strodel WE. "Assessing the Clinical Competence of General Surgery Residents." Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 17: B85, 1994.

Haydon RC, Donnelly MB, Schwartz RW, Strodel WE, and Jones RO. "Use of Standardized Patients to Identify Deficits in Student Performance and Curriculum Effectiveness." American Journal of Surgery, 168: 57–64, 1994.

Mayo WP, Donnelly MB, and Schwartz RW. "The Difference in Instructional Skills Between Preceptors and Problem-Based Learning Tutors in Medical Education." Focus on Surgery Education, 11: 20–23, 1994.

Ramsbottom-Lucier M, Gillmore G, Irby D, and Ramsey P. "Evaluation of Clinical Teaching By General Internal Medicine Faculty in Outpatient and Inpatient Settings." Academic Medicine, 69: 152–154, 1994.

Schwartz RW, Barclay J, Harrell PL, Murphy AE, Jarecky RK, and Donnelly MB. "Defining the Surgical Personality: A Preliminary Study." Surgery, 115: 62–68, 1994.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, Johnson SB, and Strodel WE. "Measuring Surgical Intern Performance: The Relationship Between Faculty Ward Evaluations, OSCE and ABSITE." Focus on Surgery Education, 11: 26, 1994.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, Johnson SB, and Strodel WE. "Assessing Senior Residents' Knowledge and Performance: An Integrated Evaluation Program." Surgery, 116: 634–640, 1994.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, and Young AB. "Knowledge Gain in a Problem-Based Surgery Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 69: 148–151, 1994.

Sloan DA, Donnelly MB, Johnson SB, Schwartz RW, and Strodel WE. "Assessing the Interpersonal Skills of Surgical Residents and Medical Students." Journal of Surgical Research, 57: 613–618, 1994.

Sloan DA, Donnelly MB, Schwartz RW, Johnson SB, and Strodel WE. "The OSCE as a Test of Residents' Clinical Competence: Acceptability, Feasibility, and Cost." Focus on Surgery Education, 11: 28, 1994.

Sloan DA, Donnelly MB, Schwartz RW, Johnson SB, and Strodel WE. "The OSCE as a Test of Residents' Clinical Competence: Acceptability, Feasibility, and Cost." Current Surgery, 51: 559–566, 1994.

Sloan DA, Schwartz RW, and Donnelly MB. "Assessing the Problem-Based Learning Clerkship: The Rational For and Costs of a Multidimensional Assessment Program." Medical Teacher, 16: 11–18, 1994.

Tieman JG and Rubeck RF. "The Digital Lecture in Medical Education." Academic Medicine, 69: 410–411, 1994.

Caudill TS, Johnson MS, and Rich EC. "The Need for Curricula in Evidence-Based Medicine." Academic Medicine, 70: 746–747, 1995.

Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, Nash PP, and Schwartz RW. "Characteristics of Students' Peer Evaluations." FOCUS, 13: 34, 1995.

Elam CL, Wilson HD, Wilson EA, and Schwartz RW. "Physicians for the 21st Century: Implications for Medical Practice, Undergraduate Preparation, and Medical Education." The Advisor, 15: 38–43, 1995.

Griffith CH, Haist SA, Wilson JF, and Rich EC. "Do Housestaff Interview Standardized Patients Differently from Real Ones?" Academic Medicine, 70: 1060–1061, 1995.

Griffith CH, Rich EC, and Wilson JF. "Housestaff Knowledge of Their Patient's Social History." Academic Medicine, 70: 646, 1995.

Mayo WP, Donnelly MB, and Schwartz RW. "Characteristics of the Ideal Problem-Based Learning Tutor in Clinical Medicine." Evaluation & the Health Professions, 18: 124–136, 1995.

Richardson DR and Birge B. "Teaching Physiology by Combined Passive (Pedagogical) and Active (Andragogical) Methods." Advances in Physiology Education, 13: S66–74, 1995.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, Johnson SB, and Strodel WE. "Measuring Surgical Intern Performance: The Relationship Between Faculty Ward Evaluations, OSCE, and ABSITE as Measures of Surgical Intern Performance." American Journal of Surgery, 169: 414–417, 1995.

Sloan DA, Donnelly MB, Schwartz RW, and Strodel WE. "The Objective Structured Clinical Examination: The New Gold Standard for Evaluating Postgraduate Clinical Performance." Annals of Surgery, 222: 735–742, 1995.

Sloan DA, Donnelly MB, Zweng TN, Lieber A, Yu G, Griffith CH, Schwartz RW, and Strodel WE. "The Structured Clinical Instruction Module (SCIM): A Novel Strategy for Improving the Instruction of Clinical Skills." Journal of Surgical Research, 58: 605–610, 1995.

