Public Health News Roundup: July 25
Smoking During Pregnancy, Kids Behavioral Problems Linked
Women who smoked during pregnancy are more likely to have children with behavioral disorders, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Psychiatry. Researchers analyzed data from three separate studies, findings that the kids of smokers exhibited a noticeable increase in negative behaviors such as getting in fights or having difficulty paying attention. Possible explanations include being born smaller or experiencing impaired brain development. "It's illuminating the prenatal period as having an ongoing influence on outcomes," said Gordon Harold, the study's senior author from the University of Leicester in the U.K. "We're not saying life after birth is no longer relevant… Rather, both influences are clearly important." Read more on tobacco.
Study: Family History of One Cancer Type Can Also Raise the Risk of Other Tumor Types
Health care professionals already knew that people are at increased risk for developing the same type of cancer as a close relative. A new study in the journal Annals of Oncology shows that they are also at increased risk for developing cancer in general, including types of tumors dramatically different than those developed by relatives, which could provide physicians with new ways to identify cancers earlier. Previous genetic studies have shown that certain gene mutations can increase the risk of multiple types of cancer. The new findings include:
- A 1.5-fold increased risk of breast cancer in women with a history of colorectal cancer in the family.
- A 3.3-fold increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer among people who had a first-degree relative with cancer of the larynx.
- A four-fold increased risk of cancer of the esophagus among people with a first-degree relative who had oral or pharyngeal cancer.
- A 2.3-fold increased risk of ovarian cancer among those with a first-degree relative who had breast cancer.
- A 3.4-fold increased risk of prostate cancer if a first-degree relative had bladder cancer.
"These findings may help researchers and clinicians to focus on the identification of additional genetic causes of selected cancers and on optimizing screening and diagnosis, particularly in people with a family history of cancer at a young age," said study co-author Eva Negri, MD, head of the laboratory of epidemiologic methods at the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research in Milan, Italy. Read more on cancer.
Weight Discrimination Increases the Likelihood of Obesity
People who face discrimination for being overweight may be as much as two and a half times more likely to become or stay obese, according to a new study in the journal PLoS One. "Discrimination is hurtful and demeaning, and has real implications for physical health," said lead researcher Angelina Sutin, an assistant professor of psychology at Florida State University. "In the case of weight discrimination, people often rationalize that it is OK to do because it will motivate the victim to lose weight. Our findings suggest the opposite." The experience of “weightism” damages self-esteem and undermines efforts to maintain a healthy weight. Researchers said the observed increase in the likelihood of obesity was independent of factors such as age, sex, ethnicity and education. Experts say that approaches to improving the treatment of obesity could include working with patients to develop adaptive ways to cope with discrimination, public messaging campaigns to raise awareness of the negative effects of “weightism” and even working with health care professionals to ensure they are not exhibiting discriminatory behaviors which could actually damage their patients’ health. Read more on obesity.