Food systems influence health and contribute to health disparities in the United States. Community factors such as access to supermarkets and famers’ markets, as well as broad social, economic and political forces, affect the food choices individuals make and can lead to disparities in health.
The authors use a new conceptual model to illustrate the complex dynamic and multifaceted relationships between food systems and health disparities. They present a review of the literature, organized according to the model’s framework:
- Broad Food System—food supply (what is produced and how); availability, price and food assistance; and food and beverage marketing.
- Community Food System—stores and farmers’ markets; restaurants and the link between fast food and obesity; school and workplace cafeteria choices; and community-level policy approaches.
- Other Social Factors—traditions, cultural identity and food choices; availability of time to cook healthy foods; and perceptions of “good food” as being healthy, green, fair and affordable.
- Food Production Exposures—environmental and health threats associated with agriculture and food processing.
The authors identify specific areas for further research on how food system interventions can address and reduce health disparities.
- 1. Food Systems and Public Health
- 2. Aligning Food Systems Policies to Advance Public Health
- 3. Principles for Framing a Healthy Food System
- 4. Today's Food System
- 5. Food Systems and Public Health Disparities
- 6. Reshaping the Food System for Ecological Public Health
- 7. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis
- 8. US-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets
- 9. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture
- 10. Agriculture Policy is Health Policy
- 11. Recipe for a Better Tomorrow
- 12. Affordability and Obesity
- 13. Places to Intervene to Make Complex Food Systems More Healthy, Green, Fair, and Affordable
- 14. Research and Action Priorities for Linking Public Health, Food Systems, and Sustainable Agriculture