Category Archives: Smart Growth
In advance of the Inaugural Health Impact Assessment Meeting, the American Society of Law Medicine and Ethics (ASLME); Network for Public Health Law; Public Health Law Association (PHLA); and the Public Health Law Research Program are hosting a webinar, "Learning More About Health Impact Assessments," on Thursday February 16, from 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. (EST).
Health impact assessments (HIAs) bring together scientific data, health expertise and public input to identify the potential—and often overlooked—health effects of proposed laws, regulations, projects and programs. HIAs provide decision-makers with the information they need to advance smarter policies to help build safe, healthy, thriving communities.
The webinar will provide a basic overview of health impact assessments; examine the development of an innovative HIA tool; and explore the legal authority authorizing, supporting or prohibiting HIAs.
- Aaron Wernham, MD, director of the Health Impact Project, a collaboration of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts
- Harmony Gmazel, MS, land use planner for the Tri-County Regional Planning Commission in Lansing, Mich.
- Erin Fuse Brown, JD, MPH, deputy director of the Network for Public Health Law – Western Region at Arizona State University’s Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law
The webinar is free and open to anyone interested. Register here by 1 p.m. (EST) on February 14. Instructions will be sent to participants.
While at the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference, we took the chance to talk to some of the meeting attendees and get their thoughts on the conference and the intersection between public health and building better communities.
Senior Health Educator
What brought you to the conference?
I love the intersect between health and planning. For me [this conference is] about peer learning to see what many of my colleagues are doing across the country and how we can take some of the best practice models and apply them to where we are. I’m also such a staunch advocate for health that I think that merging the two worlds of land use and public planning along with public health seems like a nice fit.
Who are your critical partners for smart growth?
Multitudes. On the ground, grassroots, the community residents who live in those areas, and their children and young teens who are taking a real interest now. I work with several government agencies who are realizing that the way we do business doesn’t work anymore. We’re having to look at different approaches to sustain the work we do. I also work with local city planners.
What is some of the work that you’re doing in the health community?
I look at how to improve health, especially for those in low-income communities, in areas that might be considered food deserts or food swamps. Through the public health department when I worked there, we looked at organizing farmers' markets in low-income areas, bringing access to good quality, locally-grown produce. In order to establish the farmers’ market, I had to understand what were the ordinances or the zonings to allow this to happen in a residential area. I also work with city planners to look at health language in their general plans. I work at organizing workshops in which we bring all the county agencies together so that people on the ground can understand what we need from them and what they need from us. I also look at worksite wellness and the policies we develop around lactation and vending machines, creating healthier places and making sure all those policies are infused county-wide, so all the county agencies are on the same page when it comes to promoting a healthy workplace. One of the projects I want to take on is healthy corner store conversions, and that was a really good model presented here.
What I like about this conference is that each year it grows to be more diverse. I like to see public health here. It’s really important. The conference is fairly young, but it’s growing fast and gaining the attention and momentum it should. There are so many of us now making the fight for the connection between health and the environment.
Public Health Prevention Service Fellow
What brought you to the conference?
I’m trying to kick off a strategic planning process for a built environment program at the Richmond City Health District.
Who are your critical partners for smart growth?
Our city planning department, economic and community development, the department of transportation, our local transportation system (the Greater Richmond Transit Center), private partners and some of the local non-profits.
How does your work impact the health of your community?
Getting all of the siloed sectors talking to each other about how they can impact the community in a bigger way—not just with health, but with equity, more resources, and a healthier and more vibrant community in general.
Robbyn Lewis, MPH
Public Health Researcher
What brought you to the conference?
I came for a couple of reasons. Firstly, the reason that I’m even able to be here is because I was awarded a diversity scholarship. The second reason is that I am a public health professional. I work mostly with infectious disease research, but I am very interested in sustainability and the environment, and working as a volunteer to change, transform and improve my neighborhood. I knew that I could learn a lot at this conference. I wanted to be here partly for professional development, but also for education – to learn strategies and ideas that I can take back to my home and apply to my community in Baltimore. I want to continue that volunteer work that I’m doing, but do it in a better way.
The third reason is networking. As a public health professional and researcher who is interested in the built environment, I love the field so much that I’ve been looking for ways to redirect my profession in ways that allow me to be paid for my work in the environmental and sustainability. I’m looking to broaden my network and make contacts.
Environmental and Emergency Management Specialist
What brought you to the conference?
