Category Archives: Public health

Apr 1 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: April 1

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NHTSA: Rear Cameras for All New Cars by May 2018
All new vehicles under 10,000 pounds will be required to have rear visibility technology—or rear cameras—by May 2018, according to a new rule issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). According to NHTSA, the technology significantly reduces injuries and fatalities due to backover incidents; there are an average of 210 deaths and 15,000 injuries each year caused by such incidents, with children under age 5 accounting for 31 percent and adults ages 70 and older accounting for 26 percent. "Safety is our highest priority, and we are committed to protecting the most vulnerable victims of backover accidents — our children and seniors," said U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx. "As a father, I can only imagine how heart wrenching these types of accidents can be for families, but we hope that today's rule will serve as a significant step toward reducing these tragic accidents." Read more on injury prevention.

Study: Diet of Fruit, Vegetables Linked to Reduced Risk of Death
Diets heavy on fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of death at any age by as much as 42 percent, according to a new study in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Using data on the eating habits of more than 65,000 people in England from 2011 to 2013, researchers determined that the risk of death was reduced by 36 percent with five to seven portions, 29 percent with three to five portions and 14 percent with one to three portions. More specifically, they also determined that eating seven or more portions of fruits and vegetables reduced the risk of death from heart disease by 31 percent and the risk of death from cancer by 25 percent. "We all know that eating fruit and vegetables is healthy, but the size of the effect is staggering," study author Oyinlola Oyebode, at the department of epidemiology and public health of University College London, in a release. "Vegetables have a larger effect than fruit, but fruit still makes a real difference. If you're happy to snack on carrots or other vegetables, then that is a great choice but if you fancy something sweeter, a banana or any fruit will also do you good.” Read more on nutrition.

Affordable Care Act Expected to Hit Goal of Coverage for 7 Million
Despite a glitch-filled rollout of HealthCare.gov that allowed few people to enroll over the first month, the Affordable Care Act and its online portals appear to be on track to meet the original goal of enrolling 7 million people by its deadline of yesterday, March 31, according to Obama administration officials. More than 6 million had signed up for health care coverage as of last week and the run up to the deadline saw a surge that should put the total over 7 million. The administration also recently announced an extension of the enrollment deadline for Americans who had attempted to sign up for coverage but were impeded by technological problems. Read more on the Affordable Care Act.

Mar 31 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: March 31

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Study Finds Many Older Adults Often Not Prepared for Disasters
A recent University of Iowa study finds that, compared to younger adults, older adults are more vulnerable when natural disasters, hit yet most U.S. adults ages 50 and older may not be prepared for a serious flood, earthquake, tornado, or other natural disaster. The report is based on a 2010 survey that was part of the Health and Retirement Study, which collects social, economic, and health information on adults age 50 and older in the United States. The survey did not include older adults living in nursing homes or other institutional settings. Among the findings:

  • Only about one-third of the 1,304 adults interviewed said they had participated in an educational program or read information on how to prepare for a disaster.
  • Fewer than 25 percent had an emergency plan in place, although the same percentage lived alone.
  • Almost one-third reported being disabled or in fair or poor health.

“Our analysis underscores that older adults living at home often have special needs and situations that put their health and safety at risk in the face of natural disasters,” said Tala Al-Rousan, MD, the study’s primary author and a graduate student in epidemiology at the UI College of Public Health. “The oldest respondents, 80- to 90-year-olds, were significantly less prepared than 65- to 79-year-olds.”

>>NewPublicHealth will be on the ground at the 2014 Preparedness Coverage this week. Follow our coverage here.

Healthy Foods Can Increase Concession Stand Sales A new small study by researchers at the University of Iowa found that adding healthy foods to a football game concession stand appears to increase sales. The researchers asked a college club to add healthy foods such as apples and string cheese to its concession stand menu open during football season, as well as put healthier ingredients into other items including nachos and popcorn. Sales rose four percent over the previous year, and the healthier foods making up almost ten percent of sales. The study was published in the Journal of Public Health. Read more on nutrition.

Study: Gastric-Bypass Surgery Linked to Remission of Type 2 Diabetes
People who undergo gastric-bypass surgery to deal with their weight are more likely to see their type 2 diabetes go into remission without medication that are people who undergo a sleeve gastrectomy, according to a new study in the New England Journal of Medicine. "One-third [of patients] in the gastric bypass group had remission of diabetes—meaning they had normal blood sugar control—and a quarter of the people in the sleeve gastrectomy group had remission of type 2 diabetes," said study co-author Sangeeta Kashyap, MD, an endocrinologist at the Cleveland Clinic's Endocrinology & Metabolism Institute, according to HealthDay. "These effects are real, and they're persistent for at least three years. Essentially, these patients have had a vacation from diabetes for three years." The study included 150 people with type 2 diabetes, with an average age of 49 and two-thirds female. Read more on obesity.

