Search Results for: antibiotic
Obese Children More Susceptible to Air Pollution-Related Asthma
Obese children are more susceptible to air pollution-related asthma, according to a new study in the journal Environmental Research. Researchers followed the health of 311 children, ages 5 and 6, in predominantly Dominican and African-American neighborhoods of New York City, finding that high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)—a family of air pollutants—was only associated with asthma among obese children The study determined that obese children exposed to the PAH chemicals 1-methylphenanthrene and 9- methylphenanthrene were two to three times more likely to have asthma. PAHs are emitted by vehicles, cigarette smoke, cooking, incense, burning candles and various other indoor sources. Two possible explanations for the disparity are that obese children tend to be less active, so are more likely to be exposed to indoors sources of PAH, and that they may breathe more rapidly than children of healthier weights Better understanding of the risk factors opens the door to more targeted interventions. “These findings suggest that we may be able to bring down childhood asthma rates by curbing indoor, as well as outdoor, air pollution and by implementing age-appropriate diet and exercise programs,” said senior author Rachel Miller, MD, professor of medicine (in pediatrics) and environmental health sciences, and co-deputy director of the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health at the Mailman School of Public Health. Read more on pediatrics.
Report: Antibiotics Dangerous to Humans Still Used in Livestock
Despite knowing their risk to humans, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) continues to allow the use of certain antibiotics as additives in animal feed and water, according to a new report from the Natural Resources Defense Council based on documents acquired under the Freedom of Information Act. In a review from 2001 to 2010 the FDA concluded that 30 such antibiotics posed a significant risk of exposing people to antibiotic- resistance bacteria. The drugs were approved for “non-therapeutic” use in farm animals, such as preventing disease or promoting growth of the animals, instead of treating specific illnesses. In December the FDA announced its intention to combat the spread of antibacterial resistance by prohibiting the use of medically important antimicrobials in food animals for food production purposes, while also adding veterinary oversight to therapeutic use of the drugs in animals. Read more on food safety.
Residents of Public Housing Developments, Rental Assistance Units See Significant Gap in Oral Health Care
People who live in public housing developments and rental assistance units are less likely to have routine preventive dental care and more likely to have suffered serious oral health issues related to tooth loss, according to a new study in The Journal of Urban Health. The study was conducted by the Partners in Health and Housing Prevention Research Center (PHH-PRC) at the Boston University School of Public Health. The researchers looked at four indicators for people living in Boston’s publicly supported housing: having had a dental visit in the last year, having had a dental cleaning in the last year, having had six or more teeth extracted, and having dental insurance. They found that people in public housing, despite being as likely to have had a dental visit in the past year, were significantly less likely to have had a cleaning. The gap in health care is especially serious for the seniors in this already vulnerable population: Compared to younger residents, seniors 65-75 years old were 30 times as likely to have had six or more teeth removed. Read more on prevention.
FDA Looking to Revise Nutrition Fact Labels
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is looking to revise nutrition fact labels for the first time in more than two decades. The changes should reflect our improved understanding of nutrition, according to nutritionists. "The food environment has changed and our dietary guidance has changed," said Michael Taylor, the FDA's deputy commissioner for foods. "It's important to keep this updated so what is iconic doesn't become a relic." For example, there is now more of a focus on calories and better understanding of the different types of fats. Nutrition experts also have called for more prominent calorie counts, as well as information on added sugar and the percentage of whole wheat in the food. The FDA has sent its proposed guidelines to the White House. Read more on nutrition.
Study: ERs Need to do More to Cut Unnecessary Antibiotic Prescriptions
Despite growing concerns over antibiotic resistance, emergency departments are not decreasing their inappropriate use of antibiotics, according to a new study in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Researchers analyzed data from 2001 to 2010, finding no decrease in emergency department use of antibiotics for adults with respiratory infections caused by viruses, which are not affected by antibiotics. There are approximately 126 million emergency department visits for acute respiratory infections each year in the United States. Halting excessive and unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions in emergency departments is especially critical because many uninsured people also look to them for primary care. "The observed lack of change...is concerning," study co-author Henry Wang, MD, vice chair for research in the department of emergency medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. "This may indicate that efforts to curtail inappropriate antibiotic use have not been effective or have not yet been implemented in all medical settings." Read more on prescription drugs.
