Category Archives: Injury Prevention
New Tools from DOT to Help Keep Pedestrians Safe
The U.S. Department of Transportation has released a new set of tools to help communities reverse a rise in pedestrian deaths in the last two years. As part of the campaign, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is making $2 million in pedestrian safety grants available to cities with the highest rate of pedestrian deaths. States have until August 30 to apply for the grants. In addition, NHTSA and the Federal Highway Administration have launched a new website that includes pedestrian safety tips and resources for community officials, city planners and community residents. According to NHTSA data, 4,432 pedestrians were killed in traffic crashes in 2011. That’s an 8 percent increase since 2009. Three out of four pedestrian deaths occurred in urban areas and 70 percent of those killed were at non-intersections. The data also shows that 70 percent of deaths occurred at night and many involved alcohol. Read more on injury prevention.
National Farmers Market Week
In observance of National Farmers Market Week, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has released data showing that that 8,144 farmers market are now listed in USDA's National Farmers Market Directory, up from about 5,000 in 2008. The agency has also announced that the Food and Nutrition Service has increased the number of farmers markets able to accept SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) payments, which will improve access to fresh produce for SNAP recipients. Currently, more than 3,800 farmers markets are authorized to accept SNAP in FY 2012, and farmers markets generate more than $16 million in SNAP sales. Read more on nutrition.
Researchers Create Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool to Help Prevent Falls
One in three adults ages 65 and older suffer falls every year—many at home, since more seniors are continuing to live in their homes as they grow older. To help prevent falls, researchers and occupational therapists at the University at Buffalo SUNY School of Public Health and Health Professions have created the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool which details ways to prevent falls. The tool includes safety tips and checklists for each room of a home, including common hazards such as area rugs, which account for many home falls when people catch a shoe heel at the edge. Read more on aging.
HHS: 2013 So Far Sees 8 Foodborne Outbreaks, 2 New Global Diseases, 37 Disasters
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has awarded more than $916 million to continue improving preparedness and health outcomes for a variety of public health threats in every state, eight U.S. territories and four of the nation’s largest metropolitan areas. “Already in 2013, local and state health agencies have responded to eight food borne outbreaks, two new global diseases, and 37 disaster and emergency declarations, a clear indication of the breadth of threats that public health departments must be capable of responding to,” said Ali Khan, MD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office for Public Health Preparedness and Response. The grants have included funding for the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) cooperative agreement and the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The programs encourage health care and state and local public health departments to work together to maximize resources and prevent duplicative efforts. Such coordination of activities with emergency management and homeland security programs supports “whole community” planning to improve national preparedness efforts.. Read more on preparedness.
DOT Issues New Rules to Reduce Truck Driver Fatigue
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has announced new safety regulations to reduce truck driver fatigue:
- The maximum hours per week a truck driver can drive has been reduced from 82 to 70.
- Truck drivers who reach the maximum 70 hours of driving within a week can resume driving if they rest for 34 consecutive hours, including at least two nights from 1 to 5 a.m.
- All truck drivers must take a 30-minute break during the first eight hours of a shift.
- As before, truck drivers have a daily 11-hour driving limit.
Read more on injury prevention.
Sleepy Teenagers Often Make Poor Food Choices
Well-rested teenagers tend to make more healthful food choices than those who are sleep deprived, according to a study by preventive medicine researchers at the Stony Brook University School of Medicine in New York State. The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies and funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. The study looked at the relationship between sleep duration and food choices in a national survey of more than 1,300 teenagers, finding that those teens who reported sleeping less than seven hours per night were more likely to consume fast food two or more times per week and less likely to eat healthful food such as fruits and vegetables. “Teenagers have a fair amount of control over their food and sleep, and the habits they form in adolescence can strongly impact their habits as adults,” said Allison Kruger, MPH, a community health worker at Stony Brook University Hospital and lead author of the study. Read more on obesity.
National Surgical Groups Offers Tips, Warnings on Fourth of July Fireworks
With the Fourth of July holiday only a few days away, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is cautioning adults and children to be careful when it comes to handling fireworks. "Many people consider consumer fireworks to be harmless fun, when in fact they can be extremely dangerous, especially when used by or near children and adolescents," said Boston orthopedic surgeon Tamara Rozental, MD, spokesperson for the group."If caution is not used and safety guidelines are not adhered to, fireworks can cause serious injuries to the hands and fingers as well as the eyes.” The total amount of fireworks purchased by Americans climbed to 212 million pounds in 2011, up from 184 million in 2010. Fireworks led to about 18,700 injuries and more than 7,300 emergency department visits. The group recommends a number of safety tips, including not handling fireworks while consuming alcohol, restriction of use by children and keeping a water source nearby. Read more on injury prevention.
