Interventions that target stress reduction, particularly among disadvantaged groups, must focus on structural inequalities and resources that lessen the effects of stress.
Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe created the Social Readjustment Rating Scale to measure the impact of major life events. For instance, they rated the death of a spouse as causing the most drastic adjustment in an individual’s daily life. In the scale, spousal death carried 100 life change units on a scale of 0 to 100. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale led to hundreds of sociological studies of how stress affects physical and mental health.
Research subsequent to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale found that more negative events during a given period of time increased the likelihood that an individual would suffer an injury, illness, disability or death. Researchers, however, also found that psychological and social factors were acting as a buffer, lessening the effects of stress.
In this article, the author details sociological work that: 1) investigated various types of stressors; 2) described the distributions of stressors across sociodemographic groups; and 3) examined associations between stressful experiences and health differences by gender, age, race-ethnicity, marital status and socioeconomic status.
- In the general population exposure to stress is unequally distributed, contributing to disparities in physical and psychological well-being.
- Discrimination stress damages the physical and mental health of minorities.
- Stress in one area of life has a ripple effect, creating stress in other areas throughout life. Stress can pass from parents to children.
This article from a Journal of Health and Social Behavior supplement presents five key findings in sociological stress research. The author emphasizes the cumulative effects of stress; stress has a more severe effect on disadvantaged groups.
- 1. Reflections on Fifty Years of Medical Sociology
- 2. Understanding Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Health
- 3. Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Health Inequalities
- 4. Stress and Health
- 5. Social Relationships and Health
- 6. The Social Construction of Illness
- 7. Examining Critical Health Policy Issues Within and Beyond the Clinical Encounter
- 8. The Continued Social Transformation of the Medical Profession
- 9. Medical Sociology and Health Services Research
- 10. Medical Sociology and Technology
- 11. Bioethics, Raw and Cooked
- 12. Sociology of Health Care Reform
RWJF examines the types of competitive foods - foods and beverages schools offer outside of meal programs - available in our nation's school...
Recent studies have demonstrated a connection between low-socioeconomic status and poor health in children. This study builds upon previous ...
This study examined the impact that race has on the prevalence of self-reported diabetes for Hispanic and non-Hispanic people. Data from the...
In this article, the authors consider the social, structural and symbolic effects of the recent and rapid spread of legal gambling in the Un...
Immigrants and their children are one of the fastest growing components of the U.S. population. One in five Americans under the age of 18 is...
Most studies investigating links between social capital and health have relied on work by Robert Putnam who conceptualized social capital as...
The present article considered cardiovascular patients' adherence to physicians' medication recommendations. Nonadherence was defined as fol...
This study examined the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children in the United States. Also of interest ...
The current article explored risk factors for iron deficiency for toddlers in the United States with a focus on Hispanic toddlers. Data from...
The research presented in this article compared the density and concentration of pro-tobacco media messages in African-American and White ma...
This article describes efforts to use information on influenza burden and vaccine efficacy to estimate how influenza vaccine recommendations...