Category Archives: Obesity
HHS: 2013 So Far Sees 8 Foodborne Outbreaks, 2 New Global Diseases, 37 Disasters
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has awarded more than $916 million to continue improving preparedness and health outcomes for a variety of public health threats in every state, eight U.S. territories and four of the nation’s largest metropolitan areas. “Already in 2013, local and state health agencies have responded to eight food borne outbreaks, two new global diseases, and 37 disaster and emergency declarations, a clear indication of the breadth of threats that public health departments must be capable of responding to,” said Ali Khan, MD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office for Public Health Preparedness and Response. The grants have included funding for the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) cooperative agreement and the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The programs encourage health care and state and local public health departments to work together to maximize resources and prevent duplicative efforts. Such coordination of activities with emergency management and homeland security programs supports “whole community” planning to improve national preparedness efforts.. Read more on preparedness.
DOT Issues New Rules to Reduce Truck Driver Fatigue
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has announced new safety regulations to reduce truck driver fatigue:
- The maximum hours per week a truck driver can drive has been reduced from 82 to 70.
- Truck drivers who reach the maximum 70 hours of driving within a week can resume driving if they rest for 34 consecutive hours, including at least two nights from 1 to 5 a.m.
- All truck drivers must take a 30-minute break during the first eight hours of a shift.
- As before, truck drivers have a daily 11-hour driving limit.
Read more on injury prevention.
Sleepy Teenagers Often Make Poor Food Choices
Well-rested teenagers tend to make more healthful food choices than those who are sleep deprived, according to a study by preventive medicine researchers at the Stony Brook University School of Medicine in New York State. The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies and funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. The study looked at the relationship between sleep duration and food choices in a national survey of more than 1,300 teenagers, finding that those teens who reported sleeping less than seven hours per night were more likely to consume fast food two or more times per week and less likely to eat healthful food such as fruits and vegetables. “Teenagers have a fair amount of control over their food and sleep, and the habits they form in adolescence can strongly impact their habits as adults,” said Allison Kruger, MPH, a community health worker at Stony Brook University Hospital and lead author of the study. Read more on obesity.
Just a few metro stops can mean the difference between an extra five to ten years added to your lifespan. Using new city maps, the Commission to Build a Healthier America, which reconvened recently after a four year hiatus, is illustrating the dramatic disparity between the life expectancies of communities mere miles away from each other. Where we live, learn, work and play can have a greater impact on our health than we realize.
For too many people, making healthy choices can be difficult because the barriers in their communities are too high—poor access to affordable healthy foods and limited opportunities for exercise, for example. The focus for the Commission’s 2013 deliberations will be on how to increase opportunities for low-income populations to make healthier choices.
The two maps of the Washington, D.C. area and New Orleans help to quantify the differences between living in certain parts of the region versus others.
Living in Northern Virginia’s Fairfax and Arlington Counties instead of the nearby District of Columbia, a distance of no more than 14 miles, can mean about six or seven more years in life expectancy. The same disparity exists between babies born at the end of the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority’s (known as the Metro) Red Line in Montgomery County—ranked second out of 24 counties in the County Health Rankings, metrics developed by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin to show the health of different counties—and those born and living at the end of the Metro’s Blue Line in Prince George’s County, which ranked 17th in the County Health Rankings.
USDA Issues Rules for Healthy Snacks at School
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has released rules for healthy snacks at school. The program, called Smart Snacks in School and required by the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, applies to snack food and a la carte foods sold at meal time. The rules take effect for the school year beginning in 2014. The rules do not apply to foods brought from home or to fundraisers held during after-school hours. The rules promote foods with more whole grains, low-fat dairy, fruits, vegetables and leaner protein, as well as foods lower in fat, sugar and sodium that provide more of the nutrients kids need. New rules also apply to beverages sold at school. Only sports drinks and sodas that contain 60 calories or less per 12-ounce serving will be allowed in high schools. In elementary and middle schools, drink choices will be limited to water, carbonated water, 100 percent fruit or vegetable juice, low-fat milk and fat-free milk.