CDC: Strategies on Reducing Sodium Levels in Restaurants
A new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) includes strategies on how health departments and restaurants can work together to lower the amount of sodium in foods. The report, “From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants,” appears in the CDC journal Preventing Chronic Disease. While the U. S. Dietary Guidelines recommend the general population limit sodium to under 2,300 mg a day, meals from fast food restaurants contain an average of 1,848 mg of sodium per 1,000 calories and foods from dine-in restaurants contain 2,090 mg of sodium per 1,000 calories. The strategies include:
- Health department dietitians help restaurants analyze the sodium content of their foods and recommend lower-sodium ingredients.
- Restaurants clearly post nutrition information, including sodium content, at the order counter and on menus or offer lower-sodium items at lower cost.
- Health departments and restaurants explain to food service staff why lower sodium foods are healthier and how to prepare them.
“The bottom line is that it’s both possible and life-saving to reduce sodium, and this can be done by reducing, replacing and reformulating,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “When restaurants rethink how they prepare food and the ingredients they choose to use, healthier options become routine for customers.” Read more on the CDC.
For “Outbreak Week” we’ve already covered the deadliest pandemics in human history. But which outbreaks could be around the corner? Outbreaks: Protecting Americans from Infectious Diseases, 2013, the new report from Trust for America’s Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, lays out a few possibilities on which infectious diseases may pose the more serious threats in the future. Here are the greatest threats to the United States, according to Tom Inglesby, MD, Chief Executive Officer and Director of the UPMC Center for Health Security.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
Spread across 12 countries, the virus has killed almost 40 percent of the people it’s infected. And while it may currently be confined to one region of the world, the high level of air travel between the Middle East and the United States increase the chance that it could find its way into the country, according to Inglesby, who said “we still don’t have a good handle on how it spreads, and there is no treatment for it or vaccine against it.”
Novel influenza virus
A new flu strain that, like the seasonal flu, is far reaching, but which would have a “far higher mortality rate.” Recent examples of major flu pandemics include the 2009 H1N1 outbreak; recent studies indicate the swine flu may have killed more than 200,000 people. The new H7N9 is also notable because of its high mortality rate.
Accident involving a lethal engineered virus
With scientists experimenting on viruses — enhancing their lethality or ability to spread — the risk grows of an accident releasing an engineered virus into the population.
It’s the most common infectious disease in the world and drug-resistant strains are only making the matter worse. “The level of drug resistance is growing and coping with this needs to be a real priority,” said Inglesby.
Not a pathogen, but a reason why pathogens could become even more dangerous. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is taking steps to combat this growing issue, including new regulations on antimicrobial use in food animals and new restrictions on antibacterial soaps.
Deliberate biological threats
A biological attack, whether from another nation or as a terrorist act, could cause not only severe illness and death, but also communication problems that would hinder the ability of public health departments to respond.
Climate change is making this already existing problem even greater—with the regional climate shifts, places that haven’t had to deal with mosquito-based threats are now seeing them swarm in because of the warmer weather. Notable examples include the West Nile Virus and Dengue Fever. “We need to reinvigorate our strategy for mosquito control and the infectious diseases that come with mosquitoes.
We've declared this week "Outbreak Week" on NewPublicHealth, and we're using it as an opportunity to crystallize discussion among the public health community and beyond about whether we're prepared as a nation to handle the next big outbreak. Spread the word, not the germs.
Here are the highlights of our coverage this week:
- Top 5 Things You Didn't Know Spread Disease: We all know to be wary of mosquitos and ticks, but there are plenty of other ways diseases can spread that may not be top of mind. Are you prepared?