Mar 28 2014
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2014 Preparedness Summit: Q&A with Jack Herrmann

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NewPublicHealth will be on the ground in Atlanta next week for the 2014 Preparedness Summit, an annual event since 2006 convened by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) and other partners including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Red Cross. Summit attendees include preparedness professionals working in local, state and federal government, emergency management, volunteer organizations and health care coalitions.

Goals of the summit include opportunities to connect with colleagues, share new research and learn to implement model practices that enhance capabilities to prepare for, respond to and recover from disasters and emergencies.

Additional partners include the American Hospital Association; the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO); the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH); the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE); the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL); the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR); the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the Medical Reserve Corps (MRC); the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS); the National Association of Community Health Centers (NACHC); and the Veterans Emergency Management Evaluation Center (VEMEC).

In advance of the summit, NewPublicHealth spoke with Jack Herrmann, Senior Adviser and Chief of Public Health Preparedness at NACCHO.

NewPublicHealth: What are some important issues going on in disaster preparedness in the United States right now that make the Summit especially important this year?

Jack Herrmann: There have been significant budget cuts to the ASPR Hospital Preparedness Program, and that is going to impact local and state public health departments and health care facilities pretty significantly across the country. Hopefully the summit will provide a venue to better understand what those impacts might be and allow us as a community to voice our concerns to our political leaders around the impacts of those budget cuts. It will also provide some very substantive evidence for organizations such as NACCHO , ASTHO and others to advocate on behalf of our constituents.

NPH: What are some of the key plenary talks?

Herrmann: Sheri Fink, a correspondent at The New York Times, who is also the author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning book “Five Days at Memorial” about her experience during Hurricane Katrina, will be a keynote speaker. What we’re having her do during the session is look back to her experience during Hurricane Katrina and researching what happened during that time from a health care preparedness perspective—and the lives that were lost and the issues and challenges that health care facilities faced in the aftermath of that disaster—and looking at where we are now.

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Mar 28 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: March 28

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CDC: 1 in 68 U.S. Children on Autism Spectrum
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has significantly increased its estimates of the number of U.S. children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to a new surveillance summary report, approximately 1 in 68 children—or 14.7 per 1,000 eight-year-olds—are on the spectrum. The new estimate is about 30 percent higher than previous CDC estimates. The report also found that ASD continue to be five times more common among boys than girls; more common among white children than Black of Hispanic children; and that most children are still not diagnosed until after age 4, despite the fact that ASD can be diagnosed as early as age 2. “The number of children identified with autism continues to increase and the characteristics of these children have changed over time,” said Coleen A. Boyle, PhD, MS, director of CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, in a release. “While progress has been made, there is an urgent need to continue the search for answers and provide help now for people living with autism.” Read more on pediatrics.

New Cancer Cases Dropped Slightly from 2009 to 2010
Rates of new cancer cases dropped slightly for both men and women in the United States from 2009 to 2010, according to the new U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report, Invasive Cancer Incidence—United States, 2010. The report saw the incidence rate drop to 446 per 100,000 persons from 459 per 100,000 persons. Rates varied by state, from a high of 511 to a low of 380. The rate was higher for men than it was for women, with the highest rate of all among black Americans. Read more on cancer.

HHS Releases New Security Risk Assessment Tool for Small-to-Medium-Sized Health Care Organizations
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has released a new security risk assessment (SRA) tool to help health care providers in small-to-medium sized offices conduct risk assessments of their organizations. A collaborative effort of the HHS Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) and Office for Civil Rights (OCR), the tool enables the organizations to conduct and document a thorough risk assessment at their own pace by allowing them to assess the information security risks under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule. The SRA tool’s website contains a User Guide and Tutorial video to help providers begin using the tool. Videos on risk analysis and contingency planning are available at the website to provide further context. The tool is available for both Windows and operating systems and iOS iPads. Read more on technology.

Mar 27 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: March 27

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Flu Vaccine Reduces Risk of Child’s Flu-Related ICU Hospitalization by 74 Percent
Receiving a flu vaccine dramatically reduces a child’s risk of flu-related intensive care hospitalization, according to a new study in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzed the medical records of 216 children age 6 months through 17 years admitted to 21 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the United States during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 flu seasons, finding that the a flu vaccination reduces the risk of being admitted to a PICU by 74 percent. “These study results underscore the importance of an annual flu vaccination, which can keep your child from ending up in the intensive care unit,” said Alicia Fry, MD, a medical officer in CDC’s Influenza Division. “It is extremely important that all children—especially children at high risk of flu complications—are protected from what can be a life-threatening illness." Kids younger than 5 and those with chronic medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes or developmental delays are at especially high risk of serious flu complications. Read more on influenza.

