Category Archives: Heart and Vascular Health
Minimum Alcohol Prices Could Help Low-income, High-risk Drinkers
Setting a minimum price for alcohol would have a positive impact on low-income, high-risk drinkers, but little effect on low-income, moderate drinkers, according to a new study in The Lancet. British researchers at the University of Sheffield utilized a computer model to assess the impact of a 73 cents per unit of alcohol minimum on different demographics, finding it would have the greatest positive impact—reducing the amount of alcohol consumption—on the 5 percent of the population defined as high-risk drinkers. "Our study finds no evidence to support the concerns highlighted by government and the alcohol industry that minimum unit pricing would penalize responsible drinkers on low incomes,” said study co-author Petra Meier, director of the Sheffield Alcohol Research Group. “Instead, minimum unit pricing is a policy that is targeted at those who consume large quantities of cheap alcohol. By significantly lowering rates of ill health and premature deaths in this group, it is likely to contribute to the reduction of health inequalities." Read more on alcohol.
Smoking Linked to Most Common Type of Breast Cancer
Adding yet another health risk to the use of tobacco, smoking is linked to an increased risk for the most common type of breast cancer, according to a new study in the journal Cancer. Researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle conducted a population-based study of 778 patients, ages 20-44, with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (the most common type) and 182 patients with triple-negative breast cancer; there were 938 cancer-free controls. They found that women who were current or recent smokers and had been smoking a pack a day for at least 10 years had a 60 percent increased risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. "The health hazards associated with smoking are numerous and well known. This study adds to our knowledge in suggesting that with respect to breast cancer, smoking may increase the risk of the most common molecular subtype of breast cancer but not influence risk of one of the rarer, more aggressive subtypes," said Christopher Li, MD, PhD. Read more on cancer.
Low Testosterone Drugs Can Double Heart Attack Risk in Some Men
Ads asking men about their “low T”—or low testosterone levels—have become so common of late that in 2013 sales of the testosterone gel Androgel exceeded those of Viagra. However, a recent study indicates that men under the age of 65 with a history of heart disease see their heart attack risk double shortly after beginning testosterone therapy. The joint study from the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, the National Institutes of Health and Consolidated Research Inc. appears in the journal PLOS ONE. Researchers decided to perform this larger study after three smaller studies raised concerns about the connection. "We decided to investigate cardiovascular risks of this therapy in a large health care database since these previous studies were modest in size and only focused on men 65 and older," said the study's senior author, Sander Greenland, MD, a professor of epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health and a professor of statistics in the UCLA College of Letters and Science. "Our study allowed us to examine cardiovascular risk in men under the age of 65 and to replicate the findings in men over 65." Read more on heart health.
Survey: Latinos See Diabetes as Greatest Family Health Concern
A new NPR/Robert Wood Johnson Foundation/Harvard School of Public Health poll found that Latinos see diabetes as the biggest health concern for their families. Almost 19 percent of Latinos surveyed cited diabetes as the top worry, including across both immigrant (19 percent) and non-immigrant (22 percent) populations. Cancer, at 5 percent, was the second-biggest concern. In addition to health and health care, the poll also asked about communities, financial situation and discrimination. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic adults are 1.7 percent more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be diagnosed with diabetes, and 1.5 percent more likely to die from it. Read more on health disparities.
Heart Attack Patients in ER Off-Hours Seeing Higher Mortality Rates
Heart attack patients who present during off-hours—at night and on weekends—are more likely to die, according to a new study from the journal BMJ. Their emergency care is also more likely to take longer than it would during normal hospital hours, including inflation of the coronary artery, which can take an additional 15 minutes. After analyzed records on 1,896,859 patients, researchers at the Mayo Clinic determined that heart attack patients who present during off-hours had a 5 percent relative increase in mortality—or an additional 6,000 U.S. deaths. The study’s authors concluded that emergency departments "should focus on improving their off-hour care, with the goal of providing consistently high quality care 24 hours a day and seven days a week." Read more on heart health.