Sloan DA, Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, and Drake DB. "Faculty Sensitivity in Detecting Medical Students' Clinical Competence." Medical Teacher, 17: 335–342, 1995.

Blue AV, Griffith CH, and Schwartz RW. "The Development of a Joint Clerkship Sponsored by Two Departments: Lessons Learned." Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 8: 116–123, 1996.

Blue AV, DeGnore LT, and Schwartz RW. "Developing a Clinical Problem-Based Learning Curriculum." Focus on Surgical Education, 13(3): 17–18, 1996.

Caudill TS and Ramsbottom-Lucier M. "Psychiatric and Psychosocial Skills Training for Internal Medicine Residents." Academic Medicine, 71: 557, 1996.

Griffith CH, Haist SA, Wilson JF, and Rich EC. "Housestaff Social History Knowledge: Correlation With Evaluation of Interpersonal Skills." Evaluation and the Health Professions, 19: 81–90, 1996.

Griffith CH, Blue AV, Mainous AG, and DeSimone PA. "House Staff Attitudes Toward Problem-Based Learning Curriculum in an Internal Medicine Clerkship." Medical Teacher, 18: 133–134, 1996.

Haist SA, Griffith CH, and Wilson JF. "Criterion-Based Evaluation in a Third-Year Internal Medicine Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 71: 550–551, 1996.

Haist SA, Wilson JF, and Brigham NL. "Fourth-Year Students as Teachers of the Physical Examination." Academic Medicine, 71: 520, 1996.

Ramsbottom-Lucier M, Martin DP, Carline JD, Shannon NF, and Ramsey PG. "Influence of an Office-Based Internal Medicine Clerkship on Selection of Primary Care Training Program: A Five Year Experience." Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 8: 200–207, 1996.

Richardson DR. "Challenges Facing Undergraduate, Graduate and Medical Physiology Teachers: Are They the Same?" The Physiologist, 39: 289, 1996.

Schwartz RW, Blue AV, and Griffith CH. "Structure of a Combined Medicine-Surgery Clerkship." Medical Teacher, 118: 115–118, 1996.

Sloan DA, Donnelly MB, and Schwartz RW. "The Surgical Clerkship: Characteristics of the Effective Surgical Preceptor." Medical Education, 30: 18–23, 1996.

Sloan D, Donnelly MB, Schwartz RW, Felts J, Blue AV, and Strodel W. "The Use of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for Evaluation and Instruction in Graduate Medical Education." Journal of Surgical Research, 63(1): 225–230, 1996.

Blue AV, Schwartz RW, and Strodel W. "The Departmental Orientation for Interns." Focus on Surgical Education, 14(2): 18–19, 1997.

Elam CL, Andrykowski MA, and Wilson EA. "Academic Medicine Concerns of Basic Science and Clinical Departments: Using the Nominal Group Technique in Preparation for Strategic Planning." Higher Education Management, 9(1): 105–116, 1997.

Elam CL and Johnson MMS. "The Effect of a Rolling Admission Policy on a Medical School's Selection of Applicants." Academic Medicine, 71(7): 644–646, 1997.

Griffith CH, Hillson SD, Wilson JF, and Rich EC. "Internal Medicine Residency Training and Patient Outcomes: A Review." Journal of General Internal Medicine, 12: 390–396, 1997.

Griffith CH, Sloan DA, Blue AV, Donnelly MB, and Schwartz RW. "Patient-Encounter Clinical Skills Workshop to Supplement the Internal Medicine Clerkship." Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 9: 228–232, 1997.

Griffith CH, Wilson JF, and Rich EC. "Intern Call Structure and Patient Satisfaction." Journal of General Internal Medicine, 12: 308–310, 1997.

Griffith CH, Wilson JF, Haist SA, and Ramsbottom-Lucier M. "Relationships of How Well Attending Physicians Teach to Their Students' Performance and Residency Choices." Academic Medicine, Suppl.: S118–120, 1997.

Haist SA, Norcini JJ, Monroe AL, and Thompson JS. "The Utility of Subjective Evaluations of Internal Medicine Housestaff to Evaluate Clinical Competency." Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 9: 174–180, 1997.

Haist SA, Wilson JF, Fosson SE, and Brigham NL. "Are Fourth-Year Medical Students Effective Teachers of the Physical Examination to First-Year Medical Students?" Journal of General Internal Medicine, 12: 177–181, 1997.