- The 5 Deadliest Outbreaks and Pandemics in History: A modern outbreak could be a virus that kills a couple hundred thousand, or simply an infected shipment of food that left dozens sick. However, a look back through history reveals outbreaks so expansive—so deadly—that they essentially changed the course of history.
- Outbreak Week Q&A on Vaccines with Litjen (L.J) Tan: 45,000 adults and 1,000 kids die each year from vaccine-preventable diseases. Where are the gaps and how can we close them?
- State Vaccine Exemptions' Impact on Vaccination Rates: A new study finds that non-medical exemption laws for vaccines required for school or daycare admission have significantly impacted the vaccination rates of at least one disease.
- INFOGRAPHIC: A Close Look at How Prepared We Are For the Next Outbreak: From antibiotic-resistant superbugs to the seasonal flu to Salmonella, infectious diseases are a serious health threat that also cost individuals and the health care industry billions.
- Outbreaks on the Big Screen: When outbreaks hit the big screen is it good for public health or does it make people panic?
- Where Polio Remains a Threat: Outbreak Week Q&A with Sona Bari: Bari of the World Health Organization discusses polio's resurgence as a critical global health issue and efforts to eradicate the disease globally.
- Throwback Thursday: Zombie Apocalypse: The CDC urged folks to prepare for the zombie apocalypse — with a goal of boosting overall preparedness for real health threats and disasters, back in 2011. Did it work?
- Outbreak Response Dream Team: Which pop culture characters would you want on your team with the diverse skills to respond to and cure a deadly, worldwide epidemic?
- Digital Outbreak Response: A roundup of how the digital world is working to improve emergency preparedness and outbreak response.
CDC’s Top Accomplishments for 2013 Include Progress in Curtailing Outbreaks
A review by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of progress in 2013 include improvements in preventing and curtailing infectious disease and foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States and globally:
- More than 12,000 facilities now track health care-associated infections using CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), and bloodstream infections in patients with central lines have decreased by 44 percent and surgical-site infections have decreased by 20 percent since 2008.
- 2013 marks the 10th anniversary of the U.S. President’s Plan for Emergency AIDS Relief(PEPFAR). In 2013, PEPFAR prevented the one millionth baby from being infected with HIV and has 6.7 million people on treatment, with HIV incidence falling in nearly all PEPFAR countries.
- CDC published its first estimates of which foods were causing foodborne illnesses in the United States, referred to as Attribution Estimates. These estimates help regulators, industry and consumers more precisely target and implement effective measures to prevent food contamination, and allow people to use it to help guide their own food safety practices.
- CDC scientists traced the newly discovered Heartland virus that infected two men from northwestern Missouri to populations of lone star ticks in the region. This discovery helps CDC stay one step ahead of what could become another public health threat carried by ticks.
- In conjunction with public health officials in Eurasia’s Republic of Georgia, CDC helped identify a new poxvirus (related to smallpox) that sickened shepherds in Akhmeta, Georgia. The successful investigation shows that rapid detection saves precious time during response to emerging health threats.
- CDC researchers found that two new antibiotic regimens using existing drugs successfully treat gonorrhea infections. This is especially important given growing antibiotic resistance and dwindling treatment options for gonorrhea.
Read more on infectious disease.
‘Consumer Reports’ Study Finds Harmful Bacteria in Many Samples of Chicken Sold in the United States
A new investigation of the safety of chicken breasts sold in retail stores across the United States by Consumer Reports found potentially harmful bacteria on 97 percent of the samples tested. And about half of the chicken samples had at least one type of bacteria that was resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics. “We are looking to the government to ensure the safety and sustainability of the entire food supply,” said Urvashi Rangan, PHD, executive director of the Consumer Reports Food Safety and Sustainability Center. “We need to attack the root causes of the problems. Without a government focus on effective solutions, meat safety will continue to be compromised.” Consumer Reports has several recommendations for the U.S. government aimed at reducing bacterial contamination in the food supply:
- Congress should give the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) the authority to mandate a recall of meat and poultry products.