“The updated standards are critical to addressing the nation’s childhood obesity epidemic and helping our most vulnerable children get the foods and drinks they need to grow up strong and healthy,” said Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, MD, president and CEO of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. “Together with recent efforts to improve school meals, these updates will help to create a culture of health in schools and a better future for millions of children…while the standards will not take effect until the 2014-2015 school year, schools can begin implementation and act now. Let’s seize this opportunity. When it comes to keeping our kids healthy, there is no time to waste.” Read more on obesity.
New York Rebuffs Bloomberg’s Veto, Passes Paid Sick Time Law
New York City lawmakers overrode Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s veto yesterday and passed a law requiring businesses to provide more than one million workers with paid sick time. While other large cities have similar regulations—including Portland, Ore., San Francisco, Seattle and Washington, D.C.—supporters believe this vote will help make paid sick time the norm across the entire country. "The catalyst will have been the successful struggle we waged here in New York City," said Dan Cantor, the national executive director of the Working Families Party. Bloomberg vetoed the measure earlier this month on the grounds that the added costs to businesses would ultimately hurt employees. The ordinance was passed after considerable research and advocacy from Community Services Society of New York, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Roadmaps to Health Community Grantee, along with other partners. Read more on public health law.
HHS Seeking Private Sector Innovators, Entrepreneurs to Solve Health Challenges
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is now seeking applicants for its second annual HHSentrepreneurs Program. The program is designed to bring together private sector innovators and entrepreneurs with federal groups working to answer major health, health care and human services challenges. This year’s goal is to place up to eight entrepreneurs into six projects:
- Application of Design Thinking to Grants
- Cloud-Based GIS Maps Displaying Aggregate Data on Medical Malpractice
- Health Information Exchange Accelerators
- Modernizing the National Plan and Provider Enumeration System
- Predictive Analytics: Merging Innovation and Business Operations
- Publication Planning and Clearance Process Improvement Project
Read more on Health and Human Services.
International Making Cities Livable Conference: UCLA’s Richard Jackson on Shaping Healthy Suburban Communities
"We have medicalized what is in fact an environmental-driven set of diseases," said Richard Jackson, MD, MPH, professor and chair of environmental health science at the UCLA School of Public Health, in a keynote presentation that energized and galvanized discussion among the diverse audience of city planners, architects and public officials at this week’s International Making Cities Livable Conference. This year’s conference focuses on bringing together a vision— across sectors—of how to shape healthy suburban communities.
Jackson, a prominent pediatrician and host of the “Designing Healthy Communities” series that aired on PBS, told an all-too-familiar story of a child who comes into a doctor’s office overweight and with alarming cholesterol and blood pressure results even at a young age. So the doctor prescribes behavior change: No soft drinks in the house. No screens in the bedroom. Exercise, do more, and come back in two months. In two months, what’s changed? Nothing. The food at school is still unhealthy, the neighborhood is still unsafe to play in and the family still uses the car to get absolutely everywhere because there is no other choice. The likely outcome for that child and so many others, said Jackson, is to end up on costly cholesterol medication just two months later when the child’s vital statistics continue to spiral out of control.
"It’s a 20th century idea that our minds are separated from our bodies, and our communities are separated from ourselves,” he Jackson, who reminded the crowd that the most critical health advancements in the last century took place because of changes in infrastructure, not medicine—primarily new sanitary standards to curb out-of-control infectious disease.
Now, said Jackson, “We’ve built America around the car” and we need a whole new set of infrastructure changes to re-build communities that offer better opportunities for health as part of everyday life. “The built environment is social policy in concrete.”
