Public Health News Roundup: October 15
Even Low Levels of Air Pollution Tied to Low Birth Weights
Even low levels of pollution can increase the risk of low-birth weight babies, according to a new study in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. Researchers analyzed data on more than 74,000 women in 12 European countries, finding that all types of air pollution were linked to both increased risk of low birth weights and smaller average head circumference at birth. The determined that every increase of 5 micrograms per cubic meter (mcg/m3) of fine particulate matter also increases the risk of low birth weight by 18 percent. The European Union’s current regulations call for a limit of 25 mcg/m3, but the study found the risk is still there at limits below this threshold; lowering it to the World Health Organization's guideline of 10 mcg/m3 could prevent as many as 22 percent of the cases. "Our findings suggest that a substantial proportion of cases of low birth weight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution—particularly fine particulate matter—was reduced," said lead author Marie Pedersen, MD, from the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Barcelona, Spain. Read more on infant and maternal health.
Regular Exercise Can Boost Sperm Count, Improve Odds of Conception
Regular exercise—especially done outdoors—may boost a man’s sperm count and improve the odds of conception, according to a new study to be presented at the International Federation of Fertility Societies and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in Boston. Researchers found that men who spent about an hour a day exercising had a 48 percent higher concentration than men who spent less than one hour a week exercising. The study also found clear associations between higher sperm counts and time spent either outdoors or lifting weights. Possible explanations include higher vitamin D levels in men who spent time outdoors in the sunshine and the increased testosterone levels and insulin sensitivity that come with lifting weights. Also, contradicting popular conceptions, the study found no link between caffeine and alcohol and decreased fertility. Read more on sexual health.
Study: Hospital CEO Salaries Tied to Patient Satisfaction, Not Quality of Care
Hospital CEO salaries tend to be higher at hospitals with high patient satisfaction ratings, and does not seem on average to be linked to either their quality of care nor the benefits they offer to their communities, according to a new study in JAMA Internal Medicine. "I was hoping I'd see even some modest relationship with quality performance," said lead researcher Ashish Jha, MD. "I think we were a little disappointed." Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health analyzed data on 1,877 CEOs from 2,681 private, non-profit hospitals across the country, finding an average salary of $596,000; those in the lowest 10 percent earned about $118,000 and those in the highest earned about $1.7 million. While many different factors account for the wide range, Jha said the growing emphasis on improving quality measures suggests that the quality of care should be a factor when determining executive salaries. "If you're going to ask doctors and nurses to be accountable, if you're going to ask patients to be accountable…then I think we should make sure that everybody's in, and that senior managers of hospitals also have a stake in insuring high-quality care." Read more on access to health care.