- The FDA should prohibit antibiotic use in food animals except for the treatment of sick ones. (According to Consumer Reports, FDA’s action last week giving voluntary guidance to drug companies to end labeling of antibiotics for growth promotion uses is an important first step, but is far from what is needed overall.)
- The USDA should classify strains of salmonella bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics and known to have caused disease as “adulterants,” so that inspectors look for those strains routinely and when found, the products cannot be sold.
- The USDA should move quickly to set strict levels for allowable salmonella and campylobacter in chicken parts.
- The USDA’s proposed rule to increase maximum line speeds and reduce the number of USDA inspectors at slaughter plants should be dropped.
Read more on bacteria.
Health Insurers Extend Deadline for Many 2013 Health Insurance Premium Payments
The trade association for many health insurance plans has announced that many plans will be extending the deadline for consumers to pay their first month’s premium. Consumers who select their plans by December 23 and pay their premiums by January 10 will be able to have coverage effective January 1. Under current rules and guidance, consumers who want to begin coverage on January 1 must select a plan by December 23 and pay the first month’s premium by December 31. The short time period in which to complete these steps, particularly around the holidays, combined with the ongoing technical issues with the Affordable Care Act insurance purchasing site healthcare.gov have raised concerns that some consumers’ coverage may not be able to begin on January 1. The association, America’s Health Insurance Plans, is urging consumers to check with the plan they have selected for more details about their specific coverage policy. Read more on the Affordable Care Act.
From antibiotic-resistant superbugs to the seasonal flu to Salmonella, infectious diseases are a serious health threat that also cost individuals and the health care industry billions. A new report from Trust for America’s Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Outbreaks: Protecting Americans from Infectious Diseases, assesses gaps in our public health system that could severely limit our ability to effectively respond to an outbreak.
NewPublicHealth created an infographic that illustrates many of the key findings of the new report.
BSR: More and More, Private Sector Being Asked to Improve Population Health
Traditionally, health efforts fall under the purview of human resources—not corporate social responsibility (CSR)—in the business world. However, companies are playing an increasingly important role in not only health improvement efforts for their own employees, but also in population health for their larger communities. Increasingly, consumers are demanding this from companies to support their CSR work, as reported by Fast Company. That's also the subject of a BSR report, A New CSR Frontier: Business and Population Health. The report looked at the role of businesses in overall public health for more than 350 major companies, including Coca-Cola, Walmart, Microsoft, Chevron, and General Mills. The report found three major trends:
- Society expects companies to play a bigger role in population health
- Companies are responding to those expectations, but primarily with employees and customers
- Health and wellness are still largely the domain of human resources, even though departments such as philanthropy, marketing and research & development should be involved
"The pullback of government as an influence for population health has created gaps and stakeholders are expecting more from the private sector," said Mark Little, director of health care advisory services at BSR. "The overarching single headline is that business now has new responsibilities that are recognized by stakeholders. We do believe there is a new frontier for CSR."
Support for this report was provided by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Read more on business.
AAP Offers New Guidelines to Reduce Risk of Antibiotic Resistance
This week is “Get Smart About Antibiotics Week,” and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has released new guidance that would limit the over-prescription of antibiotics that is contributing to the growing public health issue of antibiotic resistance. The guidance, formulated in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), focuses on the three common upper respiratory tract infections in children that are unlikely to be helped by antibiotics: ear infections, sinus infections and sore throats. The report includes clinical criteria to help physicians determine whether an upper respiratory tract infection is viral or bacterial, which will improve care while limiting opportunities for bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics. “Our medicine cabinet is nearly empty of antibiotics to treat some infections,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “If doctors prescribe antibiotics carefully and patients take them as prescribed we can preserve these lifesaving drugs and avoid entering a post-antibiotic era.” Read more on prescription drugs.