HPV Vaccine Has Lowered HPV Infection Rates in Teen Girls
A new study published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases has found that since the HPV vaccine was introduced in 2006, vaccine-type HPV prevalence decreased 56 percent among female teenagers 14-19. About 79 million Americans—most in their late teens and early 20s—are infected with HPV. Each year, about 14 million people become newly infected. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), each year in the United States about 19,000 cancers caused by HPV occur in women, with cervical cancer the most common. About 8,000 cancers caused by HPV occur each year in men in the United States, with oropharyngeal (throat) cancers the most common. “This report shows that the HPV vaccine works well, and the report should be a wake-up call to our nation to protect the next generation by increasing HPV vaccination rates,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Unfortunately only one third of girls aged 13-17 have been fully vaccinated with HPV vaccine.” Routine vaccination at age 11-12 for both boys and girls is recommended in the US, but according to recent national immunization surveys, only about half of all girls in the United States and far fewer boys, have received the first dose of HPV vaccine. Read more on vaccines.
AMA Announces New Policy Aimed at Removing Sugared-Beverages from SNAP Program
The American Medical Association (AMA) passed a policy at its annual meeting yesterday calling on the association to work to remove sugar-sweetened beverages from the SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) for low-income families. SNAP replaced the U.S. Food Stamp program several years ago. The new policy also encourages state health agencies to include nutrition information in routine materials sent to SNAP recipients. According to the AMA, 58 percent of beverages bought with SNAP dollars are sugar-sweetened ones. The AMA also passed a resolution recognizing obesity as a disease “requiring a range of medical interventions to advance obesity treatment and prevention.” “Recognizing obesity as a disease will help change the way the medical community tackles this complex issue that affects approximately one in three Americans,” said AMA board member Patrice Harris, MD. Read more on obesity.
HUD Releases First-Ever Same Sex Housing Discrimination Study
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has released the nation’s first-ever national study examining housing discrimination against same-sex couples in the private rental market. The study found that same-sex couples experience unequal treatment more often than heterosexual couples when responding to internet ads for rental units, and that gay male couples experience more discrimination than lesbian couples. “A person’s sexual orientation or gender identity should not be a reason to receive unfavorable treatment when searching for housing,” said Bryan Greene, HUD Acting Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. “HUD is committed to making sure that LGBT individuals have equal access to housing opportunities.” HUD’s study is based on nearly 7,000 email tests conducted in 50 metropolitan markets across the country between June and October of 2011. For each paired test, two emails were sent to the housing provider regarding the unit advertised online. The only difference between the emails was whether the couple was same-sex or heterosexual. Unfavorable treatment was measured by whether the tester was told the unit was available, asked to contact the landlord, invited to the see the apartment, or received any response at all. Read more on housing.
Recession Saw Parents Cut Back on Care for Kids with Special Health Needs
The financial struggles of the recent recession led many families to cut back on health care treatments for children with chronic physical or emotional problems, according to the journal Health Affairs. About one in every five U.S. kids fits these criteria. "Those are children who require health or related services beyond those required by children generally," said researcher Pinar Karaca-Mandic, an assistant professor of public health at the University of Minnesota. "A child with asthma would fit in this category, for example. A child with depression, ADHD or a physical limitation would also fit this definition." Researchers analyzed government data on out-of-pocket costs for families with private insurance from 2001 to 2009, finding expenses climbed steadily until 2007, when spending for generally healthy children jumped but spending for kids with special health needs dropped. Dental care and prescription medications were the services most likely to see cut backs. Christina Bethell, professor of pediatrics at Oregon Health and Science University, in Portland, said the findings demonstrate that "We're not putting a system of care together for kids that appears to be optimal, and families are struggling.” Read more on access to health care.
CDC: Older Americans, Pregnant Women at Greatest Risk for Listeria
Older Americans, pregnant women, newborns and people with weakened immune systems account for approximately 90 percent of all Listeria food poisoning cases each year, according to the a new Vital Signs report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The report outlines safety measures to help prevent the bacterial infection, including knowing which foods are highest risk and how to prepare them properly. About 1,600 people contract Listeria annually and it is the third leading cause of food poisoning deaths. Read more on food safety.