WHO: Expanded Anti-smoking Measures Could Save Millions of Lives Globally
Millions of lives could be saved each year globally if more countries enacted strict anti-smoking measures such as higher taxes on tobacco products, bans on smoking advertisements and restrictions on tobacco use in public places, according to a new study published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Approximately forty countries, including Turkey and Romania, currently utilize such public health regulations. About 6 million people die each year from smoking, with that number expected to rise to eight million annually by 2030, according to the WHO. Researchers believe that by 2050 more than 7 million lives could be saved by expanding the proven anti-tobacco measures. "If anything it is an under-estimate," said Douglas Bettcher, MD, director of WHO's department of noncommunicable diseases, to Reuters. "It is a win-win situation for health and finance ministries to generate revenues that have a major impact on improving health and productivity.” Read more on tobacco.
Dating Violence Patterns Can Be Seen as Early as Middle School
Patterns in dating violence later in life can be seen as early as middle school, according to a new study in the Journal of School Health. According to the study approximately half of middle school students sampled had experienced dating violence, with about 20 percent reporting physical violence and 48.1 percent reporting nonphysical victimization. “Not only are these rates similar to those seen in older, high school populations they are similar to those seen among adult females,”, said Melissa Peskin, MD, assistant professor in the Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences at the School of Public Health. According to the researchers, the findings demonstrate the need for earlier intervention and prevention efforts. Read more on violence.
FDA Uses ‘Substantial Equivalence’ Standard to Authorize Two New Tobacco Products, Deny Four Others
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has, for the first time, utilized the substantial equivalence pathway to deny the marketing of four new tobacco products and allow the marketing of two new ones. FDA was granted the authority under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. Manufacturers can seek approval of new products by showing they are substantially equivalent to other tobacco products currently on the market. “Today’s decisions are just the first of many forthcoming product review actions to be issued,” said Mitch Zeller, JD, director of the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products. “The FDA is committed to making science-based decisions on all product applications and providing the agency’s scientific rationale behind its actions to ensure the most transparent and efficient process possible for all involved parties, according to the law.” Read more on tobacco.
Daily Contacts Leave Kids, Teachers, Health Care Workers at Highest Flu Risk
Children, teachers and health care workers are at the greatest risk of catching and transmitting influenza, according to a new study in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The study utilizes online and mail surveys to analyze the daily social contacts of more than 5,000 people. "People working as teachers or health professionals are no doubt already aware that they have higher risks of picking up bugs like colds and flu. But before this study there was very little data mapping out the contact patterns humans have in their daily life," said Leon Danon, from the Mathematics Institute at the University of Warwick, England, in a release. "By quantifying those social interactions, we can better predict the risks of contracting and spreading infections and ultimately better target epidemic control measures in the case of pandemic flu, for example.” Researchers recommend the people at greatest risk be especially careful to wash their hands with soap and water; maintain clean surfaces; and use tissues when needed. Read more on influenza.
New Study Paints Larger Picture on Adolescent Concussions
New research on youth concussions gives a broader picture of the “silent epidemic” and shows that kids who smoke and drink are at increased risk. The study appears in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Canadian researchers found that about 20 percent of approximately 9,000 Ontario adolescents who were surveyed had suffered from a concussion. About half were related to sports, but they also found that teens who smoked marijuana or consumed alcohol were at three-to-five times higher risk. "This is the first study I'm aware of that looked at the general population," said Kenneth Podell, co-director of the Methodist Concussion Center at the Methodist Hospital System in Houston. U.S. emergency departments treat about 173,000 adolescents annually for traumatic brain injuries, which includes concussions, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Read more on injury prevention.
HHS Launches Redesigned Website
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has launched a redesigned website to make it easier for public health officials, health care experts and consumers navigate the agency’s diverse collection of resources. The new site emphasizes direct access to the latest news and top areas of interest—including priority websites manages by the large agency—while also highlighting ways to connect with HHS on social media, including Twitter and Facebook. Read more on HHS.
