Category Archives: Tobacco
National Surgical Groups Offers Tips, Warnings on Fourth of July Fireworks
With the Fourth of July holiday only a few days away, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is cautioning adults and children to be careful when it comes to handling fireworks. "Many people consider consumer fireworks to be harmless fun, when in fact they can be extremely dangerous, especially when used by or near children and adolescents," said Boston orthopedic surgeon Tamara Rozental, MD, spokesperson for the group."If caution is not used and safety guidelines are not adhered to, fireworks can cause serious injuries to the hands and fingers as well as the eyes.” The total amount of fireworks purchased by Americans climbed to 212 million pounds in 2011, up from 184 million in 2010. Fireworks led to about 18,700 injuries and more than 7,300 emergency department visits. The group recommends a number of safety tips, including not handling fireworks while consuming alcohol, restriction of use by children and keeping a water source nearby. Read more on injury prevention.
WHO: Expanded Anti-smoking Measures Could Save Millions of Lives Globally
Millions of lives could be saved each year globally if more countries enacted strict anti-smoking measures such as higher taxes on tobacco products, bans on smoking advertisements and restrictions on tobacco use in public places, according to a new study published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Approximately forty countries, including Turkey and Romania, currently utilize such public health regulations. About 6 million people die each year from smoking, with that number expected to rise to eight million annually by 2030, according to the WHO. Researchers believe that by 2050 more than 7 million lives could be saved by expanding the proven anti-tobacco measures. "If anything it is an under-estimate," said Douglas Bettcher, MD, director of WHO's department of noncommunicable diseases, to Reuters. "It is a win-win situation for health and finance ministries to generate revenues that have a major impact on improving health and productivity.” Read more on tobacco.
Dating Violence Patterns Can Be Seen as Early as Middle School
Patterns in dating violence later in life can be seen as early as middle school, according to a new study in the Journal of School Health. According to the study approximately half of middle school students sampled had experienced dating violence, with about 20 percent reporting physical violence and 48.1 percent reporting nonphysical victimization. “Not only are these rates similar to those seen in older, high school populations they are similar to those seen among adult females,”, said Melissa Peskin, MD, assistant professor in the Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences at the School of Public Health. According to the researchers, the findings demonstrate the need for earlier intervention and prevention efforts. Read more on violence.
FDA Uses ‘Substantial Equivalence’ Standard to Authorize Two New Tobacco Products, Deny Four Others
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has, for the first time, utilized the substantial equivalence pathway to deny the marketing of four new tobacco products and allow the marketing of two new ones. FDA was granted the authority under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. Manufacturers can seek approval of new products by showing they are substantially equivalent to other tobacco products currently on the market. “Today’s decisions are just the first of many forthcoming product review actions to be issued,” said Mitch Zeller, JD, director of the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products. “The FDA is committed to making science-based decisions on all product applications and providing the agency’s scientific rationale behind its actions to ensure the most transparent and efficient process possible for all involved parties, according to the law.” Read more on tobacco.
Daily Contacts Leave Kids, Teachers, Health Care Workers at Highest Flu Risk
Children, teachers and health care workers are at the greatest risk of catching and transmitting influenza, according to a new study in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The study utilizes online and mail surveys to analyze the daily social contacts of more than 5,000 people. "People working as teachers or health professionals are no doubt already aware that they have higher risks of picking up bugs like colds and flu. But before this study there was very little data mapping out the contact patterns humans have in their daily life," said Leon Danon, from the Mathematics Institute at the University of Warwick, England, in a release. "By quantifying those social interactions, we can better predict the risks of contracting and spreading infections and ultimately better target epidemic control measures in the case of pandemic flu, for example.” Researchers recommend the people at greatest risk be especially careful to wash their hands with soap and water; maintain clean surfaces; and use tissues when needed. Read more on influenza.
New Study Paints Larger Picture on Adolescent Concussions
New research on youth concussions gives a broader picture of the “silent epidemic” and shows that kids who smoke and drink are at increased risk. The study appears in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Canadian researchers found that about 20 percent of approximately 9,000 Ontario adolescents who were surveyed had suffered from a concussion. About half were related to sports, but they also found that teens who smoked marijuana or consumed alcohol were at three-to-five times higher risk. "This is the first study I'm aware of that looked at the general population," said Kenneth Podell, co-director of the Methodist Concussion Center at the Methodist Hospital System in Houston. U.S. emergency departments treat about 173,000 adolescents annually for traumatic brain injuries, which includes concussions, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Read more on injury prevention.
