Search Results for: stroke
NIH to Direct Additional $100M Toward Research in an HIV Cure
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has announced plans to invest an additional $100 million over the next three fiscal years in research directed toward a cure for HIV. Over the past three decades, NIH-funded research has led to the development of more than 30 antiretroviral drugs and drug combinations targeting HIV. Anthony S. Fauci, MD, director of the NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said that growing knowledge about HIV, along with the development of new treatment strategies, makes the moment “ripe to pursue HIV cure research with vigor.” “Although the HIV/AIDS pandemic can theoretically be ended with a concerted and sustained scale-up of implementation of existing tools for HIV prevention and treatment, the development of a cure is critically important, as it may not be feasible for tens of millions of people living with HIV infection to access and adhere to a lifetime of antiretroviral therapy,” he said in a statement. Read more on HIV/AIDS.
Hong Kong Announces First Human Case of H7N9 Avian Flu
H7N9 avian flu appears to have spread from mainland China, with Hong Kong reporting its first human case of the deadly avian flu strain. A 36-year-old Indonesian domestic helper is in critical condition after travelling to Shenzhen and buying, slaughtering and eating an apparently infected chicken. Earlier this year a report of human infection in Shanghai was quickly followed by the confirmation of more than 100 cases. While closing down live poultry markets in the area caused the number of new cases to drop, the World Health Organization has confirmed a total of 139 cases and 45 deaths. Ko Wing-man, Hong Kong's secretary for food and health, said Hong Kong has raised its level of preparedness for an avian flu pandemic to "serious," and the city has suspended the importation of live chickens from certain Shenzhen farms as it also investigates its own stock. Read more on infectious disease.
Study: ‘Benign’ or ‘Healthy’ Obesity May Not Exist
Despite what some health professionals believe, “benign obesity” may not exist, according to a new study in the Annals of Internal Medicine. People who are overweight or obese without health issues such as high blood pressure, diabetes or other metabolic issues are still at increased risk of major health problems when compared with metabolically healthy, normal-weight people. The researchers looked at the results of eight studies covering more than 61,000 people, finding that in follow-ups of at least 10 years later the people who were overweight but without the risk factors were still at an increased risk of 24 percent for heart attack, stroke and even death. One explanation could be that these overweight people without the risk factors actually do have the risk factors, only at low levels that are difficult to detect, and that then become gradually worse. The results indicate that physicians should look at both body mass and metabolic tests when determining a patient’s health. Read more on obesity.
Airport Noise May Increase Heart Disease and Stroke Risk
People who live near busy international airports may be at increased risk of heart disease and stroke due to the high levels of noise, according to two new studies in the British Medical Journal. One study looked at hospital admissions around London Heathrow airport, finding the risks were 10 to 20 percent higher when compared to areas with the least noise. The other study, by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and Boston University School of Public Health, analyzed data on more than 60 million Americans ages 65 and older living near 89 airports, finding that areas with 10 decibel higher aircraft noise also saw a 3.5 percent increase in the hospital admission rate. Researchers say the link needs further study to show causation. "The exact role that noise exposure may play in ill health is not well established," said Anna Hansell of Imperial College London, who led the British study. "However, it is plausible that it might be contributing, for example by raising blood pressure or by disturbing people's sleep." The findings indicate that populated areas must be looked at closely when communities consider expanding large airports. Read more on heart health.
Private Talk Sessions with NICU Nurses Ease Anxiety in Mothers of Premature Babies
“Listening matters” when it comes to easing the worries of the mothers of premature infants. One-on-one talks sessions between NICU nurses and the mothers can help reduce feelings of anxiety, confusion and doubt, according to a new study in the Journal of Perinatology. "Having a prematurely born baby is like a nightmare for the mother," said Lisa Segre, an assistant professor in the University of Iowa College of Nursing. "You're expecting to have a healthy baby, and suddenly you're left wondering whether he or she is going to live." The study looked at 23 mothers who when through an average of five 45-minute sessions, find they gave mothers a chance to really talk about their worries and were effective at easing concerns across the board. "Listening is what nurses have done their whole career," said NICU nurse and study co-author Rebecca Siewert. "We've always been the ones to listen and try to problem solve. So, I just think it was a wonderful offshoot of what nursing can do. We just need the time to do it." Read more on maternal and infant health.
