Category Archives: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
FDA Invites Public Comment on Menthol Cigarettes
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is taking a closer look at menthol cigarettes. The health agency issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) to gather more information to guide potential regulatory options, such as setting new tobacco standards. The ANPRM is available for public comment for 60 days. “Menthol cigarettes raise critical public health questions,” said FDA Commissioner Margaret A. Hamburg, MD. “The FDA is committed to a science-based approach that addresses the public health issues raised by menthol cigarettes, and public input will help us make more informed decisions about how best to tackle this important issue moving forward.” About 30 percent of U.S. adult smokers and about 40 percent of youth smokers use menthol cigarettes, according to the FDA. Read more on tobacco.
Skipping Breakfast, Increased Risk for Heart Disease Linked in Men
Skipping breakfast is linked to a dramatic increase in the risk for heart disease in men, according to a new study in the journal Circulation. Researchers found that the men who miss the morning meal are more likely to gain weight, develop diabetes and have hypertension. That all adds up to a 27 percent higher risk of heart attack or heart disease. Possible reasons include a likelihood to “feast” on higher calorie meals later in the day or that fact that the breakfast food skipped includes, on average, healthier types of food that lower the risk for heart disease. "We've focused so much on the quality of food and what kind of diet everyone should be eating, and we don't talk as often on the manner of eating," said Suzanne Steinbaum, MD, a preventive cardiologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. "This study is not even discussing the type of food. It's just talking about behavior and lifestyle choice. Part of heart-healthy living is eating breakfast because that prevents you from doing a lot of other unhealthy things." Read more on heart health.
CDC Investigating Multi-state Intestinal Infection; 200 Sick so Far
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is looking into a multi-state outbreak of cyclosporiasis, an intestinal infection that can cause watery diarrhea, vomiting and body ache, as well as headache, fever, weight loss and fatigue. CDC has identified more than 200 cases in states including Iowa, Nebraska, Texas and Wisconsin. The agency has yet to identify a cause. If left untreated it can last for up to a month; most immune systems can handle the infection without treatment, but older adults and people with weakened immune systems are at increased risk. Read more on infectious disease.
The decision by the ABC Network to hire former model and MTV celebrity Jenny McCarthy to be a host on “The View,” a weekday talk show aimed at women, had vaccines in the news this week. It remains to be seen whether the increased attention will have an impact on the number of kids getting their shots, and getting them on time this year. In her book and in a myriad of interviews, McCarthy has linked her son’s diagnosis of autism with the Measles/Mumps/Rubella (MMR) vaccines he received as a baby. In a 2008 USA TODAY/Gallup Poll, a quarter of people surveyed said they were familiar with McCarthy’s views and of those respondents, 40 percent said her views would make them more likely to question the safety of vaccines.
As parents start setting up back to school visits, including many immunizations, for kids, Kristine Sheedy, PhD, associate director of communication science at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, answered questions for NewPublicHealth about the impact of parents skipping or delaying childhood vaccines.
NewPublicHealth: What are the most common vaccines parents skip for their kids, and why?
Kristine Sheedy: We know that parents and health care professionals across the U.S. are doing a good job protecting babies and young children from vaccine-preventable diseases because data from our 2011 National Immunization Survey (NIS) shows immunization coverage among children 19 to 35 months remained stable or increased for all recommended vaccines. In fact, coverage for most of the routine vaccines remains at or over 90 percent, and less than 1 percent of young children get no vaccinations.
While men are more likely to die of a prescription painkiller overdose, since 1999 the percentage increase in deaths has been greater among women than among men, according to the Vital Signs monthly health indicator report released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The increase in deaths between 1999 and 2010 has been 400 percent in women compared to 265 percent in men, according to the new report. The overdoses killed nearly 48,000 women during that time period.
“Prescription painkiller deaths have skyrocketed in women…” says CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Stopping this epidemic in women – and men – is everyone’s business. Doctors need to be cautious about prescribing and patients about using these drugs.”
Key findings include:
- About 42 women die every day from a drug overdose.
- Since 2007, more women have died from drug overdoses than from motor vehicle crashes.
- Drug overdose suicide deaths accounted for 34 percent of all suicides among women compared with 8 percent among men in 2010.
- More than 940,000 women were seen in emergency departments for drug misuse or abuse in 2010.
For the Vital Signs report, CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System (1999-2010) and the Drug Abuse Warning Network public use file (2004-2010).
According to the CDC, studies have shown that women may become dependent on prescription painkillers more quickly than men and may be more likely than men to engage in “doctor shopping” (obtaining prescriptions from multiple prescribers).
