Dec 18 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: December 18

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Youth Smoking Rates Reach Record Lows in 2013
Overall youth smoking declined significantly in 2013, and smoking rates fell to record lows for all three grades surveyed (grades 8, 10 and 12), according to the Monitoring the Future survey released annually by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. For all three grades combined, the percentage of students who reported smoking cigarettes in the past month fell from 10.6 percent in 2012 to 9.6 percent in 2013. The data is based on annual surveys of 40,000 to 50,000 students in about 400 different secondary schools. Read more on tobacco.

WHO and UNICEF Vaccinating Millions of Children in the Middle East Against Polio
The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF are mounting the largest-ever immunization response in the Middle East, with a goal of vaccinating more than 23 million children against polio in Syria and neighboring countries over the next few weeks. The campaign is in response to an outbreak of polio in Syria, where 17 cases have so far been confirmed, and to the detection of the virus in sewage in other parts of the Middle East.

The campaign plans to vaccinate all children under age 5 in the targeted areas in the next few months, whether they are living at home or displaced by conflict. The vaccinations will be given at set sites or by workers going house to house, and the campaign will be carried out by national and local health authorities supported by UNICEF, WHO, the Syrian Arab Red Crescent and other partners. The total cost to UNICEF and WHO through April 2014 will be $39 million.

Prior to this outbreak, no polio cases have been recorded in Syria since 1999. The risk of spread to countries in the region and beyond is considered high, and health authorities from 21 countries have declared a public health emergency. Genetically-related polioviruses, which originated in Pakistan, were found in sewage samples in Egypt in December 2012 and in Israel in the West Bank and Gaza earlier in 2013. According to WHO, immunization activities have been significantly constrained in Syria in the past few months by the ongoing conflict, which has led to 500,000 to 700,000 children missing vaccinations.

Editor’s Note: NewPublicHealth also spoke with Sona Bari, WHO's senior communications officer, about the efforts underway to eradicate polio globally. The interview will run later today.

Read more on global health.

CDC Expects TB Test Shortage to Ease
Supplies of tuberculin skin tests are expected to return to normal in January, following shortages that health providers have been experiencing since 2012, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Two tests are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to detect tuberculosis and diagnose active illness: Tubersol, made by Sanofi Pasteur Limited; and Aplisol, produced by JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC. Shortages were first reported for Tubersol, which was out of production from late 2012 through April 2013, increasing the demand for Aplisol. In August, a CDC survey found 29 of 52 U.S. jurisdictions were reporting a shortage of at least one of the tests. Read more on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Epidemic of E. coli Infections Traced to One Strain of Bacteria
In the past decade, a single strain of E. coli, has become the main cause of bacterial infections in women and the elderly by invading the bladder and kidneys, according to a study published in the American Society for Microbiology's journal mBio. Besides becoming more resistant to antibiotics, the H30-Rx strain gained an unprecedented ability to spread from the urinary tract to the blood, leading to sepsis and posing a threat to the more than 10 million Americans who annually suffer from urinary tract infections. The study authors say the new findings could help trace the history of the “superbug” and possibly lead to the development of a vaccine. Read more on infectious disease.

Tags: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Global Health, Infectious disease, News roundups, Public health, Vaccines