CDC Releases Expansive Salmonella Report for Researchers
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released an expansive, first-of-its kind report charting the past four decades of laboratory-confirmed surveillance data on 32 Salmonella serotypes. An Atlas of Salmonella in the United States, 1968-2011, includes data and analysis by age, sex, season and geography down to the county level. The report is available both online and in a downloadable format. Salmonella causes an estimated 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations and 450 deaths each year in the United States. “We hope these data allow researchers and others to assess what has happened and to think more about how we can reduce Salmonella infections in the future,” said Robert Tauxe, MD, deputy director of CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases. “The more we understand Salmonella, the more we can make progress in fighting it all along the farm to table chain.” Read more on research.

GlaxoSmithKline Recalling Alli Non-Prescription Weight-Loss Drug Amid Reports of Tampering
GlaxoSmithKline is working with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in recalling all supplies of its non-prescription weight-loss drug Alli in the United States and Puerto Rico, after reports that some bottles had been tampered with and may not contain authentic Alli. The drug comes in a turquoise-blue capsule, but the company has received inquiries from consumers in seven U.S. states about bottles containing a range of tablets and capsules of various shapes and colors. Read more on safety.

Mar 26 2014
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County Health Rankings 2014: Western New York

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The County Health Rankings, a joint project between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, shows how communities across the country are doing and how they can improve on their health.

One of the communities highlighted in the 2014 report is Western New York. Across eight counties, the region struggles with a depressed economy and high rates of obesity, diabetes and heart disease.

They used the County Health Rankings to better understand their challenges and look at what types of programs and initiatives would help.

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Innovative community partnerships include a Baby Café Program where moms can get breastfeeding support and connections to community resources to ensure every baby has a healthy start; a Healthy Streets initiative to create better infrastructure for a healthy community; and a Farm to School Program to support healthier schools. The fifth edition of the County Health Rankings continues to show us where we live matters to our health.

Mar 26 2014
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County Health Rankings 2014: Rockingham County, N.C.

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The County Health Rankings, a joint project between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, shows how communities across the country are doing and how they can improve on their health.

One of the communities highlighted in the 2014 report is Rockingham County, North Carolina. The community went from a wealthy county to a poor one very quickly after losing two major industries only a couple of decades ago.  

The population of about 90,000 suffers from high smoking rates, high obesity rates and high rates of smoking during pregnancy. When the 2010 County Health Rankings were released, the community's poor standing served as a wake-up call, and only a few years later the Kate B. Reynolds Charitable Trust became involved and the county started to expand the conversation, looking at health as more than simply health care access.

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Innovative community programs include the Virtual Farmer's Market, which gives local farmers a new market for their products while also providing them with an education on how to reach out using technology as a means for boosting small business; a planned partnership between Triad Adult and Pediatric Medicine and the New Reidsville Public Housing Authority; and the planned Nurse-Family Partnership Program, which will pair home visiting nurses with at-risk moms and children up until the age of two. The fifth edition of the County Health Rankings continues to show us where we live matters to our health.

Mar 26 2014
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County Health Rankings 2014: Grant County, Kentucky

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The County Health Rankings, a joint project between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, shows how communities across the country are doing and how they can improve on their health.

One of the communities highlighted in the 2014 report is Grant County, Kentucky. The county has seen tremendous progress in its overall health outcomes and the health rankings, moving up from 89th to 60th place this past year relative to the state's other counties.  

The rural county — a "land of horses and tobacco farms" — has found that partnerships to improve health are absolutely essential, and that one of the advantages that smaller, more rural communities have is that it's relatively easy to bring together the business community, the churches, the schools and other groups.

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Innovative community programs include Fitness for Life Around Grant County, or FFLAG, which led the company Performance Pipe to provide employees with healthier food options; the four-week Biggest Winner Challenge, which focuses on getting people to try out different kinds of physical activity; and tobacco-free policies on school campuses. The fifth edition of the County Health Rankings continues to show us where we live matters to our health.

Mar 26 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: March 26

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Study: ‘White Coat Effect’ on Blood Pressure is Real
The “White Coat Effect” is real, according to a new study in the British Journal of General Practice. The effect, wherein a person’s blood pressure is higher when taken by a doctor than when taken by a nurse, has long been assumed, but this is the first study to confirm it. The study analyzed the results of more than 1,000 people who had their blood pressure taken by both a physician and a nurse, finding the results of the physician-administered tests were noticeably higher. "Doctors should continue to measure blood pressure as part of the assessment of an ill patient or a routine check-up, but not where clinical decisions on blood pressure treatment depend on the outcome,” said Christopher Clark, MD, of the University of Exeter Medical School, in a release. “The difference we noted is enough to tip some patients over the threshold for treatment for high blood pressure, and unnecessary medication can lead to unwanted side-effects.” Clark also noted that researchers should also take these findings into account when performing studies on topics such as hypertension. Read more on heart health.