HPV Vaccine Has Lowered HPV Infection Rates in Teen Girls
A new study published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases has found that since the HPV vaccine was introduced in 2006, vaccine-type HPV prevalence decreased 56 percent among female teenagers 14-19. About 79 million Americans—most in their late teens and early 20s—are infected with HPV. Each year, about 14 million people become newly infected. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), each year in the United States about 19,000 cancers caused by HPV occur in women, with cervical cancer the most common. About 8,000 cancers caused by HPV occur each year in men in the United States, with oropharyngeal (throat) cancers the most common. “This report shows that the HPV vaccine works well, and the report should be a wake-up call to our nation to protect the next generation by increasing HPV vaccination rates,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Unfortunately only one third of girls aged 13-17 have been fully vaccinated with HPV vaccine.” Routine vaccination at age 11-12 for both boys and girls is recommended in the US, but according to recent national immunization surveys, only about half of all girls in the United States and far fewer boys, have received the first dose of HPV vaccine. Read more on vaccines.
AMA Announces New Policy Aimed at Removing Sugared-Beverages from SNAP Program
The American Medical Association (AMA) passed a policy at its annual meeting yesterday calling on the association to work to remove sugar-sweetened beverages from the SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) for low-income families. SNAP replaced the U.S. Food Stamp program several years ago. The new policy also encourages state health agencies to include nutrition information in routine materials sent to SNAP recipients. According to the AMA, 58 percent of beverages bought with SNAP dollars are sugar-sweetened ones. The AMA also passed a resolution recognizing obesity as a disease “requiring a range of medical interventions to advance obesity treatment and prevention.” “Recognizing obesity as a disease will help change the way the medical community tackles this complex issue that affects approximately one in three Americans,” said AMA board member Patrice Harris, MD. Read more on obesity.
HUD Releases First-Ever Same Sex Housing Discrimination Study
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has released the nation’s first-ever national study examining housing discrimination against same-sex couples in the private rental market. The study found that same-sex couples experience unequal treatment more often than heterosexual couples when responding to internet ads for rental units, and that gay male couples experience more discrimination than lesbian couples. “A person’s sexual orientation or gender identity should not be a reason to receive unfavorable treatment when searching for housing,” said Bryan Greene, HUD Acting Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. “HUD is committed to making sure that LGBT individuals have equal access to housing opportunities.” HUD’s study is based on nearly 7,000 email tests conducted in 50 metropolitan markets across the country between June and October of 2011. For each paired test, two emails were sent to the housing provider regarding the unit advertised online. The only difference between the emails was whether the couple was same-sex or heterosexual. Unfavorable treatment was measured by whether the tester was told the unit was available, asked to contact the landlord, invited to the see the apartment, or received any response at all. Read more on housing.
Emergency Contraception Age Restrictions to be Dropped
The White House administration announced Monday that it will comply with a U.S. District Court ruling to remove the age restrictions on the emergency contraception pill Plan B One-Step, making it available to all women and girls without a prescription. The pill is most effective when taken within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. The court ruling came in April, with a judge referring to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s decision to reject a citizen petition related to the restrictions as "arbitrary, capricious and unreasonable." According to Reuters, Planned Parenthood Federation of America President Cecile Richards said the decision "will make emergency contraception available on store shelves, just like condoms, and women of all ages will be able to get it quickly in order to prevent unintended pregnancy." Read more on sexual health.
CDC Toolkit to Help Health Care Departments, Facilities Make Patient Notifications on Potential Exposures
More than 150,000 patients may have been exposed to hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV since 2001 because of unsafe health care practices, and last year almost 14,000 people were notified in relation to a national fungal meningitis outbreak and other infections. In order to help health departments and facilities going forward, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has created a new online toolkit to facilitate the notification of patients in the event of potential infections or disease transmissions during medical care. The kit includes key steps on notifying patients, resources to help create notification documents, and media communications strategies. The kit was presented at the APIC Annual Conference in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., on June 9. Read more on infectious diseases.
Reducing CT Scans for Kids Could Cut Later Rates of Cancer
Cutting back on the number of unneeded, high-dose computed tomography (CT) scans on children could reduce their lifetime risk of certain cancers by more than 60 percent, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. CT scans utilize x-rays; the approximately 4 million annual CT scans of kids’ most commonly imaged organs may lead to as many as 4,900 cancers, according to the researchers. "There are potential harms from CT, meaning that there is a cancer risk—albeit very small in individual children—so it's important to reduce this risk in two ways," said lead author Diana Miglioretti, a professor of biostatistics in the department of public health sciences at the UC Davis Health System. "The first is to only do a CT when it's medically necessary, and use alternative imaging when possible. The second is to dose CT appropriately for children." Read more on cancer.
