From 1995 to 2000, a team at Harvard Medical School investigated racial differences in access to kidney transplants in patients with end-stage renal disease (kidney failure). The investigators studied racial differences in clinically appropriate referrals for kidney transplants and the role of patient and physician attitudes in the use of kidney transplants.
The team developed criteria for the appropriateness of kidney transplants, examined medical records of and surveyed patients with end-stage renal disease, and surveyed physicians who cared for these patients.
As reported in "Racial Disparities in Access to Renal Transplantation: Clinically Appropriate or Due to Underuse or Overuse?" (New England Journal of Medicine, 2000):
As reported in "The Effect of Patients' Preferences on Racial Differences in Access to Renal Transplantation" (New England Journal of Medicine, 1999):
As reported in "Physicians' Beliefs about Racial Differences in Referral for Renal Transplantation" (American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 2004):