Study: Half of Teens with Mental Disorders Receive No Treatment
Despite ever-increasing knowledge about psychiatric conditions and their links to other health issues, more than half of American teenagers with psychiatric disorders do not receive treatment, according to a new study in the journal Psychiatric Services. The study found that treatment rates varied by disorder. For example, adolescents with ADHD received care more than 70 percent of the time, while adolescents with phobias or anxiety disorders were the least likely to receive mental health care. The analysis also found racial disparities, with white youths far more likely to receive care than black youths. The lack of qualified child mental health professionals also hinders access to care, with pediatricians, school counselors and probation officers being asked to provide care for which they are not actually trained, according to E. Jane Costello, a Duke University professor of psychology and epidemiology and associate director of the Duke Center for Child and Family Policy. "We need to train more child psychiatrists in this country," she said. “And those individuals need to be used strategically, as consultants to the school counselors and others who do the lion's share of the work." The study included data from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, as well as a survey of more than 10,000 U.S. teenagers. Read more on mental health.
Study: Acetaminophen Use and Even Light Drinking Dramatically Raises Kidney Dysfunction Risk
Acetaminophen use when paired with even moderate or light drinking can increase the risk of kidney dysfunction by 123 percent, according to a new study released today at the American Public Health Association’s 141st Annual Meeting in Boston. Using data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, researchers analyzed data on more than 10,000 people who were asked questions about their alcohol consumption, use of acetaminophen and health conditions. “Pain is the most common symptom among the general public and is also most frequently self-treated with acetaminophens,” noted Harrison Ndetan, lead researcher of the study. “Where this becomes a greater concern is among young adults, who have a higher prevalence of alcohol consumption. These findings highlight a serious concern among health professionals who deal frequently with pain patients, particularly those with mild pain who are more susceptible to consuming both.” Read more on substance abuse.
Flight Attendants: Expanded Use of Electronic Devices In-flight Needs Reworked Safety Messaging for Flyers
The decision by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) last week to let passengers use electronic devices—but not make cell phone calls—during all phases of a flight has flight attendants concerned that the ruling could compromise passenger safety if flyers are distracted by the devices when the cabin crew makes its safety announcements before takeoff.
Most airlines will introduce the new rule on devices by the end of the year. To qualify they have to assure the FDA that their fleet’s airplanes can tolerate any potential radio interference from the devices. Flight attendants would like heavy devices stored under seats or in the overhead bins during takeoff and landing for added safety. In a statement released just after the FAA ruling, the Association of Flight attendants said “AFA will work diligently alongside the FAA and industry to find creative, science-based approaches to ensure that passengers comply with the new operator policies and that their attention is not diverted from the important safety information provided by cabin crew during routine pre-flight briefings and unexpected emergencies, and that risks posed by loose items in the cabin are safely managed during the most critical portions of [a] flight.” Read more on injury prevention.
Two Questions Could Help Diagnose Strep, Reduce Unnecessary Antibiotic Prescriptions
“Do you have a cough and have you had a fever in the last 24 hours?” These two simple questions could help people determine whether they need to see a doctor for strep throat, which could in turn limit unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions, according to a new study in the Annals of Internal Medicine. While high fevers can indicate strep, coughs do not. The study found the questions, when paired with an accounting of how common strep infections were in a particular area, where nearly as effective as lab tests at determining whether a patient actually had a strep infection. "This enables us to use the test of time," said co-study author Dr. Kenneth Mandl, a professor of bioinformatics at Harvard. "If we determine that you're low risk and most cases will not have an important complication from strep anyway, then you can be followed clinically rather than come in for a test right away, and you may improve." About 15 million people in the United States see a doctor for a sore throat each year, with 70 receiving antibiotics; estimates indicate that only 20-30 percent of children and 5-15 percent of adults actually benefit from the medications. Read more on prescription drugs.