CDC Releases Tools to Help People Keep Cool this Summer
A new study in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report shows that there were 7,233 heat-related deaths in the United States in the decade from 1999 to 2009, with an analysis of 2012 data showing the death rate is climbing. “No one should die from a heat wave, but every year on average, extreme heat causes 658 deaths in the United States—more than tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and lightning combined,” said Robin Ikeda, MD, MPH, acting director of the National Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. “Taking common sense steps in extreme temperatures can prevent heat-related illnesses and deaths.” The CDC has released a series of tools to help people stay cool, hydrated and informed during the extreme that will most likely occur in much of the country over the hot summer months. They include the Extreme Heat and Your Health Website; Environmental Public Health Tracking Data; a Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events Guidebook; and Workplace Solutions Bulletin. Read more on environment.
Study: More than One-third of Designated Drivers End up Drinking
More than one-third of designated drivers end up drinking, according to a new study in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. The researchers spoke with approximately 1,100 bar patrons (mostly white, male, college-aged) in an unidentified college town and gave blood alcohol (BAL) tests to 165 who said they were designated drivers. About 65 percent had no alcohol in their systems; 17 percent had a BAL between 0.02 and 0.049; and 18 percent had a BAL of at least 0.05. The legal limit is 0.08. "While more of the designated drivers didn't drink than did drink, which is a good thing, you have people being selected because they're the least drunk, or the least intoxicated or they've driven drunk before," said study author Adam Barry, an assistant professor at the University of Florida. "The only real safe option is to completely abstain." Read more on alcohol.
Sequester to Close all HUD Offices on June 14
Though the schedule could still change, as it stands at the moment every office of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) will be closed on Friday, June 14 as part of the sequester which is being felt across all of government. The automatic spending cuts took effect March 1. HUD’s plan is to pair its seven required furlough days with holidays and weekends. HUD is encouraging people and businesses that work with the agency to plan around the schedule day of shutdown. Read more on budgets.
A new study from Columbia University finds that deaths linked to a warming climate may rise by as much as 20 percent by the 2020s. The study was published in Nature Climate Change, by an interdisciplinary team at Columbia University’s Earth Institute and the Mailman School of Public Health.
“This serves as a reminder that heat events are one of the greatest hazards faced by urban populations around the globe,” said coauthor Radley Horton, PhD, a climate scientist at the Center for Climate Systems Research. In fact, although tornadoes are currently trending as the most common “weather word” right now, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, extreme heat kills more Americans each year than tornadoes, hurricanes, flooding and earthquakes combined.
Cities could be hit harder than other areas, according to the new research that found that daily records from Central Park in Manhattan show that average monthly temperatures already increased by 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit from 1901 to 2000—substantially higher than the global and U.S. trends, according to the researchers, who say that cities tend to concentrate heat. Buildings and pavement soak it up during the day and give it off at night. Last year was the warmest year on record for New York City.
Recession Saw Parents Cut Back on Care for Kids with Special Health Needs
The financial struggles of the recent recession led many families to cut back on health care treatments for children with chronic physical or emotional problems, according to the journal Health Affairs. About one in every five U.S. kids fits these criteria. "Those are children who require health or related services beyond those required by children generally," said researcher Pinar Karaca-Mandic, an assistant professor of public health at the University of Minnesota. "A child with asthma would fit in this category, for example. A child with depression, ADHD or a physical limitation would also fit this definition." Researchers analyzed government data on out-of-pocket costs for families with private insurance from 2001 to 2009, finding expenses climbed steadily until 2007, when spending for generally healthy children jumped but spending for kids with special health needs dropped. Dental care and prescription medications were the services most likely to see cut backs. Christina Bethell, professor of pediatrics at Oregon Health and Science University, in Portland, said the findings demonstrate that "We're not putting a system of care together for kids that appears to be optimal, and families are struggling.” Read more on access to health care.
CDC: Older Americans, Pregnant Women at Greatest Risk for Listeria
Older Americans, pregnant women, newborns and people with weakened immune systems account for approximately 90 percent of all Listeria food poisoning cases each year, according to the a new Vital Signs report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The report outlines safety measures to help prevent the bacterial infection, including knowing which foods are highest risk and how to prepare them properly. About 1,600 people contract Listeria annually and it is the third leading cause of food poisoning deaths. Read more on food safety.
Health of Black, Hispanic Teens Most Affected by Fast Food Near Schools
Fast food restaurants near schools have the greatest negative impact on the health of black and Hispanic teens in lower-income neighborhoods, according to a new study in the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. Those teens were more likely than white of Hispanic kids to be overweight or obese. For all students, fast food one mile closer to school basically offset the benefits of one day of exercise per week; for black and Hispanic teens it offset up to three days of exercise. "The findings imply that it is important to examine the behaviors and contexts associated with low-income and ethnic minority status in urban areas," study co-author Sonya Grier, associate professor of marketing at American University, noted in the release. "These populations not only are the fastest growing but also have the highest rates of obesity, and research is relatively limited." Read more on obesity.
