Search Results for: outbreaks
The pop culture craze of zombie apocalypse films, televisions shows and books penetrated deeper than many might have expected—even the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) weighed in on the cultural phenomenon, with a 2011 blog post on preparing for a real zombie apocalypse. The post covers everything from the history of zombie outbreaks to how to assemble an emergency supply kit should one of these possible apocalyptic zombie scenarios play out in your community.
At the time, NewPublicHealth spoke with the CDC’s Dave Daigle, who dreamed up the zombie post. The CDC campaign was crafted to help spread information on emergency preparedness for the upcoming hurricane season, while the zombie cover was designed both to attract a younger demographic and to offer an off-kilter slant that would make people pay attention. The post contains strong recommendations to help people prepare for many types of emergencies, from natural disasters to disease outbreaks—for example, your supply kit should include water, food, medications, important documents, and so on. The CDC was able to reach an even larger audience by packaging this valuable information in a playful nod to the fantastical fears that a zombie outbreak could actually happen.
Among the tips from the CDC’s Preparedness 101: Zombie Apocalypse: "Plan your evacuation route. When zombies are hungry they won’t stop until they get food (i.e., brains), which means you need to get out of town fast!"
Once the post went live, the staff sat back while it was tweeted, retweeted, Facebooked, commented on and reported on by a growing list of mainstream print and online publications. The result was an overwhelming success:
- The initial tweet received 70,426 clicks
- “CDC” and “Zombie Apocalypse” trended worldwide on Twitter
- The CDC Emergency Facebook page gained more than 7,000 fans within the first month of its launch
- There were more than 3,000 articles, broadcasts and other media coverage of the blog
- The messages received an estimated 3.6 billion impressions with a marketing worth of $3.4 million—and all for a campaign that cost $87.00
When it comes to movies, sometimes the most realistic scenarios are also the scariest. The dramatic, often global and always fatal spread of infectious disease is now a well-worn movie trope—but because it could happen it remains scary every time. The good news (in addition to them just being movies, so no need to grip the theater armrest so hard!) is these silver screen attempts at showing the story behind the spread and containment of infectious disease help to highlight the importance of public health. Without the many integrated public health systems that touch our lives daily and protect us in emergency situations, we’d be much more susceptible to all the many types of outbreaks that plague Hollywood characters.
Well, maybe not all of them...
As part of Outbreak Week, we’ve compiled a list of some of the scariest outbreaks to terrify movie watchers. What do you think they got right? (And spoilers below...)
The scariest part of this outbreak is realizing how quickly disease can spread—and through interactions you may not even realize. It also highlights the wide range of reactions people can have to a disease spreading through a population. Several days pass before doctors and administrators at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention realize the extent or gravity of this new infection. First they need to identify virus, then they can start working toward a means of combating it, a process that will likely take several months. As the contagion spreads to millions of people worldwide, people panic and society breaks down.
World War Z
A mysterious infection turns entire human populations into rampaging, mindless zombies. After barely escaping the chaos, United Nations Investigator Gerry Lane is persuaded to go on a mission to investigate the disease. What follows is a perilous global trek where Lane must brave horrific dangers and long odds to find answers before civilization falls. What at least the book gets right is the vast number of organizations and government groups that must come together to respond to an outbreak.
28 Days Later
How scary would it be to wake up after being in a month-long coma only to find your city completely deserted, with cars left empty and seemingly nothing but silence? One look at the film’s barren London streets will show you. Then think about how you’d feel if you found out that this emptiness was caused by rage virus-infected animals released by group of animal rights activists in protest of animals being used for medical research. And the virus was still out there...
An unknown virus wiped out five billion people in 1996. By 2035, only 1 percent of the population was still surviving, forced to live underground. A convict reluctantly volunteers to be sent back in time to 1996 to gather information about the origin of the epidemic (which he's told was spread by a mysterious "Army of the Twelve Monkeys") and locate the virus before it mutates, so that scientists from his time can study—and hopefully cure—the disease.
As a toxin begins to turn the residents of Ogden Marsh, Iowa into violent psychopaths, Sheriff David Dutton tries to make sense of the situation while he his wife, and two other unaffected townspeople band together in a fight for survival. Eventually military support is brought in to attempt to contain the outbreak.
(Image source: WikiCommons, Sailko)
While it has been decades since polio was a critical threat for much of the developed world, the disease—a virus that can spread from person to person and affect the brain and spinal cord with the potential for paralysis—still causes disease and death in the developing world. Earlier this year cases were reported in Syria, while in Israel the polio virus was found in soil likely from human waste infected with the disease, prompting a revaccination campaign among children age 5 and under. Polio has continued to spread in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan, and has been reintroduced and continues to spread in Chad and in the Horn of Africa after the spread of the virus was previously stopped. Other countries have seen small numbers of cases recently after no cases for decades.
Because even a small spread of the disease could reach the United States if infected individuals carry the virus here, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) several years ago made polio one focus of their Emergency Operations Center. CDC staff work with the World Health Organization and foreign health departments on vaccination campaigns aimed at fully eradicating the disease.
>>Bonus Content: View the CDC's infographic, "The Time to Eradicate Polio is Now."
NewPublicHealth spoke recently with Sona Bari, senior communications officer at the World Health Organization about the efforts underway to eradicate polio globally.
NPH: How are you able to detect polio outbreaks?
Sona Bari: We have a global surveillance system for polio and know from it that since 1988 the reduction of the disease has been over 99 percent. Polio is now endemic, which means indigenous polio virus transmission has never been stopped in parts of three countries: Nigeria, Afghanistan and Pakistan. So the surveillance is important because you can get polio down to very low levels like you do now, but it can reemerge. To completely eradicate polio you have to have an effective intervention, which is largely by vaccination. And you can be bring polio under very tight control by massive vaccination, but the virus is very good at finding children who are unvaccinated or under-vaccinated, and in Nigeria, Afghanistan and Pakistan we still have large groups of unvaccinated children. So the reason that polio transmission has not been stopped in these areas is that not enough children are vaccinated.
NPH: Why is there insufficient vaccination in those countries?
Bari: The basic reason is the quality of vaccination activities. Do these countries have decent health systems—strong routine immunization systems where children are regularly taken to a medical facility for their immunizations? When there are mass vaccination campaigns, are we reaching all children? Then there are, on top of that, layers of political complexities. In one part of Pakistan, for example, there is a ban on polio vaccinations by the local warlords. So there are access and security issues, layered on top of the difficultly of reaching all who need vaccines in countries such as Nigeria or Pakistan. That said, we know that these circumstances are not unique. They may differ from country to country, and each country does have a unique combination of the obstacles, but polio has been eradicated in countries that are far poorer than Nigeria or Pakistan, that have had worse conflict and that have perhaps much worse health systems. So it can be done.
From antibiotic-resistant superbugs to the seasonal flu to Salmonella, infectious diseases are a serious health threat that also cost individuals and the health care industry billions. A new report from Trust for America’s Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Outbreaks: Protecting Americans from Infectious Diseases, assesses gaps in our public health system that could severely limit our ability to effectively respond to an outbreak.
NewPublicHealth created an infographic that illustrates many of the key findings of the new report.
A new study published recently in the American Journal of Public Health finds that non-medical exemption laws for vaccines required for school or daycare admission have significantly impacted the vaccination rates of at least one disease. The researchers reviewed relevant laws and regulations for each year between 2001 and 2008 and rated them on their restrictiveness in granting exemptions. The study was funded by a grant from the Public Health Law Research program, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
According to the study, state laws that make it difficult for children to be exempted from vaccines on religious or philosophical grounds could reduce the number of whooping cough cases, but did not have an impact on cases of measles, mumps, haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) or Hepatitis B.
“Our research shows that during the study period, if all states increased the restrictiveness of their non-medical exemption laws by one level, the number of U.S. whooping cough cases would decline by 1.14 percent, resulting in 171 fewer cases per year,” according to study author Y. Tony Yang, ScD, MPH, associate professor at the College of Health and Human Services at George Mason University.
The study found that the impact on whooping cough may be greater than for the other diseases studied simply because whooping cough affects more people. Researchers call this a “threshold effect,” which means laws may not have a significant impact unless they works to prevent a disease that affects a critical mass of people. During the study period, whooping cough was much more prevalent than the four other diseases studied—the average incidence rate for whooping cough was 18 per 100,000 individuals from 2001 to 2008. For Hib, Hepatitis B, measles, and mumps, the mean incidence rates were less than 1 per 100,000.
“Outbreak” is a relative word. A modern outbreak could be a virus that kills a couple hundred thousand (such as the recent swine flu), or simply an infected shipment of food that left dozens sick. However, a look back through history reveals outbreaks so expansive—so deadly—that they essentially changed the course of history. Below are the five deadliest outbreaks and pandemics in history.
Ask yourself—are we prepared as a nation for the next big outbreak?
(Image source: WikiCommons)
A plague so devastating that simply saying “The Plague” will immediately pull it to the front of your mind, in the middle of the 14th century—from 1347 to 1351—the Black Death remade the landscape of Europe and the world. In a time when the global population was an estimated 450 million, at least 75 million are believed to have perished throughout the pandemic, with some estimates as high as 200 million. As much as half of Europe may have died in a span of only four years. The plague’s name comes from the black skin spots on the sailors who travelled the Silk Road and docked in a Sicilian port, bringing with them from their Asian voyage the devastating disease, now known to be bubonic plague.
Outbreaks can advance quickly and through a wide variety of vectors. We all know to be wary of mosquitos and ticks, but there are plenty of other ways diseases can spread that may not be top of mind for most. This is where food safety and other precautions around wild animals can help. But never fear. We have compiled a list of the top five strangest things that can spread disease so you can be prepared.
(Image source: WikiCommons)
While their mythical status as vampires in another form might be what scares some people about bats, what’s even scarier is their potential to spread disease. A species of bats in China are believed to have helped spread SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), which killed more than 750 people worldwide between 2002 and 2003. Researchers found two SARS-like viruses in horseshoe bats found in China, suggesting that they could have been the origin of the human pandemic.
UC Santa Barbara Might Use Unapproved Vaccine to Combat Meningitis Outbreak
Health officials confirmed late last week that they are considering administering the unapproved vaccine Bexsero to halt the spread of a bacterial meningitis outbreak that has sickened four students at UC Santa Barbara. Three of the students have recovered fully, with the fourth requiring the amputation of both feet. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is working with the California state and Santa Barbara County departments of public health to determine whether the vaccine would be effective against the strain; Bexsero, which is not yet approved for use in the United States, is for type B meningococcal disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently granted Princeton University permission to use the vaccine, after eight students became sick from a similar strain of what has struck UC Santa Barbara. Read more on infectious disease.
AAP Calls for Ban on U.S. Sale of Raw or Unpasteurized Milk
The risk of infection has led the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Nutrition to not only recommend against the consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk by pregnant women, babies and kids, but to call for the complete ban of its sale in the United States. Pasteurization kills bacteria by heating the milk to a minimum of 161 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 15 seconds before cooling it quickly; at least 97 percent of U.S. dairy products are pasteurized. From 1998 through 2011 there were 148 disease outbreaks related to raw milk or raw milk products, leading to 284 hospitalizations and two deaths. "It's kind of like riding in a car with seatbelts," said Kathryn Boor, dean of Cornell University’s school’s Agriculture and Life Sciences, who was not involved in the study. "If you've got the opportunity for a safety barrier, which would be pasteurization, why wouldn't you use it?" Read more on food safety.
Study: Lack of Sleep in Kids Increases Blood Pressure
Lack of adequate sleep can lead to higher blood pressure even in children who are a healthy weight, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Monitoring 143 Chinese youth in a sleep lab, the researchers determined that one fewer hour of sleep per night increased systolic blood pressure by 2 millimeters of mercury (mm/Hg) and diastolic blood pressure by 1 mm/Hg. All of the participants, ages 10-18, were normal weight and did not have sleep apnea. "Pediatricians must screen for diabetes, and [high blood pressure] in teenagers with sleep loss besides screening for snoring and sleep apnea in obese teenagers," said Sanjeev Kothare, MD, a pediatric sleep expert at NYU Langone Medical Center, who was not involved in the study. The National Sleep Foundation recommends 10-11 hours of sleep per night for children ages 5-12, and at least 8.5 hours per night for teenagers. Read more on pediatrics.