Early Puberty Tied to Great Risk of Experimentation with Cigarettes, Alcohol and Marijuana
Early puberty is linked to increased risk of experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana, according to a new study in the journal Addiction. Puberty typically begins between the ages of 9 and 10, will girls on average beginning it earlier than boys. "While puberty is often thought of as a solely biological process, our research has shown that pubertal development is a combination of biological, psychological and social processes that all likely interact to influence risk-taking behavior like substance use," said study author Jessica Duncan Cance, a public health researcher at the University of Texas at Austin. "Our study suggests that being the first girl in the class to need a bra, for example, prompts or exacerbates existing psychological and social aspects that can, in turn, lead to substance use and other risky behaviors early in life.” Read more on pediatrics.
AHA: Health Care Providers Should Emphasize Healthy Behaviors in Cardio Care
When it comes to treating cardiovascular health, health care providers should place just as much emphasis on correcting healthy behaviors as they do addressing the physical indicators of the risk for heart disease, according to a new statement from the American Heart Association (AHA). “We’re talking about a paradigm shift from only treating biomarkers — physical indicators of a person’s risk for heart disease — to helping people change unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, unhealthy body weight, poor diet quality and lack of physical activity,” said lead author Bonnie Spring, PhD, a professor of preventive medicine and psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University in Chicago. “We already treat physical risk factors that can be measured through a blood sample or a blood pressure reading in a doctor’s office, yet people put their health at risk through their behaviors. We can’t measure the results of these behaviors in their bodies yet.”
The AHA’s recommended “five A’s” to patient treatment:
- Assess a patient’s risk behaviors for heart disease.
- Advise change, such as weight loss or exercise.
- Agree on an action plan.
- Assist with treatment.
- Arrange for follow-up care.
AHA’s goals for 2020 include improving the cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20 percent, while also reducing deaths from cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20 percent. Read more on heart health.
Study: 1 in 10 Youth Admit to Sexual Violence
Approximately one in 10 teenagers and young adults admit to sexual violence, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. Researchers said violent pornography may be partially to blame for the acts, which included coercive sex, sexual assault and rape, and most often with a romantic partner. What’s more, about two in three said the act was never discovered, so there was never a punishment. "We know a bit about youth who are victims of sexual violence, but we don't know much at all about youth as perpetrators," said study co-author Michele Ybarra, president and research director of the Center for Innovative Public Health Research in San Clemente, Calif. "It's important we know more if we're going to reduce the sexual-violence rate." Ybarra said sexual-violence-prevention programs should emphasize the understanding of explicit consent and the tactics of coercive sex. "They may say, 'Unless you have sex with me, I'm going to go have sex with someone else,’” said Angela Diaz, MD, MPH, director of Mount Sinai Hospital's Adolescent Health Center. "Young people have to learn that if their partner says that, maybe they're better off if they do go somewhere else." Programs should also focus on the role of the bystander and the importance of reporting incidents. Read more on violence.
Salmonella Outbreak Sickens 278 People in 18 States
Approximately 278 people in 18 states have become sick from a salmonella outbreak linked to raw chicken products, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The products were produced at three California plants owned by Foster Farms and distributed mostly to retailers in California, Oregon and Washington state. Local, state and federal health officials made the connection. While the outbreak is “ongoing,” there is currently no recall as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working with state health departments to monitor the matter while the Food Safety and Inspection Service investigated the outbreak. Read more on food safety.
Have you heard the story about the Prevention and Public Health Fund? A “no” wouldn’t be surprising.