Federal Agencies Issue Final Rules on Workplace Wellness Programs Under the Affordable Care Act
The U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services, Labor and the Treasury have issued final rules on employment-based wellness programs under the Affordable Care Act. Starting in 2014, the rules will allow companies to reward employees who participate in the programs by reducing their health insurance premiums up to 30 percent—up ten percent from current rules. Incentives for smoking cessation can be even higher. And employers can increase premiums for employees who don’t participate in workplace programs or don’t meet certain benchmarks. However, the rules require companies to provide "reasonable alternatives" to employees who can’t meet health benchmarks but still want the discounts. They also allow workers to involve their physicians to help tailor programs with their employers. "These rules will help ensure that wellness programs are designed to actually promote wellness, and that they are not just used as a back-door way to shift health-care costs to those struggling with health problems," said Ron Pollack, executive director of Families USA, a health advocacy group. Read more on prevention.
CDC: 20 Percent of U.S. Adults Visited ERs in a Year
Approximately one in five U.S. adults took at least one trip to an emergency department over the past year, according to a new comprehensive government report based on a survey conducted in 2011. Health, United States, 2012 compiled health data from federal health agencies, state health agencies and the private sector and includes a wide array of U.S. health data. Among the other findings are the fact that 7 percent of people reported at least two emergency department visits, cold symptoms were the most common reason for emergency visits by children and people up to age 64 with Medicaid coverage were the most likely to visit emergency department. The full U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report is available here. Read more on access to health care.
Study: ADHD Drugs Don’t Increase the Risk of Adulthood Addiction
Taking medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during youth does not increase the risk of adulthood addiction to substances such as alcohol, cocaine, marijuana and nicotine, according to a new study in JAMA Psychiatry. There has been debate over the issue for years in the medical community, with studies reaching different conclusions. "Our study provides an important update to clinicians," said study author Kathryn Humphreys, a doctoral student in psychology at University of California, Los Angeles. "Particularly for those who are concerned that stimulant medication is a 'gateway' drug or increases the risk for later substance use, there is no evidence at the group level for this hypothesis." Stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall are commonly used to treat ADHD. Read more on prescription drugs.
March of Dimes Establishes Research Collaborative on Causes of Preterm Births
Three universities and four hospitals in Ohio have joined with the March of Dimes Foundation to establish a collaborative research program aimed at finding the unknown causes of premature birth. According to the March of Dimes, preterm birth is the most common and costly newborn health problem in the United States, affecting nearly half a million babies each year. It is also the leading cause of newborn death, and babies who survive an early birth often face the risk of lifelong health issues, including vision and breathing problems. Even babies born just a few weeks early have higher rates of hospitalization and illness than full-term infants. “The transdisciplinary approach will increase dramatically the rate of progress in understanding why some babies are born too soon. Ultimately our goal is to use this knowledge to develop effective therapies to prevent preterm birth and enable all pregnancies to proceed to full term,” said ” said Sam Mesiano, PhD, Site Director for the Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, and MetroHealth component of the collaborative. One of the focus aims of the research includes the sociobiology of racial disparities in preterm birth. African-American and Hispanic mothers have higher rates of preterm births than do whites. Read more on maternal and infant health.
House, Senate Consider Cuts to SNAP in Farm Bill Reauthorization
The U.S. House and Senate are each considering versions of the five-year Farm Bill reauthorization that would save money in part by cutting the budget for the supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which helps nearly 48 million Americans purchase food each year. The House version would cut $2 billion and the Senate version would cut $400 million, according to The Washington Post. The House version would also stop certain forms of automatic SNAP benefits. James S. Marks, Senior Vice President of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Group, said cutting SNAP benefits would violate the fundamental tenet of medicine to “first, do no harm.” “Cutting SNAP is precisely the wrong prescription for our children and the nation's economic recovery. The notion that SNAP benefits are an overly generous handout could not be further from the truth,” he wrote in The Huffington Post, adding “SNAP has the potential to be a public health tool that can help address the complex problems of hunger and obesity.” Read more on nutrition.
CDC: High Rates of Unhealthy Behavior Persist
A new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention finds that, overall, Americans aren’t making much improvement in their health. About 60 percent are overweight or obese, about 60 percent drink, about 20 percent smoke and about 80 percent don’t meet federal guidelines for exercise. "Changes have not been enormous," said report author Charlotte Schoenborn, a health statistician at the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics. "It's been a very, very slow process of changing awareness of personal choices for healthier ways of life.” Added Rich Hamburg, deputy director of Trust for America's Health: "I think we're in a situation now where we're at a crossroads. We have two paths to go. We're hopeful that if we continue to invest in community-based prevention, if we promote healthy eating and active living, these rates will begin to decrease." Read more on CDC.