Study: HPV Vaccination Rate Remains Low, More Physician Recommendations Needed
Only 14.5 percent of girls ages 11 and 12 have received at least one does of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, with only 3 percent having completed a three-dose series, according to a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. The study from the Moffitt Cancer Center indicates that increasing the rate of physician recommendations, which so far remains low, could do much to up the vaccination rate and cut the risk of cancer. The vaccination protects against the two types of HPV that cause 70 percent of cervical cancer cases. “This study demonstrates that the change in consistent HPV vaccine recommendations to early adolescent females was modest, and for older adolescent females was virtually nonexistent, from three to five years after the vaccine became available,” explained Susan T. Vadaparampil, PhD, MPH, associate member of the Health Outcomes and Behavior Program at Moffitt. “Physician recommendation is central to increasing HPV vaccination rates because it is one of the most important predictors of whether a patient gets the HPV vaccine.” Read more on cancer.
Black Women Have Highest Rates of High Blood Pressure
More black women have high blood pressure than black men and white men and women, according to a new study in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.
The study included 70,000 people in the 12 southeastern states that are often referred to as the “stroke belt” because they collectively have a high rate of stroke incidence. Among the study participants, the high blood pressure rate among black women was 64 percent. Among white women the rate was 52 percent and among both black and white men the rate was 51 percent.
“For many years, the focus for high blood pressure was on middle-aged men who smoked; now we know better,” said Uchechukwu Sampson, MD, MPH. MBA, a lead author of the study and assistant professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn. “We should look for [high blood pressure] in everyone and it should be treated aggressively — especially in women, who have traditionally gotten less attention in this regard.”
Dr. Sampson’s work was supported in part by the Harold Amos Medical Faculty Award of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Read more on health disparities.
Over 40 Million Americans Experienced Mental Illness in 2012
Nearly one in five American adults, or 43.7 million people, experienced a diagnosable mental illness in 2012, a similar number to 2011, according to a new report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
SAMHSA also reported that, consistent with 2011, less than half (41 percent) of these adults received any mental health services in the past year. And among adults with mental illness who reported an unmet need for treatment, the top three reasons given for not receiving help were:
- they could not afford the cost;
- they thought they could handle the problem without treatment; and
- they did not know where to go for services.
The Department of Health and Human Services recently launched MentalHealth.gov to help people find easy-to-understand information about basic signs of mental health problems, how to talk about mental health and mental illness, and how to locate help.
The recent SAMHSA report also found that 9 million American adults 18 and older (3.9 percent) had serious thoughts of suicide in the past year; 2.7 million (1.1 percent) made suicide plans and 1.3 million (0.6 percent) attempted suicide. People in crisis or who know someone they believe may be at immediate risk of attempting suicide can call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or go to SuicidePreventionLifeline.org, which provides immediate, free and confidential round-the-clock counseling to anyone in need throughout the country, every day of the year. Read more on mental health.
NHTSA Extends Its Partnership with Auto Makers on Technology to Stop Drunk Drivers
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has extended, for five years, its agreement with the Automotive Coalition for Traffic Safety (ACTS), made up of 15 auto makers, to continue researching advanced alcohol detection technology that could prevent vehicles from being driven by a drunk driver.
Under the partnership, NHTSA is working with ACTS to develop a car system that could accurately and reliably detect when a driver is above the legal alcohol limit of 0.08 BAC adopted by all 50 States and territories. The automatic system would be enabled every time the car is started, but not pose an inconvenience to a non-intoxicated driver.
“In this age of innovation, smart technology may be the breakthrough we need to prevent drunk drivers from getting behind the wheel and endangering the safety of others on our roads,” said NHTSA Administrator David Strickland. “The research program has shown significant promise to date, offering real potential in the future to prevent several thousand deaths annually.”
NHTSA expects to have models ready for testing in 2015. In 2012, deaths in crashes involving drunk drivers increased 4.6 percent, resulting in 10,322 deaths — up from 9,865 in 2011. Read about NHTSA’s “Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over" campaign.
NHTSA: Motorcoaches, Large Buses to Require Seatbelts for All Passengers and Driver
New motorcoaches and large buses will be required to provide lap and shoulder seatbelts for all passengers and driver, under a new rule issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). While the buses are an overall safe way to travel, the large numbers of people they carry and the high speeds at which they travel mean a single collision can lead to a significant number of injuries, according to NHTSA. An average of 7,934 riders are injured each year in motorcoaches, and an average of 21 passengers are killed. "Buckling up is the most effective way to prevent deaths and injuries in all vehicular crashes, including motorcoaches," said Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator Anne S. Ferro, in a release. "Requiring seat belts in new models is another strong step we are taking to reach an even higher level of safety for bus passengers." The rule will apply to buses with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 26,000 pounds,) excluding transit buses and school buses. Read more on transportation.