This is the only conference that I know that is devoted specifically to these issues. I am interested to meet the fans and see what they think about it. I want to learn and compare my knowledge with people of different perspectives to see what’s new, what’s going on, and what direction people are looking to.
[Note: All statements here are from the individuals featured and do not necessarily represent the views of the organizations they work for.]
The startling new National Association of Area Agencies on Aging report, "The Maturing of America," concludes that many communities are unprepared for their quickly aging populations, with "nowhere near the level of progress that has to be made to ensure that communities are livable for people of all ages." Last week at the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference, a panel discussed the challenges our nation will face as it ages and how we can better design communities to be healthier and more accessible for all age groups.
Rebecca Hunter, MEd, of the University of North Carolina Institute on Aging and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthy Aging Research Network, said we’re currently facing a "perfect storm" when it comes to aging:
- Baby boomers are starting to reach “older adult” status
- There is a vast increase in the “oldest old,” or age 85 and above
- The economic downturn means we are less and less prepared for the health and social consequences of this trend
We are moving into an era when at least one in five Americans will be age 65 and older, said Hunter. "We need to ensure our communities are livable for all people."
A key group that presented at the New Partners for Smart Growth conference last week, was the Partnership for Sustainable Communities. Created in 2009, the Partnership is a collaborative initiative of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Department of Transportation (DOT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the combined goal of helping communities across the U.S. improve access to affordable housing, increase transportation options, and lower transportation costs while protecting the environment.
The Partnership works to coordinate federal housing, transportation, water, and other infrastructure investments to make neighborhoods more prosperous, allow people to live closer to jobs, save households time and money and reduce pollution.
"Sustainable communities are those that have access to jobs, quality schools, safe streets, environmental benefits—basically, communities that are built in ways that everyone can be included and have a better quality of life," said Shelley Poticha, who serves as HUD’s advisor to the Partnership and as Director for Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities at the Department.
The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference last week had several sessions on creating easier access to transportation alternatives that reduce dependence on motor vehicles. A recent study in the journal Health Place by Jamie F. Chriqui, PhD, senior research scientist at the University of Illinois at Chicago Institute for Health Research and Policy, moves the debate forward with a look at whether laws are a help or hindrance in increasing biking and walking to school by elementary school students.
NewPublicHealth spoke with Jamie Chriqui about the study.
NewPublicHealth: What was the scope of your study?
Jamie Chriqui: This was a nationwide study by the Bridging the Gap program at the University of Illinois in Chicago. We examined the relationship between state laws related to safe routes to school, such as minimum busing distances or requirements for crossing guards, speed zones, sidewalks around schools, and practices and policies at elementary schools related to active travel to school. We conducted the study between 2007 and 2009 and looked at thousands of schools across the country.
[Note: Bridging the Gap is a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded nationally recognized research program dedicated to improving the understanding of how policies and environmental factors influence diet, physical activity and obesity among youth, as well as youth tobacco use.]
NPH: And what were the results of the study?
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has announced the availability of $826.5 million to modernize and repair transit vehicles and facilities around the country and promote the widespread use of sustainable clean fuel. DOT is inviting proposals for three of the Federal Transit Administration’s policy priorities:
- State of Good Repair. Aimed at replacing or restoring infrastructure and vehicle management.
- Livability. For projects that will improve quality of life through expanded transportation choices, new and better intermodal connections, reduced congestion, or services aimed at economically disadvantaged populations, including senior citizens and people with disabilities.
- Clean Fuels. To help communities meet national air quality standards. The program also supports the development and marketing of emerging clean fuel and advanced propulsion technologies for transit buses.
The American Heart Association and American Stroke Association have been compiling an annual list of the major advances in heart disease and stroke research since 1996. Progress was made last year in a number of areas including lifestyle risk prevention, genetics and personalized medicine, new drugs and treatment for atrial fibrillation, and improved systems to deliver faster care for heart attack and stroke. Read more on heart health.
A new study in Pediatrics shows that children who are ostracized, even for a brief period, are significantly more likely to choose sedentary activities over physical activity. Researchers from Kent State University in Ohio asked 19 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years to play a virtual ball-toss computer game, telling each child he or she was playing the game over the Internet with two other children. In half of the sessions, the game was programmed to exclude the child from receiving the ball for the majority of the game. After the game, the children were taken to a gymnasium, where they could choose any sedentary or physical activity they liked, while wearing an accelerometer. Researchers found children accumulated 22 percent fewer accelerometer counts and 41 percent more minutes of sedentary activity after being ostracized in the computer game, compared to when they were included. Read more on physical activity.