Overuse, Unsafe Methods Increase Serious Injury Risk in Youth Baseball
Non-adherence to pitch counts and general overuse has helped lead to a dramatic increase in youth baseball throwing injuries requiring surgery. The injuries now occur 16 times more often as they did only 30 years ago, according to Joseph Guettler, MD, an orthopedic surgeon and sports medicine specialist with the Beaumont Health System in Royal Oak, Mich. Factors include pitching more than one game per day, pitching on back-to-back days, not utilizing pitch counts and throwing curve balls before high school. "It became very clear that dangerous pitching behavior is occurring among pitchers as young as Little League all the way through their high school years,” said Guettler. “And, the blame doesn't usually lie with the leagues or coaches. Most were found to be adhering to nationally recognized guidelines for pitch limits and rest. It seems much of the blame lies with behavior of parents and their kids.” To avoid injuries, he recommends the “Rule of Ones,” which limits how often a kid pitches, how many positions they play, how many teams that play for and other factors that increase serious injury risk. Read more on injury prevention.
CDC Recommends FluBlok Influenza Vaccine for People with Egg Allergies
In a unanimous vote, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended FluBlok for the upcoming influenza season for people ages 18-49 who suffer from egg allergies. The production of FluBok, which was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January of this year, does not utilize the influenza virus or chicken eggs. Read more on influenza.
Less than a month ago cities in Oklahoma were struck by some of the most powerful tornadoes in the state’s history, killing more than 40 people, injuring scores more and destroying thousands of homes and other structures.
As part of an ongoing series on how public health responds to disaster, NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Gary Cox, director of the Oklahoma City-County Health Department.
NewPublicHealth: What roles has your health department had following the tornadoes?
Gary Cox: We do many things. For example, a lot of people are out cleaning up and come into contact with nails and other sharp objects and they get cuts and puncture wounds. We partnered with Blue Cross Blue Shield and we have three mobile vans staffed those vans with nurses who go out into the affected areas and give tetanus shots and minor first aid. Mental health services can also be provided out of the vans. In fact, we put out a call for assistance and many trained professionals signed up within just a couple of days to volunteer their services to work with individuals and with families, particularly over the stress issues related to these tornados and floods. We have a very broad and deep layer of partnerships, and of course we rely on those. And what we try to do is to take a holistic type so that people in need can get a whole range of services from one location.
One important mission has been to deploy food safety inspectors out into all those areas affected to look at each one of those restaurants and to help them assess their food spoilage and food safety and work with them to get back to business if they can and as soon as they can.
Racial and Ethnic Minorities Face Greater Subtle Housing Discrimination
Blatant acts of housing discrimination faced by minority prospective home buyers are declining in the United States, but more subtle forms of housing denial persist, according to a new study by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the Urban Institute. The study found that African-Americans, Hispanics and Asians learn about fewer housing options than equally qualified whites. According to the study, which sent out pairs of “mystery home buyers” — one white and one minority — to contact real estate agents and rental housing providers, the minority pairs were recommended and shown fewer available homes and apartments, which can increase their costs and restrict housing options, according to HUD. “Fewer minorities today may be getting the door slammed in their faces, but we continue to see evidence of housing discrimination that can limit a family’s housing, economic and educational opportunities,” said HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan. Read more on housing.
After Second or Third Concussion Kids Take Longer to Recover
Children and adolescents who suffer a concussion have a much longer recovery time if they have had a concussion in the past, according to a new study in Pediatrics. The study authors evaluated 280 patients between the ages of 11 and 22 who were treated for concussion symptoms in emergency departments. Children who had a second concussion within a year had nearly three times the average duration of symptoms compared to children whose concussions occurred more than one year apart. The number of previous concussions also affected recovery time. Two or more prior concussions resulted in a much longer duration of symptoms compared to those who experienced no or one previous concussion. Other factors that resulted in a longer recovery time included being age 13 or older and having more severe symptoms at the time of the emergency room visit. Read more on injury prevention.
Hearing Loss in Seniors Can Increase Hospitalizations and Poor Health
A new study published in JAMA finds that seniors with hearing loss are at increased risk for hospitalization, illness, injury and depression. The study authors reviewed records of more than 1,000 men and women age 70 and older with hearing loss, finding that over a four-year period they were 32 percent more likely to have been admitted to the hospital than a comparison group the same age with normal hearing. The hearing-impaired seniors in the study were also 36 percent more likely to have extended stretches of illness or injury and 57 percent more likely to have extended episodes of stress, depression or bad mood. According to the researchers, hearing loss affects two-thirds of men and women aged 70 and older. Among their recommendations to reduce the health burdens of hearing loss are expanding Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement for hearing-related services; increased installation of amplification technology in more facilities; and more accessible and affordable approaches for treating hearing loss. Read more on aging.
