Certain environments and genetic factors affect some people in different ways than they affect others. Gene–environment (G×E) research is looking to integrate both biologic and social sciences using their approaches, data, and models to better understand how and why certain individuals are resilient to stressors and others are not. This interdisciplinary path has the potential to help address the challenge of causal inference in G×E research.
The authors highlight three research designs that could be used in G×E interaction research through the integration of the social and biological sciences, “where both sides bring important expertise to the table.”
This essay provides examples of research designs that would be beneficial for G×E interaction research. The data examples come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health and from the Fragile Families Study.