Kwolek CJ, Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, Birrell SN, Strodel WE, and Schwartz RW. "Ward Evaluations: Should They Be Abandoned?" Journal of Surgical Research, 69: 1–6, 1997.

Schwartz RW, Burgett J, Donnelly MB, Blue AV, and Sloan DA. "Problem-Based Learning and Performance-Based Testing: Effective Alternatives for Undergraduate Surgical Education and Assessment of Student Performance." Medical Teacher, 19(1): 15–18, 1997.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Arden WA, Sloan DA, Blue A, and Strodel WE. "Predicting the Technical Skills of Surgical Interns." Current Surgery, 54: 213–217, 1997.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Blue AV, Sloan DA, Nash PP, and Mayo WP. "Students' Use of Time in a Problem-Based Learning Surgery Clerkship." Medical Teacher, 19(1): 15–18, 1997.

Schwartz RW, Donnelly MB, Sloan DA, and Strodel WE. "Residents' Evaluation of a Problem-Based Surgery Clerkship." Medical Teacher, 19: 15–18, 1997.

Schwartz RW, Sloan DA, Griffen WO Jr, Bland KI, Rhodes RS, and Strodel WE. "The Necessity, Practicality and Feasibility of Modern Educational Methods for Residency Training: Economic and Governing Body Perspective: The 1994 Association for Academic Surgery Panel on Education." Current Surgery, 54: 261–269, 1997.

Tieman JG, Rubeck RF, and MacPherson BR. "Development of a Web-Based Template for a Digital Curriculum." FASEB Journal (Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology), 11(3): A659, 1997.

Tieman JG, MacPherson BR, and Rubeck RF. "Development of a Web-Based Template for Course Materials." SGEA (Southern Group on Educational Affairs Southern Group on Educational Affairs), 12: A103, 1997.

Blue AV, Griffith CH, Stratton T, DeGnore LT, Haist SA, and Schwartz RW. "Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary Medicine-Surgery Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 73: 806–808, 1998.

Blue AV, Stratton T, Donnelly MB, Nash PP, and Schwartz RW. "Students' Communication Apprehension and its Effects on PBL Performance." Medical Teacher, 20: 217–221, 1998.

Blue AV, Stratton TD, Plymale M, DeGnore L, Schwartz RW, and Sloan DA. "The Effectiveness of the Structured Clinical Instruction Module." The American Journal of Surgery, 176: 67–70, 1998.

Griffith CH, Wilson JF, Haist SA, and Ramsbottom-Lucier M. "Do the Students Who Work with Better Housestaff in Their Medicine Clerkship Learn More?" Academic Medicine, 73(10): Suppl.:S57–S59, 1998.

Griffith CH, Wilson JF, and Rich EC. "The Effect at One Teaching Hospital of Interns' Workload on the Satisfaction of Their Patients." Academic Medicine, 73: 427–429, 1998.

Griffith CH, Wilson JF, and Rich EC. "A Randomized Trail of Providing Housestaff with Patient Social History Information: Effect on Patient Outcomes." Evaluation and Health Professions, 21: 362–376, 1998.

Griffith CH, Haist SA, Blue AV. "An Interdisciplinary Clinical Performance Examination for a Third-Year Combined Medical-Surgery Clerkship." Academic Medicine, 73: 597, 1998.

Haist SA, Wilson JF, Brigham NL, Fosson SE, and Blue AV. "Comparing Fourth-Year Medical Students with Faculty in the Teaching of Physical Examination Skills to First-Year Medical Students." Academic Medicine, 73: 198–200, 1998.

Haist SA, Blue AV, Wilson JF, and Brigham NL. "A First-Year Primary Care Experience for First-Year Medical Students: Is It a Positive Experience?" Medical Teacher, 20: 378–379, 1998.

Kwolek DS, Blue AV, Griffith CH, Wilson JF, and Haist GA. "Gender Differences in Clinical Evaluation: Narrowing the Gap with Women's Health Clinical Skills Workshops." Academic Medicine. 73(10 Suppl.): S88–S90, 1998.

Schwartz RW, Witzke DB, Donnelly MB, Stratton T, Blue AV, and Sloan DA. "Assessing Residents' Clinical Performance: Cumulative Results of a Four-Year Study Using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)." Surgery, 124: 307–312, 1998.

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Report prepared by: Paul Mantell
Reviewed by: Susan Parker
Reviewed by: Robert Crum
Program Officer: Leighton Cluff
Program Officer: Lewis Sandy
Program Officer: Richard Reynolds
Program Officer: Annie Lea Shuster
Evaluation Officer: Beth Stevens

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