Britain to Regulate, Improve Quality of E-Cigarettes
The British government plan to regulate electronic cigarettes as non-prescription medicine starting in 201, according to Reuters. E-Cigarettes are battery-operated devices that contain cartridges filled with nicotine, flavor, and other chemicals. They turn nicotine, which is highly addictive, and other chemicals into a vapor that can be inhaled. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned that, "As the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes have not been fully studied, consumers of e-cigarette products currently have no way of knowing:
- whether e-cigarettes are safe for their intended use,
- how much nicotine or other potentially harmful chemicals are being inhaled during use, or
- if there are any benefits associated with using these products."
The devices do not contain any health warnings comparable to FDA-approved nicotine replacement products or conventional cigarettes. Currently, e-cigarettes that are marketed for therapeutic purposes are regulated by the FDA. According to Reuters, "Under the new British system, manufacturers will have to prove the quality of their products and demonstrate that they deliver the correct amount of nicotine. But they will not need to conduct clinical trials." Read more on tobacco and nicotine.
Even Hands-Free Devices Create Unsafe, Distracted Driving Conditions
A new report from AAA finds that even hands-free mobile devices create mental distractions that can drain attention away from focusing on the road and safe driving. The study found that mentally-distracted drivers—those who may not have even taken their eyes off the road but were distracted by speaking with someone through a hands-free device—missed visual cues, had slower reaction times, and even exhibited a sort of "tunnel vision" by not checking side- and rear-view mirrors or actively scanning the full roadway for potential hazards. Activities like listening to the radio or an audio book was mildly distracting (but likely not enough to effect driving safety); conversing with others (whether with fellow passengers, with someone via hand-held device or with some via hands-free device) was moderately but significantly distracting; and using a device with speech-to-text technology to send text messages or e-mails was highly distracting. Researchers hope these findings can be used to help craft science-based policies on driver distraction. Read more on safety.
CDC Partners with 104 Businesses to Improve Employee Health
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), through its partner Viridian Health Management, has identified 104 employers in eight counties across the nation that have voluntarily chosen to participate in the National Healthy Worksite Program, a new initiative aimed at reducing chronic disease and building a healthier, more productive U.S. workforce—while also cutting health care costs. The initiative primarily focuses on small and mid-sized employers. a national evaluation will document best practices and models on how to successfully implement workplace health programs in small worksites more broadly. Read more on what businesses are doing to create healthier communities.
As school winds down and camps and sports prepare for the summer season, a new study funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and published in the American Journal of Public Health on sports-related traumatic brain injuries in youth sports, is generating deserved attention.
The study, by Hosea Harvey, JD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Law at the Temple University Beasley School of Law, found that while forty four states and Washington, D.C., passed youth sport TBI laws between 2009 and 2012, none of the laws focus on preventing the injuries in the first place. The laws on the books deal primarily with increasing coaches’ and parents’ ability to identify and respond to traumatic brain injuries and reducing the immediate risk of multiple brain injuries.
>>Read more in a Q&A with the Babe Ruth League Inc. about how youth sports leagues are making strides to prevent injuries.
Harvey’s conclusion is that continued research and evaluation is needed to develop a more comprehensive reduction in youth sport traumatic brain injuries.
NewPublicHealth: What did your study address?
Hosea Harvey: I looked at traumatic brain injury (TBI) laws that were passed at the state level that purported to deal with the problem of youth TBIs in sports statewide. I looked at every related state law passed between 2009 through the end of 2012, though most states only had one law that they passed that dealt with youth sports TBIs during that period.
NPH: And your study found that no state that right now has a law that says this is what you have to do in order to prevent these concussions in the first place?
While a growing number of major league sports teams have policies on concussion assessment and return to play, many youth and school sports leagues and teams do not have similar rules, despite thousands of sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) reported in children and adolescents every year.
Hosea H. Harvey, PhD, JD, Assistant Professor of Law in Temple University’s Beasley School of Law, has just published an article in the American Journal of Public Health analyzing how this health issue is being addressed across the country. He found that there are laws dealing with concussions in youth sports in 44 states and D.C.—but none are focused on preventing the injuries. The laws only address detecting the injuries or preventing an additional injury after one has already occurred.
The study also revealed that many laws don’t draw on evidence around what works. For example, most state laws establish a minimum 24-hour period of youth athlete removal, but there is no scientific agreement about the optimal minimal time someone who has suffered a sports-related TBI should be removed from play. The study utilized an open source dataset from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation grantee Public Health Law Research called LawAtlas.
>>Read the full study.
NewPublicHealth previously spoke with Harvey and Kerri McGowan Lowrey, JD, MPH, Senior Staff Attorney with the Network for Public Health Law — Eastern Region, about legal and legislative approaches to addressing concussions in youth sports. The previous interview is included below: