Search Results for: cancer

Jul 14 2014
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Recommended Reading: Health Affairs and RWJF Primer on E-Cigarettes

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The public comment period for rules regulating the sale and use of e-cigarettes proposed in April by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ends on August 8, after which the agency is expected to release final rules governing the products. Experts say the timing is critical because sales of the products—which weren’t even on the market a decade ago—are heating up, with revenues approaching $1 billion a year, according to Forbes Magazine.

Last week, Health Affairs and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) released a health policy brief about e-cigarettes that sets out key issues concerning the products and provides important background, particularly for people poised to comment on the FDA’s proposed rules.

Among the issues the policy brief addresses are e-cigarette safety; whether the devices ought to be regulated as a medical (smoking cessation) device or as a cigarette; and whether e-cigarettes pose a risk as a “gateway” drug to tobacco products. It notes that the FDA is currently funding close to 40 studies on e-cigarettes.

The issue is especially critical because sales to kids and teens are increasing, and there is still insufficient information on whether the vapor emitted by the devices pose a cancer risk. A 2013 study of 40,000 middle and high school students around the country by researchers at UC San Francisco found that e-cigarette use in that group doubled between 2011 and 2012, from 3.1 percent to 6.5 percent.

Read the policy brief from Health Affairs and RWJF.

>>Bonus Link: Read a NewPublicHealth post on initiatives by major cities to regulate the sale and use of e-cigarettes. 

Jul 9 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: July 9

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Study: Global Child TB Rates 25 Percent Higher than Previously Realized
The true number of children who develop tuberculosis (TB) each year in the 22 countries with the worst TB rates is nearly 25 percent higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated as recently as 2012, according to a new study in The Lancet Global Health. Researchers used mathematical modeling to determine that approximately 650,000 children in these countries develop TB each year; the WHO estimate was 530,000. The study also determined that approximately 15 million children are exposed to TB every year and 53 million are living with latent TB infections which can become infectious active TB. While the findings are troubling, they also indicate promising ways to reduce the risk. "Our findings highlight an enormous opportunity for preventive antibiotic treatment among the 15 million children younger than 15 years of age who are living in the same household as an adult with infectious TB,” said lead author Peter Dodd, MD, from the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom, in a release. "Wider use of isoniazid therapy for these children as a preventative measure would probably substantially reduce the numbers of children who go on to develop the disease." Read more on global health.

Severe Obesity Can Cut a Person’s Lifespan by Nearly 14 Years
Severe obesity can take nearly 14 years off a person’s life, according to a new study in the journal PLOS Medicine. Using data from 20 previous studies, researchers determined that severe obesity—defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 40—can cut lives short by anywhere from 6.5 to 13.7 years, due to increased risk of health problems such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes. "We found that the death rates in severely obese adults were about 2.5 times higher than in adults in the normal weight range," said lead investigator Cari Kitahara, a research fellow at the U.S. National Cancer Institute, according to HealthDay. Approximately 6 percent of U.S. adults are severely obese; severe obesity accounts for approximately 509 deaths per 100,000 men annually and 382 deaths per 100,000 women annually. Read more on obesity.

HHS: $100M for 150 New Community Health Centers
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has announced approximately $100 million in available funds for communities to expand access to affordable, high-quality primary care through an estimated 150 new community health centers in 2015. Currently there are approximately 1,300 health centers with more than 9,200 service sites providing care to more than 21 million people in the United States and its territories. The centers, made possible under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), have also helped approximately 4.7 million people enroll for ACA coverage. Read more on community health.

Jul 1 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: July 1

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Study: New Requirements Needed for Hand Hygiene for Anesthesia Providers
Anesthesia providers frequently miss identified opportunities to clean their hands during surgical procedures, with the points immediately before patient contact and immediately after contact with the patient’s environment the times when they are least likely to practice proper hand hygiene, according to a new study in the American Journal of Infection Control. However, the findings also point to a larger problem: Complete compliance with all hand hygiene guidelines would take so much time that there would be no time to actually perform any procedures. The findings indicate “a need to create more practical—but still effective—methods of controlling bacterial transmission in anesthesia work environments.” Read more on prevention.