Jane Brody is the Personal Health columnist for The New York Times. She joined the newspaper in 1965 as a specialist in medicine and biology after receiving degrees in biochemistry and writing for multiple college newspapers, as well as for the Minneapolis Tribune. With her column she has seen and reported on almost 50 years in the evolution of personal and community health.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Brody about her take on the state of community health—and what we can all do to improve it.
NewPublicHealth: Over the years, what efforts have you seen that you think have been most effective at improving community health?
Jane Brody: Well, I think one of the most exciting things that’s happened in New York City, and possibly in other cities as well, is getting better food to people who live in food deserts. For example, collecting food that would otherwise be wasted and bringing it to communities where people get free food that is healthy, fresh, and they even have demonstrations of recipes. In fact, I got one of my favorite recipes—it’s a green bean frittata—from one of their demonstrations that I attended just to see how it all worked out.
We’ve also, as you’ve no doubt heard, been putting in all of these bike lanes and we now have introduced the Bike Share Program, which is not inexpensive, but it does at least give more people an opportunity to get off their butts and get out of their cars and maybe even not even use public transportation in some cases, but to get some exercise to and from work, which is wonderful. I remember during one of the transit strikes that we had in New York City, I rode my bicycle from Brooklyn to Times Square where I work, over the bridges and stuff, and it was just wonderful because I got my exercise in at the same time as I got to work and I didn’t have to spend an extra hour exercising. There have been improvements. We have, of course, public pools that are only open in the summer, but in summer is better than no public pools and nobody has to pay anything for a public pool, which is really great.
Regulations to Limit Youth Smoking also Lower Adult Rates
Regulation to limit youth smoking may also decrease the rate of adult smoking, according to a new study in the American Journal of Health. The study found that states with stricter regulations targeted youth tobacco use also saw lower incidence of adult use, especially among women. "In most states for many years, it has been illegal to sell cigarettes to people under 18, but few provisions are in place to prevent those sales," said study author Richard Grucza, an associate professor of psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. "This study shows that more restrictive policies can prevent teen smoking and be beneficial down the road." The most effective policies included eliminating cigarette vending machines, ID requirements to purchase cigarettes and restrictions preventing smaller packages of cigarettes. Gurzca estimated that if all states had such effective policies then smoking would be cut about 14 percent and heavy smoking would drop 29 percent. Read more on tobacco.
‘Watchful Waiting’ Approach to Prostate Cancer Can Reduce Unneeded Treatment
A “wait and see” approach to slow-growing prostate cancer—also known as “watchful waiting”—could reduce the number of unnecessary treatments, according to a new study in the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study took into account costs, side effects, quality of life and the chance of dying. "Most of the men who are diagnosed in this country these days have low-risk prostate cancer," said Julia Hayes, MD, who led the new study at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston. "There's a huge group of men out there who are probably treated unnecessarily." The slow-growing cancer “may never grow large or fast enough to threaten a man's life,” according to Reuters. Researchers estimate that men under the “watchful waiting” approach would ultimately undergo treatment in 34 percent of cases; active surveillance would lead to 78 percent. Read more on cancer.
Younger Americans Less Likely to Be Aware of their HIV, Undergo Treatment
People under age 45 who are infected with HIV are far less likely that their older counterparts to know about the infection and to be receiving treatment, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine. About 40 percent of people between ages 13-24 had been diagnosed and only 30 were referred for care. Those ages 25-44 also saw lower rates than people 45 and older. A total of more than 850,000 Americans with HIV have not achieved suppression. The researchers, led by H. Irene Hall of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, concluded that "Individuals, health care providers, health departments and government agencies must all work together to increase the numbers of people living with HIV who are aware of their status, linked to and retained in care, receiving treatment and adherent to treatment." Read more on HIV.
Britain to Regulate, Improve Quality of E-Cigarettes
The British government plan to regulate electronic cigarettes as non-prescription medicine starting in 201, according to Reuters. E-Cigarettes are battery-operated devices that contain cartridges filled with nicotine, flavor, and other chemicals. They turn nicotine, which is highly addictive, and other chemicals into a vapor that can be inhaled. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned that, "As the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes have not been fully studied, consumers of e-cigarette products currently have no way of knowing:
- whether e-cigarettes are safe for their intended use,
- how much nicotine or other potentially harmful chemicals are being inhaled during use, or
- if there are any benefits associated with using these products."
The devices do not contain any health warnings comparable to FDA-approved nicotine replacement products or conventional cigarettes. Currently, e-cigarettes that are marketed for therapeutic purposes are regulated by the FDA. According to Reuters, "Under the new British system, manufacturers will have to prove the quality of their products and demonstrate that they deliver the correct amount of nicotine. But they will not need to conduct clinical trials." Read more on tobacco and nicotine.
Even Hands-Free Devices Create Unsafe, Distracted Driving Conditions
A new report from AAA finds that even hands-free mobile devices create mental distractions that can drain attention away from focusing on the road and safe driving. The study found that mentally-distracted drivers—those who may not have even taken their eyes off the road but were distracted by speaking with someone through a hands-free device—missed visual cues, had slower reaction times, and even exhibited a sort of "tunnel vision" by not checking side- and rear-view mirrors or actively scanning the full roadway for potential hazards. Activities like listening to the radio or an audio book was mildly distracting (but likely not enough to effect driving safety); conversing with others (whether with fellow passengers, with someone via hand-held device or with some via hands-free device) was moderately but significantly distracting; and using a device with speech-to-text technology to send text messages or e-mails was highly distracting. Researchers hope these findings can be used to help craft science-based policies on driver distraction. Read more on safety.
CDC Partners with 104 Businesses to Improve Employee Health
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), through its partner Viridian Health Management, has identified 104 employers in eight counties across the nation that have voluntarily chosen to participate in the National Healthy Worksite Program, a new initiative aimed at reducing chronic disease and building a healthier, more productive U.S. workforce—while also cutting health care costs. The initiative primarily focuses on small and mid-sized employers. a national evaluation will document best practices and models on how to successfully implement workplace health programs in small worksites more broadly. Read more on what businesses are doing to create healthier communities.
Smoking Cessation, Three Other Simple Lifestyle Behaviors Dramatically Improve Overall Health
Utilizing four simple lifestyle behaviors can reduce the risk of both heart disease in particular and death in general, according to a new study in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine identified regular exercise, eating healthy, maintaining a healthy weight and—in particular—quitting smoking as the four keys. "Of all the lifestyle factors, we found that smoking avoidance played the largest role in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality," said study senior author Roger Blumenthal, MD, a cardiologist and professor of medicine at Hopkins and director of the Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease at Johns Hopkins. "In fact, smokers who adopted two or more of the healthy behaviors still had lower survival rates after 7.6 years than did nonsmokers who were sedentary and obese." The researchers said the findings support American Heart Association recommendations regarding health and illustrate that there are many health factors that people can control. Read more on tobacco.
TSA Abandons Plans to Allow Small Knives, Sports Equipment on Planes
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has dropped its plans to allow passengers to carry knives and certain sports equipment on planes amid loud protests from lawmakers, the airline industry, labor unions and law enforcement, according to the Associated Press. TSA first announced its intentions back in March; 145 members of the U.S. Congress recently signed a letter requesting the prohibitions to stay in place and the House was nearing passage of legislation that would counter TSA’s plans to loosen regulations. "After getting the input from all these different constituents, I realized there was not across-the-board support that would serve us well in moving forward," TSA Administrator John Pistole. "It is a recognition that, yes, these items could be used as weapons, but I want our folks to focus on those things that, again, are the most concern given the current intelligence.” Read more on safety.
California Law Reduces Payments for Millions of Uninsured Patients
California’s Hospital Fair Pricing Act is successfully helping low-income populations by limiting exactly how much hospitals can collect from uninsured patients and can serve as a diagram for how other states can address the public health issue, according to a new study from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation appearing in the journal Health Affairs. The law was passed in 2006. There are more than 6.8 million people in the state without insurance; 97 percent of California hospitals offered free care to such patients with incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Read more on access to health care.
Around the Globe Anti-Smoking Ads Work
Awareness of anti-smoking messages on television, radio, billboards, newspapers and magazines significantly increased the odds that current smokers intend to quit in 14 of the 17 countries surveyed, according to a study of thousands of adults smokers published by the by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey was released today in observance of World No Tobacco Day. It is sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is calling on countries to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship to help reduce the number of tobacco users. Tobacco use kills nearly 6 million people every year worldwide. According to WHO, countries that have introduced bans have seen smoking drop by an average of 7 percent. WHO research has found that about a third of youth tobacco use occurs as a result of exposure to tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Worldwide, 78 percent of teens ages 13 to 15 say they regularly see some form of tobacco promotion. Read more on tobacco.
Google Adds Nutrition Information to Search Function
Just as the tool includes shortcuts to finding places and even the local time for the sunrises and sunsets, Google is now adding nutrition information to its search function. Simply typing basic questions such as “how many carbs are in an apple?” will bring up not only the answer to that particular question, but also additional relevant nutrition information and the ability to search by different foods and serving sizes. More than 1,000 fruits, vegetables, meats and meals will be covered by the new online tool. Read more on nutrition.
HUD: $32M in Grants to Support Housing for People, Families Living with HIV/AIDS
Thirty local HIV/AIDS housing programs will share $32 million in U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development funds to provide more stable living environments. More than 1,300 extremely low-income people and families dealing with HIV/AIDS will helped under the program, which includes housing assistance and access to supportive services such as job readiness and employment training programs. “These grants will provide our local partners with crucial funding that is necessary to provide individuals and families living with HIV/AIDS a place to call home,” said Secretary Shaun Donovan. “The comfort of knowing that you have a roof over your head makes a huge difference in the wellbeing of families and gives hope to those who might otherwise end up living on the streets.” Read more on HIV/AIDS.
Survey: Math, Reading ‘Summer Slumps’ Puts Kids at Disadvantage in Classrooms
A new survey from PBS KIDS shows that while 84 percent of parents say they see the importance of supporting their child’s learning in the home, the average teacher must spend four to six weeks re-teaching forgotten material at the beginning of each school year—with the loss of knowledge even more severe in low-income communities. Parents’ anxiety over math makes them even less likely to support math learning at the earliest ages, and these deficits and deterioration in math and literacy skills can put kids at a distinct disadvantage in the classroom. A Q&A from PBS has tips on how parents can prevent this “summer slump” when it comes to reading. Read more on education.
The ‘Nocebo Effect’: Media Reports Can Trigger False Symptoms
News media stories about various disease and syndromes—even those that aren’t real—can lead people to report symptoms, according to a new study in the Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Researchers call it the “nocebo effect” and say it clearly shows the importance of news organizations making sure their stories are based on scientific evidence and presented in a balanced, cautious way. The study uses the idea of a Wi-Fi signal that could cause health problems, finding that 54 percent of participants reported symptoms of the made-up syndrome. "It appears essential to stay critical about any kind of scientific, or pseudo-scientific, information in the media," said researcher Michael Witthoft, with the psychology department at Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, in Germany. "I would advise consumers not to jump to simple conclusions prematurely, but to critically review several sources of evidence." (See the accompanying cartoon by Politico's Matt Wuerker for a humorous take on the issue.) Read more on environment.
Cedars-Sinai Aims to Involve More Women in Clinical Research
A new initiative from Cedars-Sinai hopes to improve the representation of women in medical research by registering at least 2,000 women with or without a history of breast and gynecologic cancers. Compared to men, relatively few women participate in clinical studies, meaning not nearly enough is known about how the biological differences might factor into disease diagnosis and treatment. This research for her initiative will work to “close this gap.” “What we try to tell women, especially women who do not have cancer or a family history of it, is that they can help make a difference in the fight against women’s cancers in a noninvasive, very simple way,” said BJ Rimel, MD, co-principal investigator of the research for her registry and gynecologic oncologist in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Cedars-Sinai. “We try to tell them how much of a benefit they are to others. That's our strongest weapon in this fight.” Read more on cancer.
Study: Smoking Down, Drinking Up in Popular Movies
While incidents of smoking are down on the big screen since 1998, the number of alcohol brand appearances is up in the top movies rated PG-13 and below and the overall screen time spent drinking is level, according to a new study in JAMA Pediatrics. A 1998 law forbade tobacco companies from paying for ad placements; there is not such law for alcohol products. Researchers looked at the movies with the top 100 box offices each year from 1996 to 2009, finding a drop in the appearances of tobacco. However, they also saw alcohol brand appearances in youth-rated movies rise from 80 to 145 per year. "Children who see smoking in the movies are more likely to initiate smoking," said Elaina Bergamini from the Norris Cotton Cancer Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire, to Reuters. "I think there is some concern that that may hold true for alcohol as well. The notorious thing you find in movies and in TV is heavy drinking without consequences. It leaves it up to parents to tell the consequences story." Read more on alcohol.
USDA and HUD Offer Housing Help for People Affected by the Tornadoes in Oklahoma
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) have announced efforts to help find housing for Oklahoma residents displaced by the recent tornadoes. The USDA is offering help through its Rural Development portfolio, which has programs designed to help improve life in rural communities. HUD is offering help through foreclosure assistance, temporary housing, and federally guaranteed loans for repair. Click here for more information on HUD assistance following a disaster. Read more on disasters.
New CDC Campaign Encourages Smokers to Talk with their Doctor about Quitting
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention has launched a new campaign to urge smokers to speak with their doctors about strategies for quitting. CDC research finds that getting help from a physician can double the odds of quitting smoking. To help promote the campaign, CDC is partnering with five physician groups: the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Physicians, and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The campaign also encourages clinicians to ask patients if they smoke and offer assistance in helping them to quit. Almost 70 percent of smokers say they want to quit, according to the National Health Interview Survey. Through the physician group partnerships, doctors will be offered training on cessation interventions. Read more on tobacco.
DOT 2013 ‘Click It or Ticket’ Campaign Focuses on Night Time Driving
The annual Click It or Ticket Campaign to increase seat belt use from the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) takes place around Memorial Day weekend and this year will focus attention especially on night time driving—although police officers will be on the lookout for unbuckled drivers during the day and night this weekend. While DOT data shows that daytime seat belt use is up to 86 percent, night time use of seat belts continues to be lower. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the risk of being involved in a serious crash is greater at night than during the day. In 2011, 62 percent of motorists who died in a crash that occurred at night did not have their seat belts on, buckled compared to 43 percent of those who died in a crash during the day. Read more on safety.
CDC Issues First Comprehensive Report on Children’s Mental Health in the United States
As many as one in five American children under the age of 17 has a diagnosable mental disorder according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The report is the first expansive report on children's mental health ever done by the U.S. government and looked at six conditions:
- attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- behavioral or conduct disorders
- mood and anxiety disorders
- autism spectrum disorders
- substance abuse
- Tourette syndrome
The most common disorder for children age 3 through 17 is ADHD (7 percent) followed by behavioral or conduct problems (3.5 percent), anxiety (3 percent), depression (2 percent), and autism spectrum disorders (1 percent).
Five percent of teens reported abusing or being dependent on illegal drugs, 4 percent abused alcohol and 3 percent reported smoking cigarettes regularly. Boys were more likely than girls to have the disorders. Read more on mental health.
New PSAs Help Parents Talk to Younger Kids about the Dangers of Underage Drinking
“Talk. They Hear You,” is a new national public service announcement (PSA) campaign from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to empower parents to talk to children as young as nine about the dangers of underage drinking. SAMHSA research shows that more than a quarter of American youth engage in underage drinking, and though there has been progress in reducing the extent of underage drinking in recent years, particularly among those aged 17 and younger, the rates of underage drinking are still unacceptably high, according to SAMHSA. A report from late last year shows that 26.6 percent of 12-20 year-olds report drinking in the month before they were surveyed and 8.7 percent of them purchased their own alcohol the last time they drank, despite the fact that all fifty states and the District of Columbia currently have laws prohibiting the purchase and use of alcoholic beverages by anyone under age 21.
“Even though drinking is often glamorized, the truth is that underage drinking can lead to poor academic performance, sexual assault, injury, and even death,” said said SAMHSA Administrator Pamela S. Hyde.
The goal of the new PSA is to help parents start a conversation about alcohol before their children become teenagers. Read more on addiction.
Advocacy Groups Petition FDA to Ban Menthol Flavored Cigarettes
In response to a Citizen Petition by close to twenty health and tobacco control advocacy groups, the Food and Drug Administration has opened a docket for public comment on banning menthol in cigarettes. In 2009, according to the Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, the lead group on the petition, Congress banned all flavors in cigarettes except menthol, and directed the FDA to decide whether continued sale of menthol cigarettes is “appropriate for public health." According to the petition, menthol cigarettes are the source of addiction for nearly half of all teen smokers. Read more on tobacco.