Study: Women With Breast Cancer Should Get Mammograms Every 12 to 18 Months
Breast cancer patients should undergo mammograms every 12 to 18 months to determine whether their cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, according to a new study to be presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America. Study researcher Lilian Wang, MD, evaluated more than 300 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer because of a routine mammogram, dividing them into three groups based on their treatment history. She found that only 9 percent of the women who had 12- to 18-month intervals between mammograms saw their cancer spread to their lymph nodes; the rates were 21 percent for those who waited one-and-a-half to three years and 15 percent for those who waited three or more years. "If you catch someone with early stage cancer, they are going to need less extensive surgery, and maybe no chemo," said Laura Kruper, MD, director of the Cooper-Finkel Women's Health Center at the City of Hope Cancer Center, in Duarte, Calif., who was not a part of the study. "[The new study] adds more power behind the fact that we do need screening mammograms starting at age 40 and every year.” Read more on cancer.
FDA: Certain HeartStart AEDs May Not Work During Cardiac Emergencies
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced yesterday that certain automated external defibrillator (AED) devices made by Philips Medical Systems may not function properly when needed. In a new safety communication, FDA revealed that the devices may not deliver the needed shock to restore normal heart rhythm during a cardiac emergency. “The FDA advises keeping all recalled HeartStart AEDs in service until you obtain a replacement from Philips Healthcare or another AED manufacturer, even if the device indicates it has detected an error during a self-test,” said Steve Silverman, director of the Office of Compliance in the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “Despite current manufacturing and performance problems, the FDA considers the benefits of attempting to use an AED in a cardiac arrest emergency greater than the risk of not attempting to use the defibrillator.” Read more on heart health.
Study: Gay, Bisexual Men Who Know Their HIV Status Less Likely to Engage in Risky Sex
Gay and bisexual men who know their HIV status are far less likely to engage in unprotected sex, which in lessens the sexual risk both for them and for their partner, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) latest Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. An analysis of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in 20 U.S. cities found that about 33 percent of those who did not know their status engaged in unprotected sex with a partner, and also did not know the status of the partner; men who knew their status were 60 percent less likely to do so, for an overall rate of 13 percent. MSM account for about two-thirds of new HIV infections and about half of the 1.1 million people in the United States with HIV. "While we remain concerned about potentially increasing levels of sexual risk, it is encouraging to see that risk is substantially lower in those who know they have HIV," said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. "HIV testing remains one of our most powerful tools to reverse the epidemic. Everyone should know their HIV status." Read more on HIV/AIDS.
Improved HealthCare.gov Faces Next Challenges
HealthCare.gov, the online portal for the Affordable Care Act, faces another test starting today as the Obama administration announced it met a weekend deadline to make the site easier to use and more accessible for most users. The original launch of the site was met with must frustration across the county as many people were unable to navigate the site properly or even to log in. The administration now expects a rush of people--both a backlog and people who have yet to try the site--to enroll by the December 23 deadline for coverage that would begin January 1. Multiple organizations, including Enroll America and AIDS Alabama, have announced plans to help people enroll. Jeffrey Zients, an administration advisor, warned that the post-Thanksgiving wave of enrollment could still overwhelm the servers at times. Read more on the Affordable Care Act.
Study: Energy Drinks Can Increase Strain on Heart
People who consume energy drinks can experience rapid heart contractions and increased strain on the heart up to an hour later, according to new research to be presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, in Chicago. The findings raise concerns over the effects of caffeine and taurine on heart health, especially for people who already suffer from heart disease. Researchers used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the heart function of 18 health people both before and after they consumed an energy drink, finding an average 6 percent increase in the heart contraction rate afterward. "We know there are drugs that can improve the function of the heart, but in the long term they have a detrimental effect on the heart," said Williams, a cardiology professor at Wayne State University School of Medicine, in Detroit. Researchers noted that further study is needed to determine the reason for the apparent link. Read more on heart health.
Kids Today Slower, Less Fit than Their Parents as Kids
An average child in 1975 in a one-mile race with an average child today would win by an average of a minute and a half, according to new research. Kids today are also about 15 percent less aerobically fit, with heart endurance falling an average of 6 percent per decade from 1970 to 2000. That means today’s kids are more likely to be unhealthy in adulthood, with weaker hearts, thinner bones and overall lower quality of life. Grant Tomkinson, a senior lecturer in the University of South Australia's School of Health Sciences, pointed to a number of factors, including communities designed to discourage walking, bicycling and backyard play; reduced or even completely absent physical education in schools; and the prevalence of television, computer, tablet and smartphone screens that keep kids indoors. "We all live in an environment that's toxic for exercise, and our children are paying the price," Tomkinson said. Tomkinson said in order to reverse this trend, kids need at least 60 minutes of serious physical exercise a day, such as running, swimming or cycling. "You want exercise to be fun, but there needs to be some huff and puff there as well," he said. "It needs to make them somewhat tired." Read more on physical activity.