HHS: $840M to Help State, Local Agencies Improve Disaster Preparedness
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has awarded approximately $840 million in grants to help state and local public health and health care systems improve their emergency response preparedness. Distributed through the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) and the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program, the funds will ensure that communities are prepared to respond to an array of emergencies, including infectious disease outbreaks, natural disasters, or chemical, biological, or radiological nuclear events. “Community and state preparedness is essential to the health security of all Americans,” said Nicole Lurie, MD, assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), in a release. “Events in the last few years have demonstrated how critical it is for health systems across the country to be ready and able to respond quickly and effectively.” Read more on disasters.

ACP: Annual Pelvic Exams Not Needed for Asymptomatic Women
Annual pelvic exams for women do more harm than good and should not be a routine part of health care for women who are not pregnant or who show no other signs of pelvic problems, according to new guidelines from the American College of Physicians (ACP). In a review, researchers found no studies on the effectiveness of pelvic exams in identifying cancers, infections and other health issues that they are commonly used to find. Researchers stressed that their findings only apply to pelvic exams and that women should still undergo recommended cervical cancer screening. Read more on prevention.

 

Jun 27 2014
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Buildings that Heal — Spotlight: Health Q&A with Michael Murphy, MASS Design Group

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At this week’s Spotlight: Health conference at the Aspen Ideas Festival, Michael Murphy of the MASS Design Group will be part of a panel called “Buildings that Heal.” Murphy is a recent recipient of a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) for a two-year year research initiative to investigate effective and innovative models of health care facilities in Rwanda and other Sub-Saharan African countries. The goal is to gauge the implications for community health and economic development and then disseminate the findings in order to help improve facilities in the United States.

NewPublicHealth spoke with Murphy ahead of the Spotlight: Health conference. 

file Michael Murphy, MASS Design Group

NewPublicHealth: Tell us about the scope of your work.

Michael Murphy: I’m an architect and designer by training, and I launched MASS Design with my partner, Alan Ricks, around designing built environments to improve health outcomes. We have been working with a number of NGOs in the global south, thinking about the way that hospitals are designed and the built environment, and seeing very specific and direct links between our built environment and the health of our individual selves and our communities. We were struck by the direct links between the two, and how un-designed those environments are when they could be so easily shifted to improve people’s health.

NPH: Where have you done your work?

Murphy: We have an office in Rwanda where we built the Butaro Hospital in Northern Rwanda, together with the healthcare nonprofit Partners in Health. That first opportunity came about after meeting with the group and seeing that they were doing a lot of their work without the help of designers and architects. We were given the opportunity to assist their infrastructure team to help them rethink hospitals. We finished Butaro Hospital in 2011 and since then have brought this model to other countries, eight of which are in Africa: Tanzania, Uganda, Gabon, Liberia, Zambia, Malawi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Haiti.

So, we have quite a bit of experience thinking about the health care environments that are affecting some of the more vulnerable communities in the world, and we encountered some real insights that could actually vastly improve the way in which we think about our health care environments back at home in the United States.

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Jun 27 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: June 27

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FDA Approves for Marketing a Motorized Walking Suit for People with Spinal Cord Injuries
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved for marketing a device called the ReWalk, which is the first motorized device intended to act as an exoskeleton for people with lower body paralysis from a spinal cord injury. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are about 200,000 people in the United States living with a spinal cord injury. ReWalk consists of a fitted, metal brace that supports the legs and part of the upper body; motors that supply movement at the hips, knees and ankles; a tilt sensor; and a backpack that contains the computer and power supply. Crutches provide the user with additional stability when walking, standing and rising up from a chair. Using a wireless remote control worn on the wrist, the user commands ReWalk to stand up, sit down or walk. Read more on disability.

One in 10 Deaths Among Working-Age Adults is Due to Excessive Drinking
Excessive alcohol use accounts for one in 10 deaths among working-age adults ages 20-64 years in the United States, according to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and published in Preventing Chronic Disease. Excessive alcohol use led to approximately 88,000 deaths per year from 2006 to 2010, and shortened the lives of those who died by about 30 years. The deaths were due to health effects from drinking too much over time, such as breast cancer, liver disease and heart disease; and health effects from drinking too much in a short period of time, such as violence, alcohol poisoning and motor vehicle crashes. In total, there were 2.5 million years of potential life lost each year due to excessive alcohol use. Nearly 70 percent of deaths due to excessive drinking involved working-age adults, and about 70 percent of the deaths involved males. About 5 percent of the deaths involved people under age 21. The highest death rate due to excessive drinking was in New Mexico (51 deaths per 100,000 population) and the lowest was in New Jersey (19.1 per 100,000). Read more on substance abuse.

Men and Women Use Mental Health Services Differently
Women with chronic physical illnesses are more likely to use mental health services than men with similar illnesses, and they also seek out mental health services six months earlier than those same men, according to new study from St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Canada and published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. The study looked at people diagnosed with at least one of four physical illnesses: Diabetes, high blood pressure, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The researchers found that among those with at least one of these four illnesses, women were 10 percent more likely to use mental health services than men, and within any three-year period women with physical illness used medical services for mental health treatment six months earlier than men. The researchers say the results may imply that women are more comfortable than men with seeking mental health support; that symptoms are worse among women, requiring more women to seek help and sooner; or that men defer seeking treatment for mental health concerns. Read more on mental health.

Jun 26 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: June 26

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‘I Got Tested’ Campaign Promotes Importance of Knowing Your HIV Status
A new public information campaign from Greater Than AIDS is using real-life stories to advocate the importance of knowing your HIV/AIDS status. The “I Got Tested” campaign will place materials in clinics to support providers in HIV outreach; provide free HIV testing in select Walgreens pharmacies; and promote hotlines and online resources provided by departments of health and agencies, as well as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Despite overwhelming evidence that early diagnosis and treatment play an important role both in the health of those who are positive and in reducing the spread of HIV, many Americans at highest risk for infection still have not been tested,” said Tina Hoff, Senior Vice President and Director of Health Communication and Media Partnerships at the Kaiser Family Foundation, a co-founding partner of Greater Than AIDS, in a release. “This campaign is about helping to reduce the stigma surrounding HIV testing, to encourage patients to ask their providers to get tested, and to connect people with services in their communities.” Read more on HIV/AIDS.

Court: NYC’s ‘Soda Ban’ is Illegal
New York City’s ban on large sugary drinks—often referred to as former Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s “soda ban”—is illegal, according to a 4-2 ruling from the state Court of Appeals. The court found that the local health board that passed the regulation overstepped its authority. "By choosing among competing policy goals, without any legislative delegation or guidance, the Board engaged in law-making and thus infringed upon the legislative jurisdiction of the City Council of New York," wrote Judge Eugene Pigott for the majority. The soda ban was one of several public health initiatives pushed by Bloomberg, along with a ban on cigarettes in certain public spaces and a ban on trans fats from restaurants. Read more on nutrition.

Study: 3 Hours of Television Per Day Can Double Risk of Early Death
Watching more than three hours of television per day may double a person’s risk of an early death, compared to someone who watches less than one hour per day, according to a surprising new study in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Researchers tracked more than 13,000 seemingly healthy adults in Spain, finding that for every two additional hours a person spent watching television, their risk of death from heart disease climbed 44 percent, their cancer death risk climbed 21 percent and their risk of premature death climbed 55 percent for all other causes. The study found no such link for other sedentary causes, including working at a computer and driving. Read more on physical activity.

Jun 25 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: June 25

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HHS’ Million Hearts Initiative Launches Health Eating Resource Center
The Million Hearts initiative from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has launched a new online resource center to promote healthier eating by individuals and families. The Healthy Eating and Lifestyle Resource Center features lower-sodium, heart-healthy recipes and family-friendly meal plans, and emphasizes managing sodium intake. The searchable recipes include nutritional facts and use everyday ingredients. “This resource helps people see that it’s not about giving up the food you love, but choosing lower sodium options that taste great," said Tom Frieden, MD, Director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Small changes can make a big difference.  We can prevent 11 million cases of high blood pressure each year if everyone reduced their daily sodium intake to 2,300 mg.” The Million Hearts initiative was launched with the goal of preventing 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017. Read more on nutrition.

3-D Mammograms Improve Breast Cancer Detection Rate, Reduce Recall Rate
Tomosynthesis—also known as 3-D mammography—can increase the detection rate of breast cancer while also decreasing false positives that can lead to multiple and unnecessary re-tests, according to a new study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Researchers analyzed the results of 454,850 examinations, finding that when 3-D mammography was combined with traditional digital mammograms the detection rate for breast cancer climbed 40 percent while there was a 15 percent decrease in the recall rate, or the percentage of women who needed additional screening due to inconclusive results. The findings come as more and more hospitals and physicians are turning to 3-D mammography. The researchers cautioned that more study was needed into the relatively new technology. Read more on cancer.

AAP: Reading to Young Kids Starting in Infancy Improves Literacy Later in Life
Read to your kids—aloud and every day—starting as early as their infancy. That’s the latest recommendation from the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) Council on Early Childhood. The policy statement is set to appear in the August print issue of the journal Pediatrics. "This is the first time the AAP has called out literacy promotion as being an essential component of primary care pediatric practice," said statement author Pamela High, MD, director of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at Hasbro Children's Hospital in Providence, R.I., and a professor at Brown University. "Fewer than half of children are being read to every day by their families, and that number hasn't really changed since 2003. It's a public health message to parents of all income groups, that this early shared reading is both fun and rewarding." According to the AAP, reading proficiency in the third grade is the most important predictor of eventual high school graduation, but approximately two-thirds of all U.S. children and 80 percent of kids living in poverty finish third grade lacking in reading proficiency. Reading aloud to a young child can promote literacy while also strengthening family ties. Read more on pediatrics.

Jun 24 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: June 24

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HUD Releases Progress Report on Rebuilding After Hurricane Sandy
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Sandy Program Management Office has issued its first report tracking progress on the Sandy Rebuilding Strategy. “While this report shows we are following through on [our rebuilding commitment] we also recognize that many families and business are still on the road to recovery and delays in connecting them to the services and support they need are often too long,” said HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan. “Although more work needs to be done, HUD and the federal government will continue coordinating with local officials until the region has recovered and we meet all the goals of the Sandy Rebuilding Strategy.”

The report tracks progress on several goals set by HUD, including:

  • Promoting resilient rebuilding
  • Restoring and strengthening homes and providing families with safe, affordable housing options
  • Supporting small businesses and revitalizing local economies
  • Addressing insurance challenges and affordability
  • Building state and local capacity to plan for and implement long-term recovery and rebuilding
  • Improving data sharing between federal, state and local officials

Read more on Hurricane Sandy.

New Report Finds Tobacco Companies Have Made Cigarettes Even More Addictive and Deadly
Design changes and chemical additives introduced by tobacco companies in recent decades have made cigarettes more addictive, more attractive to kids and even more deadly, according to a new report, Designed for Addiction, released by the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids.

The report finds that tobacco companies have:

  • Made cigarettes more addictive by controlling and increasing nicotine levels and enhancing the impact of nicotine.
  • Made cigarettes more attractive to kids by adding flavorings such as licorice and chocolate that mask the harshness of the smoke, menthol that makes the smoke feel smoother and other chemicals that expand the lungs’ airways and make it easier to inhale.
  • Added ingredients that make cigarettes even more deadly, according to a Surgeon General's report on tobacco and health, released in January which found that smokers today have a much higher risk of lung cancer than smokers in 1964, when the first Surgeon General's report disclosed the harms caused by smoking.

Read more on tobacco.

CDC to Launch Fourth ‘Tips From Former Smokers’ Series
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will be launching its next “Tips from Former Smokers” series on July 7. The ads will run nationwide for nine weeks on television, radio and billboards, as well as online, in theaters, in magazines and in newspapers. According to the CDC, the Tips national tobacco education campaign has helped hundreds of thousands of smokers quit since it began in 2012.

“These new ads are powerful. They highlight illnesses and suffering caused by smoking that people don’t commonly associate with cigarette use,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Smokers have told us these ads help them quit by showing what it’s like to live every day with disability and disfigurement from smoking.”

Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States, according to the CDC, and kills about 480,000 Americans each year. More than 16 million Americans are living with a smoking-related disease. For every person who dies from a smoking-related disease, about 30 more people suffer at least one serious illness from smoking.

The most recent “Tips” campaign resulted in more than 100,000 additional calls made to 800-QUIT-NOW. On average, weekly quitline calls were up 80 percent while the ads were on the air, compared to the week before they began running. Read more on tobacco.

Jun 20 2014
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Faces of Public Health: James Perrin, MD, American Academy of Pediatrics

file James M. Perrin, MD

Earlier this week the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) hosted a daylong Symposium on Child Health, Resilience & Toxic Stress in Washington, D.C. that brought together federal government officials, national thought leaders and medical professionals to discuss the emerging science of toxic stress.