A major theme at last week's New Partners for Smart Growth Conference was "co-benefits." Many sectors and interests were represented at the conference and each took a different tack on the benefits of smart growth, or building communities so that they are walkable, affordable, generate jobs and help people get to where they need to go, including to fresh food markets, to work and play and to green spaces. The co-benefits of this kind of growth include better health, a cleaner and more sustainable environment, and a stronger economy.
The benefits to the economy were the focus of a Friday session at the Smart Growth conference, led by Lee Sobel, Real Estate Development and Finance Analyst at the Office of Sustainable Communities for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Mitchell Silver, AICP, Planning Director of the City of Raleigh, NC and President of the American Planning Association quoted Chattanooga Mayor Littlefield with an important maxim for smart growth: "If you aren't a city where people want to live, you aren't a city where people want to invest."
Younger generations will demand a different lifestyle, said Silver, and separate office parks will play no part in it. More integrated, mixed land-use areas where people can walk or take public transit to work are becoming more and more attractive to employees—and, importantly, to employers.
While young people used to find a job and then a place to live nearby, more young people today start by finding a city or community they love and then looking for a job where they want to live, said Silver. That means employers want to be where people want to live.
Beyond attracting employers, dense growth means more tax revenue for cities. It would take 150 acres of 600 single-family homes to equal the tax value of Raleigh's Wells Fargo Capitol Center, which sits on 1.2 acre land, said Silver.
A report from Active Living Research, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with direction and technical assistance provided by San Diego State University, found that green spaces have economic pay-offs as well. The existence of a park within 1,500 feet of a home increased its sale price by between $845 and $2,262 (in 2000 dollars). Additionally, as parks increased in size, their impact on property value increased significantly, according to the report.
This builds on parallel research finding that preventive health efforts are sound business decisions:
- The Healthier Americans for a Healthier Economy report showcases several states and cities that have found that better health for their citizens can also improve their bottom line, in collaboration with local businesses. Read more on the report and a Q&A with Tom Mason, President of Alliance for a Healthier Minnesota, on the business perspective on prevention.
- An investment of $10 per person annually in proven, community-based public health programs could save the U.S. more than $16 billion within five years—a $5.60 return for every $1 invested. Read more on the report on the return on investment of prevention.
- Companies that sell "better-for-you" foods perform better financially. Read a Q&A with the report author.
>>Follow our coverage of the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference.
San Bernardino, Calif., the 100th largest city in the U.S., has several other distinctions: compared to the rest of the state, it has the worst food index (ratio of unhealthy to healthy food index), an average life expectancy that is eight years lower, a homicide rate that is 150% higher, the 2nd highest concentration of alcohol outlets and a 400-acre deficit of parks (two-thirds of residents don't live within a mile of parks or green spaces).
The county of San Bernardino doesn’t fare much better. In the 2011 County Health Rankings, a collaboration between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, San Bernardino ranks 50th out of 56 California counties in health factors and 55th out of 56 in physical environment factors such as access to healthy foods and air pollution days.
San Bernardino is in the midst of a public health crisis.
The Healthy Communities team at the Bernardino County Public Health Department set out to tackle that crisis—on a staff of three. “We knew partnerships would be critical,” said Evelyn Trevino, Program Coordinator for the program. Thus, the Healthy San Bernardino County Healthy Places Coalition was born.
One of the first steps was to conduct an environmental scan, the results of which provided many of the nuggets above, as well as information on parks and recreation space, the food environment, air and water quality and economic opportunities, said Mark Hoffman, Senior Planner for The Planning Center.
Peggi Hazlett, Assistant to the Mayor of the City of San Bernardino, lives and raises two children in the area, and has been committed to making it a healthier, happier place to live for her own family and future generations. It’s a constant struggle, though. The week of the conference, there were three homicides within a 20-block radius, including a stray bullet that slayed a 15-year-old. “Welcome to my world,” said Hazlett.
This weekend at the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference, NewPublicHealth attended a walkability audit of downtown San Diego with the inventor of the tool and "Johnny Appleseed of walkability," Dan Burden. In 2001, TIME magazine named Burden one of the world’s six most important civic innovators. He is currently a senior urban designer and executive director of the Walkable and Livable Communities Institute, and previously co-founded Walkable Communities, Inc., and the Bicycle Federation of America. Burden has worked in more than 3,000 communities and led more than 4,000 walking audits throughout North America.