Health of Black, Hispanic Teens Most Affected by Fast Food Near Schools
Fast food restaurants near schools have the greatest negative impact on the health of black and Hispanic teens in lower-income neighborhoods, according to a new study in the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. Those teens were more likely than white of Hispanic kids to be overweight or obese. For all students, fast food one mile closer to school basically offset the benefits of one day of exercise per week; for black and Hispanic teens it offset up to three days of exercise. "The findings imply that it is important to examine the behaviors and contexts associated with low-income and ethnic minority status in urban areas," study co-author Sonya Grier, associate professor of marketing at American University, noted in the release. "These populations not only are the fastest growing but also have the highest rates of obesity, and research is relatively limited." Read more on obesity.
“We know PSA campaigns can make a big impact; that they can improve people’s lives.”
The Advertising (Ad) Council has just launched a new version of its digital distribution platform, PSA Central, which is geared toward PSA directors and media outlets, but is also valuable for anyone who wants to share the messages including educators and public health practitioners. The site offers easy access to video, print, radio, online, mobile and outdoor media public service advertisements that range from bullying prevention to food safety education.
Public Service Advertisements (PSAs) may actually date back to the civil war when newspapers offered free advertising space to the U.S. government to advertise bonds whose revenues were used to pay for the war effort. These days, PSAs are much more likely to be public safety messages such as a United Kingdom video PSA, downloaded over 2 million times on YouTube, reminding people just why they should buckle up in a car. And more importantly, these efforts are being measured and tracked to show impact on health behavior change and health outcomes, such as the Ad Council’s drunk driving prevention campaign that has encouraged 70 percent of Americans to take action to stop a friend from driving drunk.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Peggy Conlon, president and CEO of the Ad Council, about the public health messages PSAs can convey and how new media has expanded their reach.
NewPublicHealth: How have PSAs evolved over the years?
Peggy Conlon: PSAs have evolved quite a bit. The Ad Council is 71 years old and back in the earliest days PSAs were seen in newspapers and heard over the radio. Since then they have been showcased on just about all media platforms. In the 90s we were introduced to the Internet and everything changed forever. The Internet added another new dimension to our ability, in a very tangible and personal way, to engage communities around social issues.
NPH: What are some of the most effective and iconic campaigns in public service advertising?
FDA Releases Safety Checklist for ‘Hurricane Preparedness Week’
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has made available a Hurricane Safety Checklist for Hurricane Preparedness Week, which runs from May 26 to June 1. The list includes tips and steps to ensure water, food and medical supplies are safe not only during hurricanes, but also during flooding and lengthy power outages that may follow. Emergency medication and supplies are especially critical for those with serious health concerns or at particular risk, such as people with chronic conditions or the elderly. The checklist is also available in Spanish. Hurricane season in the Atlantic runs from June to November and in the Eastern Pacific from May 15 to November 30, according to Ready.gov. Read more on preparedness.
Study: Mother’s Obesity Surgery Decreases Child’s Risk of Obesity
A woman’s obesity surgery can reduce the risk of having an overweight or obese child later in life, according to a new study. Researchers from Laval University in Quebec, Canada looked at 20 mothers who had children before and after gastrointestinal bypass or a biliopancreatic bypass weight-loss surgeries, finding an actual genetic effect on the later offspring. They are at decreased risk of not only obesity, but also diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While the study is small, the researchers say this is the first step toward better identifying and even blocking “obese” genes. Read more on obesity.
Task Force: Screen All Pregnant Women for Gestational Diabetes after 24 Weeks
A new draft recommendation statement from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) says that all pregnant women should be screened for gestational diabetes after 24 weeks. The screening should be performed even for those women who haven’t shown symptoms. Gestational diabetes increases the risk of various labor and birth complications; the babies are also at increased risk of increased birth weight, birth injuries, glucose intolerance and childhood obesity. "It's always better to prevent a disease than to be diagnosed with one," said task force member Wanda Nicholson, MD, in a release. "Women should have a conversation with their doctor before getting pregnant or in the early stages of pregnancy about steps they can take—such as improving their diet, being physically active or other strategies—to reduce their risk of developing gestational diabetes." Read more on maternal and infant health.