Black, Latina Breast Cancer Patients More Likely to Struggle with Health Care-Related Debt
Black and Latina breast cancer patients are far more likely than their white counterparts to have medical debt as a result of treatment or to skip treatments due to costs, according to a new study in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. In a survey of 1,502 patients, researchers determined that 9 percent of whites, 15 percent of blacks, 17 percent of English-speaking Latinas and 10 percent of Spanish-speaking Latinas reported medical-related debt four years post diagnosis. The study said the findings should “motivate efforts to control costs and ensure communication between patients and providers regarding financial distress, particularly for vulnerable subgroups.” Read more on health disparities.

Lawsuit Challenges New York City’s Ban on E-Cigarettes
A “smoker’s rights” group called New York City Citizens Lobbying Against Smoker Harassment has filed a legal challenge to the city’s ban on electronic cigarettes—or e-cigarettes—in restaurants, parks and certain other public places. The group contends that since e-cigarettes do not contain tobacco or produce smoke, they should not be subject to New York City’s Smoke-Free Air Act. The city council expanding regulations to include e-cigarettes last year and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced its intention to propose government regulations over their use. In the lawsuit, the group wrote that "E-Cig regulation is, even in the Council's words, at best, tangentially related to the subject of smoking, in much the same way that toy water guns are at best tangentially related to authentic firearms.” However, city council spokeswoman Robin Levine said by email to Reuters that "Our legislation ensures the goals of the Smoke-Free Air Act are not undermined and protects the public against these unregulated substances.” Read more on tobacco.

Mar 25 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: March 25

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Overweight Teens Should Start Healthy Eating by Cutting Down on Salt
Overweight or obese teenagers who eat lots of salty foods shows signs of faster cell aging, according to research presented at the American Heart Association’s Epidemiology & Prevention/Nutrition, Physical Activity & Metabolism Scientific Sessions 2014. Previous research found that protective ends on chromosomes (telomeres) naturally shorten with age, but the process is accelerated by smoking, lack of physical activity and high body fat. This study is the first to examine the impact of sodium intake on telomere length.

In the study, 766 people ages 14-18 were divided into the lowest or highest half of reported sodium intake. Low-intake teens consumed an average 2,388 mg/day, compared with 4,142 mg/day in the high-intake group. Both groups consumed far more than the 1,500 mg/day maximum (about 2/3 teaspoon of salt) recommended by the American Heart Association. After adjusting for several factors that influence telomere length, researchers found that in overweight/obese teens, telomeres were significantly shorter with high-sodium intake. In normal weight teens, telomeres were not significantly different with high-sodium intake.

“Even in these relatively healthy young people, we can already see the effect of high sodium intake, suggesting that high sodium intake and obesity may act synergistically to accelerate cellular aging,” said Haidong Zhu, MD, PhD, lead author of the study and assistant professor of pediatrics at Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University in Augusta, Ga. “Lowering sodium intake may be an easier first step than losing weight for overweight young people who want to lower their risk of heart disease. The majority of sodium in the diet comes from processed foods, so parents can help by cooking fresh meals more often and by offering fresh fruit rather than potato chips for a snack.” Read more on heart health.

DOT Awards Grants to Improve Transportation for American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes
The U.S. Department of Transportation is awarding $5 million to 42 American Indian and Alaska Native tribes in 19 states for projects to improve transit service, in addition to $25 million in funds announced recently to help improve public transit service on rural tribal lands and better connect tribal members and other residents with jobs, education, and other opportunities.

“We fully recognize that residents on tribal lands and in surrounding communities often face significant transportation challenges, as many cannot afford to own a vehicle, or fill the tank, and yet must travel long distances to reach basic services,” said Federal Transit Administration head Therese McMillan. “We want to ensure that everyone who needs a ride to earn a paycheck, attend school, see the doctor, or buy groceries has that opportunity.” Read more on transportation.

Health Providers Should Prescribe Sleep for People with Metabolic Disorders
A new study in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology finds that insufficient or disturbed sleep is associated with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, and addressing poor quality sleep should be a target for the prevention—and even treatment—of the disorders. According to the study authors, addressing some types of sleep disturbance—such as sleep apnea—may have a directly beneficial effect on patients' metabolic health, but a far more common problem is people simply not getting enough sleep, particularly due to the increased use of devices such as tablets and online games. The authors say that early studies are starting to provide evidence that there is a direct causal link between loss of sleep and the body's ability to metabolize glucose, control food intake, and maintain its energy balance. Read more on obesity.