Study: Symptoms of ‘Sudden’ Cardiac Arrest Can Be Seen Up to a Month Earlier
Symptoms of “sudden” cardiac arrest can be seen up to a month beforehand in middle-age men, according to new findings presented this week at the annual scientific sessions of the American Heart Association, held this year in Dallas. Researchers looked at the medical records of 567 men, ages 35-65, who had out-of-hospital heart attacks, finding that approximately 53 percent showed symptoms beforehand. They included chest pain (56 percent); shortness of breath (13 percent); and dizziness, fainting or palpitations (4 percent). Sumeet Chugh, senior author of the study and associate director for genomic cardiology at the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles, said the “entirely unexpected” findings show that people may be able to prevent heart attacks if they seek treatment earlier for these symptoms. "The findings were entirely unexpected," said "We never thought more than half of these middle-aged men would have had warning signs so long before their cardiac arrests,” Chugh said. “Previously we thought most people don't have symptoms so we can't do anything about it." Read more on heart health.
ACS Tips on Quitting Tobacco for Tomorrow’s ‘Great American Smokeout’
Tomorrow is the American Cancer Society (ACS) Great American Smokeout, held every year on the third Thursday of November. The annual event was founded to encourage people to quit using tobacco—perhaps to stop smoking on that day, or to make a plan on how to quit at a later date—and to provide the tools and resources that can help the decision stick. According to ACS, research shows that people are most successful at quitting tobacco when they have support, and recommends combing two or more of the following tactics to improve the odds:
- Telephone smoking-cessation hotlines
- Stop-smoking groups
- Online quit groups
- Nicotine replacement products
- Prescription medicine to lessen cravings
- Guide books
- Encouragement and support from friends and family members
Six Killed, Dozens Injured as Tornados Sweep Across the U.S. Midwest
At least six people were killed and dozens left injured after a flurry of tornados swept through the American Midwest yesterday. Tornado watches were announced for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin; by the end of the day, an estimated 77 had touched down, mostly in Illinois, according to the National Weather Service. The severe weather left thousands without power (approximately 89,000 in Northern Illinois alone) and leveled entire neighborhoods. “I went over there immediately after the tornado, walking through the neighborhoods, and I couldn’t even tell what street I was on,” said Tyler Gee, an alderman on the Chicago City Council, to radio station WBBM in Chicago. “It just completely flattened some of the neighborhoods here in town, hundreds of homes.” Read more on disasters.
NHTSA: 2012 Highway Fatalities Up for the First Time Since 2005
While highway traffic fatalities continue to hover around historic lows, the total number of deaths increased by 1,082 from 2011 to 2012, to a total of 33,561, the first increase since 2005. The findings are part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) 2012 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data. "Highway deaths claim more than 30,000 lives each year and while we've made substantial progress over the past 50 years, it's clear that we have much more work to do," said U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx. "As we look to the future, we must focus our efforts to tackle persistent and emerging issues that threaten the safety of motorists, cyclists and pedestrians across the nation." Read more on safety.
Heart Groups’ New Risk Guidelines, Calculator Apparently Flawed
The risk guidelines and calculator released last week by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, meant to improve the assessment of potential cardiovascular disease, could possibly instead greatly overestimate the risk and as built could lead to millions of unnecessary statin prescriptions. The potential problems, first identified by two Harvard Medical School professors, will be published today in The Lancet. One possible explanation for the problem is that the system relies on old data, while populations and their behaviors have changed. Steven Nissen, MD, chief of cardiovascular medicine at the Cleveland Clinic and a past president of the American College of Cardiology, called the findings “stunning,” adding “We need a pause to further evaluate this approach before it is implemented on a widespread basis.” However, after emergency meetings at the American Heart Association’s annual meeting this weekend in Dallas, both organizations said despite the apparent flaws the guidelines are still a major step forward, noting that patients are also advised to speak with their doctors, and not simply follow the results of the calculator. Read more on heart health.
