From 1995 to 1998, researchers at the Urban Institute conducted a study of the District of Columbia's 11 major acute-care facilities, focusing also on the Medicaid system and long-term care for the elderly.
The research team also explored the factors contributing to the local health care problems and provided guidance to policy-makers on how to facilitate change.
The Urban Institute, based in Washington, is nonprofit, nonpartisan economic and social policy research organization.
Two major factors were found to contribute to the financial woes:
The study warned that some hospitals might be forced to close, making it even harder for the uninsured to find care.