Have you heard the story about the almost 200,000 preventable deaths in the United States each year due to heart disease and stroke? Probably so.
The latter was big news last week, inspiring headlines and handwringing across the country. Men are twice as likely as women to die of preventable cardiovascular disease. Blacks are twice as likely as whites. Southerners are at far greater risk.
Most of the stories emphasized how all this unhealthy living is the result of unhealthy lifestyle choices. But is that the whole story?
“Largely absent from most of the stories covering the study was context—a hard look at the social and environmental conditions that help explain the findings—as well as some explanation of what it might take to really change things and prevent large numbers of needless deaths.” They also tended to suggest “that poor health is essentially a personal moral failing, while ignoring the vastly different realities that exist in different communities in this country.”
That’s the thesis of a recent Forbes opinion piece, which looks past the round number of “200,000” and other statistics detailed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and points attention to the very real obstacles to healthy living that far too many people face.
The CDC study also discussed the importance of addressing the economic and social determinants that influence the health of individuals and communities (though this went largely unacknowledged in most media accounts, according to the Forbes piece). The CDC pointed out strategies that help create conditions for healthier living, including policy changes that increase access to health care, that give people healthy local food options and that build walkable communities—changes that can only be made by communities, not individuals.
That brings us back to the Prevention and Public Health Fund. Created by the Affordable Care Act, the Fund’s grantees have spent the past three years doing all these things—helping states, cities and tribes create safer, healthier communities.
“That’s a story that needs to be told, with context.”
>>Read the full piece, “200,000 Preventable Deaths A Year: Numbers That Cry Out For Action -- And Better Reporting.”
CDC: 200,000 Lives Lost Each Year to Preventable Heart Disease, Stroke
Healthier living and improved preventative efforts could help save more than 200,000 U.S. lives lost each year to preventable heart disease and stroke, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s approximately one in four of heart disease deaths. More than half of those deaths were people younger than 65, with blacks twice as likely as whites to die of the preventable conditions and men more likely than women. Still, the overall rate fell approximately 30 percent from 2001 to 2010. To further improve these rates, health care providers should encourage healthy habits such as not smoking, increasing physical activity, eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and taking medicines as directed. At the community level, health departments can promote healthier living spaces, including tobacco-free areas and safe walking areas, as well as access to healthy food options. Read more on heart health.
Patients More Likely to Take Multiple Medications When Combined in Single Pill
Patients are more likely to take multiple medications if they are combined into a single pill—or “polypill”—according to a new study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. This finding could be especially important for people dealing with chronic conditions such as heart disease, who are often prescribed a combination of blood pressure medication, cholesterol medication and aspirin to break up blood clots. Only about half the patients in prosperous countries take all three prescribed pills and as few as 5 percent of patients in developing countries do so. One of the obstacles is simply remembering to take the many medications on time. "The simplification of the delivery of care we provide to our patients is a significant part of the improvement we can gain by this type of strategy," said David May, MD, chair of the board of governors for the American College of Cardiology. "Oftentimes we become enamored with the idea of how much improvement we get with this or that medication, on top of the other drugs a patient has been prescribed. The short answer is, if they don't take it, you don't get any improvement." Read more on prescription drugs.
Common Hospital Infections Cost $10B Annually
In addition endangering patients’ health and lives, the five most common hospital-acquired infections cost the U.S. health care system an estimated $10 billion annually, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine. About one in 20 patients contract an infection after being admitted to a hospital, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and studies indicate that as many as half may be preventable. The found that central line-associated bloodstream infections averaged about $45,000 per case, pneumonia infections that lead to ventilators cost about $40,000 per case and surgical site infections—a result of about one in 50 operations—cost about $21,000 per case. In a previous study, Trish Perl, MD, a professor of medicine and pathology at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in Baltimore, found that eliminating surgical site infections alone would save the four hospitals in the Johns Hopkins Health System approximately $2 million in revenue each year. Perl was not involved in the new study. Read more on infectious diseases.
Yale Report Finds U.N. Responsible for Haiti Cholera Outbreak
A new report from the Yale University Schools of Public Health and Law finds that the United Nations (U.N.) inadvertently caused a deadly cholera epidemic in Haiti. The report confirms prior accounts that U.N. peacekeepers inadvertently but negligently brought cholera into Haiti, causing one of the largest epidemics in recent history. Because of inadequate water and sanitation facilities at the U.N. base in the Haitian town of Méyè, sewage from the base contaminated the Artibonite River, the largest river in Haiti and one the country’s main water sources. By July 2011, cholera spread through the country, infecting one new person per minute. The epidemic continues, and public health experts estimate it will take a decade or more to eliminate the disease from Haiti. Prior to this outbreak, cholera had not existed in Haiti for more than a century. The report calls for setting up a claims commission, as well as providing a public apology, direct aid to victims, infrastructural support, and adequate funding for the prevention and treatment of cholera. Read more on global health.
Eyes May be a Window to Stroke Risk
Retinal imaging—easily done in many ophthalmology practices and clinics—may alert practitioners to patients at higher risk of a stroke by providing information on the status of blood vessels in the brain, according to a new study in the journal Hypertension. Worldwide, high blood pressure is the single most important risk factor for stroke, however it is still not possible to predict which high blood pressure patients are most likely to develop a stroke. Researchers tracked stroke occurrence for an average of 13 years in close to 3,000 patients with high blood pressure who had not previously experienced a stroke. At baseline, each had photographs taken of the retina; damage to the retinal blood vessels was scored as none, mild or moderate to severe. During the follow-up, 146 participants experienced a stroke caused by a blood clot and 15 by bleeding in the brain, but even after adjusting for stroke risk factors such as age and cholesterol levels the researchers found that the risk of stroke was 35 percent higher in those with mild hypertensive retinopathy and 137 percent higher in those with moderate or severe hypertensive retinopathy. And risk remained high for patients with photographic evidence of retinopathy even if they were had good blood pressure control through medication. Read more on vision.
NIH Releases Online Alcohol Screening Course to Help Detect Problems in Young Adults
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism has released a new online training course to help health care professionals conduct fast, evidence-based alcohol screening and brief intervention with young adults. According to the Institute, underage drinking is widespread and a major public health problem. Over the course of adolescence, the proportion of youth who drink more than a few sips escalates from 7 percent of 12-year-olds to nearly 70 percent of 18-year-olds. Heavy drinking is common. Having five or more drinks on one occasion is reported by half of 12 to 15-year-olds who drink and two-thirds of 16 to 20-year olds who drink.
“Some may see underage drinking as a harmless rite of passage, but when you look at the risks, it is a big deal,” said Vivian B. Faden, PhD, associate director for behavioral research, director of the Office of Science Policy and Communications at NIAAA, and co-author of the course. “We developed the guide and the continuing medical education (CME) course to help health care professionals reduce underage drinking and its risks in a way that fits easily into their practice.”
Each year, about 190,000 people under age 21 visit emergency rooms for alcohol-related injuries and about 5,000 die as a result of underage drinking. And young adults who drink also have an increased risk of developing alcohol dependence later in life. The new course includes a two-question screening tool. One question asks about the drinking habits of an adolescent’s friends and the other question asks about the adolescent’s own drinking frequency. Read more on alcohol.
FDA Issues New Food Safety Measures for Foreign Imports
As part of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued two new rules regarding the safety of imported foods. The first rule requires that importers verify that suppliers utilize modern, prevention-oriented safety practices. The second rules establishes third-party food safety auditors in the foreign countries that supply food to the United States. Each year the U.S. imports food from about 150 countries, accounting for about 15 percent of the nation’s food supply. “We must work toward global solutions to food safety so that whether you serve your family food grown locally or imported you can be confident that it is safe,” said FDA Commissioner Margaret A. Hamburg, MD. “Today’s announcement of these two new proposed rules will help to meet the challenges of our complex global food supply system. Our success will depend in large part on partnerships across nations, industries, and business sectors.” Read more on food safety.
Study: U.S. Adults with Atrial Fibrillation to Double by 2030
At the current rate, the number of U.S. adults with atrial fibrillation (AF) will more than double to an estimated 12 million cases by 2030, according to a new study in the American Journal of Cardiology. About 5 million Americans suffered from the dangerous irregular heartbeat in 2010, which can lead to severe chest pains, limit the ability to exercise or even cause heart failure. "Even AF patients without symptoms are at five-fold increased risk of stroke, which often leads to major disability or death," said study coauthor Daniel Singer, MD, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston. The risk for the illness, which is most common in older people, can be reduced through preventive health care that includes the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, diabetes and sleep apnea, as well as by getting exercise and maintaining a healthy body weight. Read more on heart health.
Tips on Preventing Playground Injuries
About 600,000 kids were injured at playgrounds in 2012, according to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, including about 210,000 on monkey bars/climbing structures, 151,000 on swing sets, 125,000 on slides, 10,000 on seesaws/teeterboards and 56,000 on other playground equipment. However, with proper knowledge and care, it’s possible to prevent injuries, according to the Commission. "Parents and caretakers should steer clear from playgrounds with asphalt or concrete surfaces, metal or wood swing sets, or any apparatus that can trap a child's head,” said Jennifer Weiss, MD, an American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons spokeswoman. “Before children start to play, remind them of basic playground rules, such as one person on the slide at a time, and no running in front of moving swings and teeter-totters. Make sure that you can clearly see your child on the playground at all times.”
Other safety tips for parents and caregivers include:
- Use age-appropriate playground equipment
- Avoid swing sets with metal or wood seats—stick to plastic and rubber
- Be careful in the sun
- Make sure there is enough space for play
Read more on safety.
NIH: Greater Physical Activity Linked to Lower Stroke Risk
People who exercise vigorously enough to work up a sweat are at reduced risk for stroke, according to a new study in the journal Stroke. Inactivity is one of the main risk factors for stroke, along with high blood pressure, diabetes and smoking. Researchers found that inactive people were 20 percent more likely to experience a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) than subjects who exercised at least four times a week. Researches utilized data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a long-term study funded by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke that looks at the reasons behind the higher rates of stroke mortality among African-Americans and others in the Southeastern United States. “Our results confirm other research findings but our study has the distinct advantage of including larger numbers, especially larger numbers of women as well as blacks, in a national population sample so these provide somewhat more generalizable results than other studies,” said Virginia Howard, PhD, senior author of the study from the School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Read more on stroke.
Study: Calorie Guidance on Menus Doesn’t Lead to Healthier Eating
Research had already shown that providing calorie counts on restaurant menus did little to improve food selection. New research now shows that offering general daily or per-meal calorie guidelines also does little to help people make healthier eating choices, according to a study in the American Journal of Public Health. "The general inability of calorie labeling to result in an overall reduction in the number of calories consumed has already been pretty widely shown," said study lead author Julie Downs, an associate research professor of social and decision sciences in the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University. "So that's nothing new. But in the face of that, there has been the growing thought that perhaps the problem is that people don't know how to use the information without some framework, some guidance." Instead, the study found that people given calorie guidance not only didn’t make overall better use of calorie labeling or consume fewer calories, but they actually consumed slightly more calories. Lona Sandon, a registered dietitian and assistant professor of clinical nutrition at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, said the findings help illustrate that “[k]nowledge is just one piece of the puzzle. We must consider people's attitudes, beliefs and values surrounding healthier eating and body weight.” Read more on nutrition.
Sequester to Close all HUD Offices on July 22
Every office of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) will be closed on Monday, July 22 as part of the sequester which is being felt across all of government. The automatic spending cuts took effect March 1. HUD’s plan is to pair its seven required furlough days with holidays and weekends. HUD is encouraging people and businesses that work with the agency to plan around the schedule day of shutdown. Read more on budgets.
Today U.S. Surgeon General Regina Benjamin, MD, MBA, leaves her post after four years of public health accomplishments. Dr. Benjamin will return to Alabama to volunteer at her clinic. Deputy Surgeon General Boris Lushniak will serve as acting surgeon general until a new surgeon general is appointed.
Dr. Benjamin’s many singular initiatives during her tenure include:
- Serving as chair of the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council, which spearheaded the release of the National Prevention Strategy (NPS), a roadmap for working with partners at the local, national, and international level to help bridge the gaps in health disparities and ultimately increase the number of Americans who are healthy at every stage of life. The National Prevention Council is composed of cabinet-level heads of federal agencies, including the Departments of Transportation, Education, Defense, Housing and Urban Development and the Environmental Protection Agency. “The NPS illuminates and puts into action what we in Public Health have been saying for more than a hundred years,” says Dr. Benjamin. “Prevention is the foundation of public health and prevention is the foundation of an effective health care system.”
- Releasing the National Prevention Council Annual Status Report, showing positive trends in some leading health indicators including decreases in youth ages 3 to 11 exposed to secondhand smoke; the number of adolescents who are current smokers; the rate of coronary heart disease deaths; stroke deaths; and overall cancer deaths.
- Spearheading the National Suicide Prevention Strategy, an ambitious national strategy to reduce the number of deaths by suicide.
- Releasing My Family Health Portrait, an Internet-based tool encouraging people to collect their family health history during the holidays when families gather together.
Study: Americans Living Longer…But Not Necessarily Healthier
A new study in the Journal of the American Medical Association paints a broad, sweeping picture of life expectancy and health in the United States, finding that while people are living long in general, they’re also spending more of their lives in poor health as illnesses that used to lead to early deaths have been replaced with chronic conditions. The overall average U.S. life expectancy in 2010 was 78.2 years. The new findings are part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, which is a collaboration of 488 researchers in 50 countries. "It's rare these days that you get information or studies that give you the big picture," said study author Christopher Murray, MD, director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, in Seattle. "It's pretty uncommon to step back and say, 'What does all the evidence tell us about the most important health problems, and where does the U.S. fit in that landscape?'" While the United States has been making improvements, they’ve not been coming as quickly as they have in other countries. The main causes of earlier death in the country are heart disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and road injuries, and the top causes of disability are lower back pain, depression and other musculoskeletal disorders. Read more on global health.
Five Daily Servings of Fruits, Vegetables Tied to Longer Lives
Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables is directly tied to living a longer life, according to a new study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Researchers found that consuming fewer than five servings a day—the recommended amount by many public health organizations—was tied to a higher chance of early death. They did not find that people who consumed more than the recommended level saw greater returns. They also found that while people who ate fewer fruits and vegetables were more likely to smoke, to eat more red meat, to eat high-fat dairy products and to be undereducated, the overall study results did not change even after accounting for gender, smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption and body weight. Read more on nutrition.
Red Cross: Emergency Call for Blood, Platelet Donations
A recent drop in blood donations has led the American Red Cross to issue an emergency request for more donors of all blood types. Donations were down about 10 percent in June and more is needed to ensure enough blood and platelets for the summer months. "We're asking for the public's help now to prevent a more serious shortage," said spokesperson Stephanie Millian in a release. "Each day donations come up short, less blood is available for patients in need. It's the blood products on the shelves today that help save lives in an emergency." To see if you are eligible to make a donation or to make an appointment either call 1-800-RED CROSS (1-800-733-2767) or go to RedCrossBlood.org. Read more on preparedness.