CDC: Emerging Tobacco Products Gaining Popularity among Middle and High School Students
A new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) finds that emerging tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and hookahs are quickly gaining popularity among middle- and high-school students, but with no significant decline in students’ cigarette smoking or overall tobacco use. The new report was culled from data in the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, which shows that electronic cigarette use rose among middle school students from 0.6 percent in 2011 to 1.1 percent in 2012 and among high school students from 1.5 percent to 2.8 percent. Hookah use among high school students rose from 4.1 percent to 5.4 percent from 2011 to 2012.
The study authors say the increase in the use of electronic cigarettes and hookahs could be due to an increase in marketing, availability and visibility of the products, as well as the perception that they may be safer alternatives to cigarettes. While electronic cigarettes, hookahs, cigars and certain other new types of tobacco products are not currently subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the agency has said recently that it plans to issue a proposed rule that would deem products meeting the statutory definition of a "tobacco product" to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act—as cigarettes are.
The researchers say cigar use in young adults is of particular concern. During 2011-2012, cigar use increased dramatically among non-Hispanic black high school students from 11.7 percent to 16.7 percent, and has more than doubled since 2009, and similar to the rate of cigarette use among high school males (16.3 percent). Read more on tobacco.
Workplace Injuries Cost U.S. Healthcare System $13.1B in 2011
With nearly the highest injury rate of all U.S. industries, workplace injuries cost the U.S. healthcare system approximately $13.1 billion and more than 2 million lost workdays in 2011, according to a new study in the journal Professional Safety. “Healthcare worker injury rates are only less than outdoor wilderness professions, such as commercial loggers and fishermen. The injury rates are sky high," said report author Scott Harris, PhD, MSPH, the director of EHS advisory services for UL Workplace Health and Safety. The study found that 15.2 million employees were injured that year alone, with the most common injuries coming from slips, trips, falls, violence and chemical exposure; nurses experienced the highest rates. The report concluded that hospitals “would benefit from more rigorous and frequent inspections from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.” Read more on injury prevention.
Even Healthy Overweight People at Increased Risk for Heart Disease
Even overweight people who are otherwise healthy are at increased risk for heart disease, according to a new study in JAMA Internal Medicine. Previous research indicated that higher-than-normal risk was linked to a collection of risk factors known as “metabolic syndrome,” including large waist circumference, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low "good" cholesterol and diabetes. People have metabolic syndrome if they have at least three of the risk factors. However, in a study of 71,527 adults without heart problems, researchers determined that risk went up as weight went up, even if metabolic syndrome factors were absent. "Whether you call someone as having or not having metabolic syndrome as kind of a yes/no variable, is not helpful clinically and it doesn't make sense biologically," said Meir J. Stampfer, from the Harvard School of Public Health, according to Reuters. "It's basically just that the metabolic syndrome is waiting to happen to those people." Read more on obesity.
New Statin Guidelines Call For Greater Use
New guidelines from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology could dramatically increase the number of people taking cholesterol-lowering statins. The guidelines call for people to take statins if they already have heart disease, if their bad (LDL) cholesterol is extremely high (190 milligrams per deciliter of blood or more) or if they're middle-aged with type 2 diabetes. They also advise statins for people who are 40-75 years old with an estimated 10-year risk of heart disease of 7.5 percent or more. Previous guidelines had advised doctors to follow rigid clinical guidelines that trigger statin use when cholesterol levels reach a certain threshold. The new policy "suggests treatment should be individualized and that, depending on your risk, you may need a higher dose of a more potent statin than if your risk is lower," said Hector Medina, MD, a cardiologist at Scott & White Healthcare in Round Rock, Texas, according to HealthDay. Read more on heart health.
Airport Noise May Increase Heart Disease and Stroke Risk
People who live near busy international airports may be at increased risk of heart disease and stroke due to the high levels of noise, according to two new studies in the British Medical Journal. One study looked at hospital admissions around London Heathrow airport, finding the risks were 10 to 20 percent higher when compared to areas with the least noise. The other study, by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and Boston University School of Public Health, analyzed data on more than 60 million Americans ages 65 and older living near 89 airports, finding that areas with 10 decibel higher aircraft noise also saw a 3.5 percent increase in the hospital admission rate. Researchers say the link needs further study to show causation. "The exact role that noise exposure may play in ill health is not well established," said Anna Hansell of Imperial College London, who led the British study. "However, it is plausible that it might be contributing, for example by raising blood pressure or by disturbing people's sleep." The findings indicate that populated areas must be looked at closely when communities consider expanding large airports. Read more on heart health.