Walking audits have been happening for about 25 years now, though they are a skill and a field now coming into their pinnacle—the first official course on walkability audits was taught recently in Tucson to a mix of health, planning and engineering professionals. “A very big part of the walkability audit is to start to break down the walls between disciplines. It really helps open people’s eyes. It’s been a very powerful tool.”
A walking audit is an assessment of the walkability or pedestrian access of the built environment in a community. Burden created this tool to help communities understand how their environment encourages or discourages its residents from walking.
“America became something different. We lost our focus. We stopped designing cities for people,” explained Burden.
Dan Burden began to run walking audits about 25 years ago during his tenure at the Florida Department of Transportation. He realized that the engineers never went out and walked the streets they’d designed. “As we went out, we realized more and more how wrong the designs were.”
In his presentation, Burden shows photos of places that make you want to stay inside your house (or get in a car) rather than walk anywhere—deteriorating or no sidewalks, dangerous intersections built for cars that leave scarcely enough time for a healthy person to cross, acres of asphalt littered with bottles and trash with no green space in sight, and unlit alleyways that seem built to shelter crime.
“Over 80 percent of Americans want to be able to seamlessly switch modes of transportation,” said Burden. “That’s not what we’re funding.” In fact, he said, less than 1 percent of federal transportation dollars go toward supporting walking and biking infrastructure, and even those scarce funds are under threat.
Burden typically takes anywhere from one to 100 people with him on his walkability audits (though he recommends a group of 30 for less seasoned walkability gurus), inviting city planners, elected leaders, citizens, advocates, police officers, persons with disabilities and public health officials—anyone with a vested interest in creating a better community.
Before he brings in the whole group, though, Burden tries whenever he can to take a first pass through a neighborhood on his own to connect with residents, kids and local retailers to get their take about what’s working and not working in the community. One six-year-old told him all she wanted to do was to walk to school and play with her friends, but she was afraid to be outside by herself. The goal of the walkability audit is to find out what steps the community needs to take to get it to be a place its residents can be proud of and happy to live in.
The components of a walkability audit get very nitty gritty: the exact width of the “walk-and-talk zone” of a sidewalk (ideally four feet, leaving another two to four feet on either side as a buffer and a place for sidewalk “furniture” such as benches, bus stops and street lamps), the number and width of lanes for cars, the average speed of cars and average traffic volume on each block, and more. But what’s most critical is not the sidewalks or traffic patterns—it’s how the land is used, how connected are the hubs of activity, and how much open space there is. While sidewalks are important, they’re useless if they don’t lead somewhere people want to go, said Burden.
While the walkability audit of San Diego at the Smart Growth conference was quite literally, at times, a walk in the park on a beautiful, sunny day, that’s not always typical. Burden’s longest audit spanned 16 miles on a day when the temperature peaked at 120 degrees. Another audit could only be conducted 10 minutes at a time because the temperature dipped below a frigid –54 degrees. Yet on the 16-mile, 120-degree day, a woman in a wheelchair stuck it out for the entire audit to help show her community the challenges she faced daily in navigating a city that simply was not built for her.
What makes a community work? Five key aspects, said Burden:
There’s both an art and a science to walkability. The science involves a set of measures and ratings, described in detail in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Walking Audit tool, co-designed by Burden (and admittedly still “in beta”—more will likely be added to the tool as it is continually tested and refined).
Though health is not the primary goal of a walking audit, it is a critical outcome of a walkable community.
>>Read more NewPublicHealth coverage from the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference.
The great thing about the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the wide variety of different sectors, fields and perspectives represented. Each brings a different set of ideas, challenges and solutions to the discussion, from housing to transportation to urban planning.
As we look beyond the public health sector to understand how to create healthier communities, we also look beyond NewPublicHealth to some of our fellow bloggers at the conference.
The Initiative for a Competitive Inner City (ICIC) is a nonprofit research and strategy organization and the leading authority on U.S. inner city economies and the businesses that thrive there.
ICIC featured a recap of day one of the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference on their blog. The post was penned by Alex Abboud, a blogger and non-profit professional who writes about ideas, cities and sports at alexabboud.com and works on promoting housing and ending homelessness in his community. His recap of the second day of the conference can be found here. Some highlights from both posts:
- A boarding school for foster teens built on an organic farm, where the students participate in tending to the farm
- A method of getting the public engaged in community planning—online
- New tools to measure the need for use of cars in a community
We've got our ear to the ground for new and varied perspectives on creating healthier communities. Keep the ideas coming!
Also follow our coverage of the conference, which will continue into next week, including Q&As with conference presenters and smart growth leaders as well as perspectives from attendees.