The research presented in this article compared the density and concentration of pro-tobacco media messages in African-American and White markets. Density refers to the number of tobacco messages divided by the total market population. Concentration is the number of tobacco messages divided by the overall number of messages. A review and meta-analysis of 11 articles that met study criteria was conducted. Tobacco messages in the studies were either on billboards or in magazines.
- The pooled concentration of tobacco advertisements in African-American markets was 22 percent as compared to 15.5 percent in White markets, yielding a pooled difference of 6.7 percent.
- The pooled odds ratio for smoking-related billboards in African-American markets as compared to White markets was 1.7.
- In terms of pooled density of tobacco advertisements, an 11.8/10,000 pooled density existed for African Americans compared to a 4.5/10,000 pooled density for Whites. The resultant pooled ratio of billboard density for African Americans as compared to Whites was 2.6.
- Magazine data did not yield enough information for analysis.