Psychiatrist "Bible" Gets a Numeric Overhaul
The American Psychiatric Association will release the latest version of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) this Saturday at its annual meeting, according to Reuters. The current version is the DSM-IV, which was released a full 10 years ago -- the new version will be recast as DSM-5 (not DSM-V), with an eye toward updating the catalog of psychiatric conditions much more frequently with intermediate versions (DSM-5.1, DSM-5.2 and so on). The newest version also aims to introduce more scientific rigor and clinical confirmation of mental illness, such as, "using neuroscience in particular to tell the difference between, say, normal sadness and major depression." Though some criticize that the science just isn't there yet, and that the current version could lead to overdiagnosis. Read more on mental health.
Most Adults Enforce Smoke-Free Rules in Homes, Cars
Four out of five U.S. adults report having voluntary smoke-free rules in their homes and three out of four report having voluntary smoke-free rules in their vehicles, according to a study published in the journal Preventing Chronic Disease, a publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Despite the high prevalence of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and vehicles, the study found that almost 11 million non-smoking adults continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke in their home, and almost 17 million non-smoking adults continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke in a vehicle. The study also showed that voluntary smoke-free rules were more prevalent in states with comprehensive smoke-free laws and tobacco control programs. Read more on tobacco.
Living Near Fast-Food Outlets Might Boost Obesity Risk
Black Americans who live within two miles of a fast food outlet have a higher body-mass index than those living farther away -- and that link especially holds true for those with lower incomes, according to a new study published in the American Journal of Public Health. The study involved more than 1,400 black adults divided into two groups: those making less than $40,000 per year and those making $40,000 or more per year. Read more on what it takes to create healthy communities.
RWJF Obesity Report Details Tactics that Could Save Billions in Health Care Costs
The medical costs of the ongoing U.S. obesity epidemic could be as high as $210 billion annually, according to James S. Marks, Senior Vice President for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Group. The loss of economic productivity likely adds even more billions to the toll. However, increasing the Congressional Budget Office’s time frame for estimating the cost of legislation from 10 years to 75 years would greatly improve the battle against obesity by enabling us to better estimate the true costs—and savings—of health care and public health efforts. The Campaign to End Obesity estimates that over 75 years, obesity screening by physicians would save $44 billion, the S-CHIP childhood obesity demonstration project would save $41 billion, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s diabetes prevention program would save $18.4 billion and Medicare part D weight-loss drug coverage would save $11.4 billion. Read the full report.
Citing Cancer Risk, FDA Proposes New Rules for Youth and Indoor Tanning
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing that sunlamp products used for tanning be reclassified as a moderate risk device—up from a low risk device—and made to carry recommendations warning against their use by young people. The ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning increases the risk of melanoma by 75 percent, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. “Using indoor tanning beds can damage your skin and increase your risk of developing skin cancer,” said FDA Commissioner Margaret A. Hamburg, MD. “The FDA’s proposed changes will help address some of the risks associated with sunlamp products and provide consumers with clear and consistent information.” Read more on cancer.
FDA Warns Pregnant Women of Migraine Drug Ingredient’s Risk to Children
Noting the link between the migraine medicine ingredient valproate and lower IQ scores in children, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning all pregnant women not to take medication containing the ingredient. "Valproate medications should never be used in pregnant women for the prevention of migraine headaches because we have even more data now that show the risks to the children outweigh any treatment benefits for this use," said Russell Katz, MD, director of the division of neurology products in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. FDA is also warning women who may become pregnant not to use valproate unless it is medically “essential” and that they make sure they are on effective birth control. Read more on maternal and infant health.