According to the AAP, science shows that adversity experienced in childhood has long-lasting physical and emotional effects that have come be known as "toxic stress.” Toxic stress can occur when a child experiences chronic adversity without access to stable, supportive relationships with caring adults. These adverse childhood experiences can include physical and emotional abuse; neglect; exposure to violence; food insecurity; and economic hardship. An AAP 2011 policy statement found that toxic stress can affect a child's brain development and lead to the presence of many adult diseases, including heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease and liver disease.

“[Currently], there are more randomized trials for leukemia than for effects of stress on children,” said James S. Marks, MD, MPH, senior vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, at the symposium. “This is about more than our children—it’s about our future as a people and a society, and the earlier you invest in children the better the return to society and to those children and families.”

During the symposium, the AAP announced the formation of the Center on Healthy, Resilient Children to launch in the next year or so, which will be a national effort coordinated by the AAP and many partners to support healthy brain development and prevent toxic stress. In addition to prevention efforts to keep children healthy, the Center will focus on ways to help pediatricians and others identify children who have experienced adversity and toxic stress and ensure they have access to appropriate interventions and supports.

"Pediatricians envision a world in which every child has every opportunity to become a healthy, successful adult," said James M. Perrin, MD, president of the AAP. "Achieving this will require strong, sustained investments in the health of the whole child, brain and body. It will require building upon our existing work and forging new partnerships across sectors and fields of expertise.”

NewPublicHealth spoke with Perrin following the symposium

NewPublicHealth: How familiar are pediatricians with the evidence surrounding the burden and response to toxic stress in children and families?

James Perrin: I think there is increasing awareness of toxic stress in pediatric practice, not only in community practice, but in our specialty practices, too. I think people are recognizing how critically important toxic stress is to the developing child and developing brain. And the increasing science in this area has been incredibly helpful for us to understand the potential permanent effects of toxic stress. But we also want to focus on positive ways to affect brain development. Reading to children, for example, affects brain development and brain growth in positive ways. 

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Jun 17 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: June 17

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NIH Releases Tools to Help Older Adults Quit Smoking
While overall U.S. smoking rates are dropping, approximately 10 percent of adults over the age of 65 still smoke. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has created a new online resource with videos, worksheets, interactive tools, strategies, quizzes and more to help older smokers who are thinking about quitting. “Most older adults know that smoking is harmful, and many have tried unsuccessfully to quit, often a number of times. But stopping smoking is a difficult goal that still eludes many older smokers,” said Erik Augustson, program director of the Tobacco Control Research Branch at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), which developed the topic for NIHSeniorHealth. “This new topic, which offers a mix of tips and tools geared to the needs and experiences of older smokers, is an important, easy-to-use resource that can benefit those trying to quit for the first time as well as those who have tried before.” Read more on tobacco.

AHA: Only One-third of Cancer Patients with Heart Problems Seek Proper Treatment
Approximately 12 percent of older breast cancer patients go on to develop heart failure within three years—often as a result of their cancer treatment—but only one-third of those patients sought the help of a cardiologist within 90 days of experiencing heart problems, according to the American Heart Association. Patients who do not see a cardiologist are less likely to receive the standard therapy for heart failure, putting them at risk of lower quality of care and demonstrating an important area where oncologists and cardiologists can collaborate, according to Jersey Chen, MD, MPH, lead author of the study and a research scientist and cardiologist at Kaiser Permanente. “The bottom line is, if you have breast cancer and you’re treated with anthracyclines or trastuzumab, you should know they have side effects,” said Chen in a release. “And if you have symptoms of heart problems like shortness of breath or swelling in the feet or legs, seek attention quickly, preferably with doctors familiar and comfortable with treating heart failure after cancer therapy.” Read more on heart health.

Long Hours Spent Sitting Linked to Higher Risk for Colon, Endometrial Cancers
Previous studies have linked extended time spent sitting to health problems such as heart disease, blood clots, higher blood sugar and even early death. According to a new study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, you can now add increased risk for colon and endometrial cancers to the list. Researchers analyzed the findings of 43 studies covering 70,000 cases of cancer, determining that:

  • People who spent the most time sitting during the day had a 24 percent increased risk of getting colon cancer
  • People who spent the most time sitting in front of a television has a 54 percent increased risk for colon cancer
  • There was a 32 percent increased risk for endometrial—or uterine—cancer for women who spent the most time seated and a 66 percent increased risk for those who watched the most television
  • Every two-hour increase in sitting time was linked to an 8 percent increased risk of colon cancer and a 10 percent increased risk of endometrial cancer

Read more on cancer.