Study: Erratic Bedtimes Linked to Kids’ Behavior Problems
Children with erratic bedtimes also exhibit more behavior problems at home and at school, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers analyzed date on more than 10,000 children who were part of long-term sleep studies, finding that kids without a regular bedtime scored worse on a measure of behavior problems including acting unhappy, getting into fights and being inconsiderate. "If you are constantly changing the amounts of sleep you get or the different times you go to bed, it's likely to mess up your body clock," said study leader Yvonne Kelly, from University College London. "That has all sorts of impacts on how your body is able to work the following day," Kelly, from University College London.” However, the researchers also found that when a child went from no set bedtime to a scheduled bedtime, their behavior improved. Read more on pediatrics.
Overweight Teens at Increased Risk of Later Esophageal Cancer
People who are overweight or obese as teens have nearly twice the risk of developing esophageal cancer later in life when compared to their peers with healthy weights, according to a new study in the journal Cancer. The study also found that social status, economic status and education levels can all be factors in the development of gastric cancers; poor teens are at twice the risk of developing stomach cancer, as are teens with nine years of fewer of education. The study included more than 1 million male Israeli teens. "We look at obesity as dangerous from cardiovascular aspects at ages 40 and over, but here we can see that it has effects much earlier," said study author Zohar Levi, MD, of the Rabin Medical Center in Israel. However, the study did not prove cause-and-effect, so further research is needed to determine whether losing weight or gaining higher social or economic status later in life can reduce the risks. Read more on cancer.
USDA: California Plants Linked to Salmonella Can Stay Open
After making “immediate substantive changes to their slaughter and processing,” three California poultry processing plants tied to a salmonella outbreak in 17 states will remain open, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has determined. The plants will implement new food safety controls and the USDA will monitor the plants products for the next three months. The outbreak has sickened 278 people since May; the normal hospitalization rate is about 20 percent, but antibiotic resistance means about 42 percent of the people sickened in this outbreak were hospitalized. Read more on food safety.
Four U.S. Regions on Alert for Severe Weather this Weekend
Severe weather is expected to impact at least four regions of the United States this weekend. That includes a tropical storm—downgraded from a hurricane for now—in the Gulf Coast; a tornado threat in the Midwest; early snow in the West that, in part because trees still have leaves that can be weighed down by wet snow, could lead to power outages; and spreading fires in California fueled by dry weather. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has already recalled some furloughed staff to prepare for the storms expected on the Gulf Coast. Read more on preparedness.
Study: Unnecessary Antibiotic Prescriptions Remain High, Endanger Public Health
Despite ongoing efforts by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other public health organizations, doctors continue to overprescribe antibiotics for sore throats, increasing the risk of the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, according to a new study in JAMA Internal Medicine. “Our research shows that while only 10 percent of adults with sore throat have strep, the only common cause of sore throat requiring antibiotics, the national antibiotic prescribing rate for adults with sore throat has remained at 60 percent,” said senior author Jeffrey A. Linder, MD, MPH, a physician and researcher in the Division of General Medicine and Primary Care at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “For acute bronchitis, the right antibiotic prescribing rate should be near zero percent and the national antibiotic prescribing rate was 73 percent.” The researchers said the findings demonstrate the need to study and implement new interventions to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions. Read more on infectious disease.
Daily Walks Can Reduce Breast Cancer Risk for Older Women
Post-menopausal women can reduce their risk of developing breast cancer through physical activity as simple as a daily walk, according to a new study in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. More intense exercise may have an even more profound impact. "The nice message here is, you don't have to go out and run a marathon to lower your breast cancer risk," said study researcher Alpa Patel, senior epidemiologist at the American Cancer Society, which funded the study. "Go for a nice, leisurely walk an hour a day to lower risk.” However, the study authors noted that they found only a correlation, not a causation, so further study is needed. Experts believe the reason exercise reduces breast cancer risk is related to hormones; they also recommend maintaining a healthy body weight and minimizing the consumption of alcohol as ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer. Read more on cancer.