Private Talk Sessions with NICU Nurses Ease Anxiety in Mothers of Premature Babies
“Listening matters” when it comes to easing the worries of the mothers of premature infants. One-on-one talks sessions between NICU nurses and the mothers can help reduce feelings of anxiety, confusion and doubt, according to a new study in the Journal of Perinatology. "Having a prematurely born baby is like a nightmare for the mother," said Lisa Segre, an assistant professor in the University of Iowa College of Nursing. "You're expecting to have a healthy baby, and suddenly you're left wondering whether he or she is going to live." The study looked at 23 mothers who when through an average of five 45-minute sessions, find they gave mothers a chance to really talk about their worries and were effective at easing concerns across the board. "Listening is what nurses have done their whole career," said NICU nurse and study co-author Rebecca Siewert. "We've always been the ones to listen and try to problem solve. So, I just think it was a wonderful offshoot of what nursing can do. We just need the time to do it." Read more on maternal and infant health.
Early Puberty Tied to Great Risk of Experimentation with Cigarettes, Alcohol and Marijuana
Early puberty is linked to increased risk of experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana, according to a new study in the journal Addiction. Puberty typically begins between the ages of 9 and 10, will girls on average beginning it earlier than boys. "While puberty is often thought of as a solely biological process, our research has shown that pubertal development is a combination of biological, psychological and social processes that all likely interact to influence risk-taking behavior like substance use," said study author Jessica Duncan Cance, a public health researcher at the University of Texas at Austin. "Our study suggests that being the first girl in the class to need a bra, for example, prompts or exacerbates existing psychological and social aspects that can, in turn, lead to substance use and other risky behaviors early in life.” Read more on pediatrics.
AHA: Health Care Providers Should Emphasize Healthy Behaviors in Cardio Care
When it comes to treating cardiovascular health, health care providers should place just as much emphasis on correcting healthy behaviors as they do addressing the physical indicators of the risk for heart disease, according to a new statement from the American Heart Association (AHA). “We’re talking about a paradigm shift from only treating biomarkers — physical indicators of a person’s risk for heart disease — to helping people change unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, unhealthy body weight, poor diet quality and lack of physical activity,” said lead author Bonnie Spring, PhD, a professor of preventive medicine and psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University in Chicago. “We already treat physical risk factors that can be measured through a blood sample or a blood pressure reading in a doctor’s office, yet people put their health at risk through their behaviors. We can’t measure the results of these behaviors in their bodies yet.”
The AHA’s recommended “five A’s” to patient treatment:
- Assess a patient’s risk behaviors for heart disease.
- Advise change, such as weight loss or exercise.
- Agree on an action plan.
- Assist with treatment.
- Arrange for follow-up care.
AHA’s goals for 2020 include improving the cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20 percent, while also reducing deaths from cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20 percent. Read more on heart health.
Study: 1 in 10 Youth Admit to Sexual Violence
Approximately one in 10 teenagers and young adults admit to sexual violence, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. Researchers said violent pornography may be partially to blame for the acts, which included coercive sex, sexual assault and rape, and most often with a romantic partner. What’s more, about two in three said the act was never discovered, so there was never a punishment. "We know a bit about youth who are victims of sexual violence, but we don't know much at all about youth as perpetrators," said study co-author Michele Ybarra, president and research director of the Center for Innovative Public Health Research in San Clemente, Calif. "It's important we know more if we're going to reduce the sexual-violence rate." Ybarra said sexual-violence-prevention programs should emphasize the understanding of explicit consent and the tactics of coercive sex. "They may say, 'Unless you have sex with me, I'm going to go have sex with someone else,’” said Angela Diaz, MD, MPH, director of Mount Sinai Hospital's Adolescent Health Center. "Young people have to learn that if their partner says that, maybe they're better off if they do go somewhere else." Programs should also focus on the role of the bystander and the importance of reporting incidents. Read more on violence.
Salmonella Outbreak Sickens 278 People in 18 States
Approximately 278 people in 18 states have become sick from a salmonella outbreak linked to raw chicken products, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The products were produced at three California plants owned by Foster Farms and distributed mostly to retailers in California, Oregon and Washington state. Local, state and federal health officials made the connection. While the outbreak is “ongoing,” there is currently no recall as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working with state health departments to monitor the matter while the Food Safety and Inspection Service investigated the outbreak. Read more on food safety.