More than 10,000 public health officials, academics and students will gather in Boston next week for the 2013 American Public Health Association Meeting in Boston. This year’s theme is “Think Global, Act Local,” drawing critical attention to the increasingly global world of health where events across the globe—from food safety, to infectious disease outbreaks, to innovative public health solutions—can impact every local neighborhood.
>>NewPublicHealth will be on the ground at the APHA Annual Meeting, with speaker and thought-leader interviews, video perspective pieces and updates from sessions, with a focus on what it takes to build a culture of health. Follow our coverage here.
Ahead of the annual meeting, NewPublicHealth spoke with Georges Benjamin MD, APHA executive director.
NewPublicHealth: Why is the theme “Think Global, Act Local” so important?
Georges Benjamin: We’re in a world in which everything is global. There are no boundaries anymore. Rapid transit through planes, the fact that our borders are so porous...public health has always been a global enterprise, but even more so today. Our food comes no longer from a single farm but from multiple farms and sometimes multiple countries, so foodborne risks for disease and illness are global. We’ve seen that terrorism disasters are global. We’ve seen that obesity, particularly with corporations that sell certain products globally, is a big issue, and tobacco has always been a global issue. So, public health is global, and the idea is that if we can learn from people around the world and then utilize those learnings within our local communities, we’ll be stronger
NPH: What are some of the meeting sessions you’d highlight?
Benjamin: Our opening session will feature Professor Sir Michael Marmot, Director of the International Institute for Society and Health and Research Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at University College, London, who spoke at our meeting five years ago on the social determinants of health and is going to give us an update. In the closing session, we’ll hear from actor/physician/public health doctor, Evan Adams, MD, the deputy provincial health officer for British Columbia, who will speak about improving the health of native people. So in both our opening and closing sessions we’re looking globally, as well as emphasizing what happens locally. We’ll also hear from the minister of health of Taiwan, who will talk about universal health care as well as violence prevention. And we’ll also be holding sessions that track the many public crises that we’ve already had this year.
In honor of World Polio Day, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will highlight polio eradication work around the globe on Twitter and Facebook. Development of the polio vaccine has reduced the disease worldwide by 99 percent, with only Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan as the remaining polio endemic countries in 2012.
But both in endemic countries and in countries where polio was thought to have been vanquished, cases persist. According to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, just this week eleven new wild poliovirus (WPV) cases were reported, including one from Afghanistan, two from Ethiopia, four from Pakistan and four from Somalia. The total number of WPV cases for 2013 is now 296, with 99 from countries that have not yet been able to eradicate the disease and 197 from countries that have seen outbreaks. In Israel, for example, while no cases of paralytic polio have been reported, environmental surveillance suggests that virus transmission (first detected in February 2013) continues in parts of the country’s southern and central regions. A vaccination campaign for children under age ten is ongoing.
On December 2, 2011, CDC Director Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, activated CDC’s Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to strengthen the agency’s partnership engagement through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Activation of the EOC has provided enhanced capacity for CDC’s polio eradication support program, which trains public health volunteers in the United States and globally to improve polio surveillance and help plan, implement and evaluate vaccination campaigns.
Additional EOC activities include:
- Publication of several joint World Health Organization Weekly Epidemiologic Record/CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWR) highlighting polio eradication progress.
- Collaboration with GPEI partners on detailed country-plans for expanded technical and management support, including assistance with outbreak responses, surveillance reviews, vaccination campaign planning and monitoring, and data management.
- Provision of operational support to Nigeria for the country’s FY 2012 Polio Eradication Emergency Response Plan. The plan focuses on enhancing management and leadership skills to improve program performance.
- The development of indicators for monitoring polio vaccination campaign performance in the areas of planning, implementation and evaluation.
- Review of WHO-proposed outbreak response protocols for all polio-affected countries.
“If we fail to get over the finish line [to fully eradicate polio],” says Frieden, “we will need to continue expensive control measures for the indefinite future…More importantly, without eradication, a resurgence of polio could paralyze more than 200,000 children worldwide every year within a decade.”