Category Archives: Transportation

Jan 2 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: January 2

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NIH: 10 Percent of Driving Time Spent Distracted by Secondary Tasks
About 10 percent of an average driver’s time behind the wheel is spent engaged in something besides focusing on the road, which is especially dangerous for younger drivers, according to a new study in the New England Journal of Medicine. Common distractions include eating, reaching for a phone, texting, or simply taking their eyes off the road. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Virginia Tech used video technology and in-vehicle sensors to determine their findings. “Anything that takes a driver’s eyes off the road can be dangerous,” said study co-author Bruce Simons-Morton, EdD, MPH, of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the NIH institute where the study was conducted. “But our study shows these distracting practices are especially risky for novice drivers, who haven’t developed sound safety judgment behind the wheel.” The study found that novice drivers were:

  • Eight times more likely to crash or have a near miss when dialing
  • Seven to eight times more likely to crash or have a near miss when reaching for a phone or other object,
  • Almost four times more likely to crash or have a near miss when texting, and
  • Three times more likely to crash or have a near miss when eating.

Read more on transportation.

Study: Tripling Global Tobacco Taxes Could Prevent 200M Premature Deaths
Tripling the taxes on tobacco could prevent 200 million premature deaths worldwide while dramatically cutting into the total number of smokers, according to a new study in the New England Journal of Medicine. Approximately 1.3 billion people smoke; tobacco currently kills about 6 million people per year, with that total expected to climb to more than 8 million by 2030, according to the World Health Organization. To support their findings, scientists from Cancer Research UK (CRUK) pointed to success in France, where raising taxes well above inflation reduced smoking by half from 1990 to 2005. "The two certainties in life are death and taxes. We want higher tobacco taxes and fewer tobacco deaths," said Richard Peto, the CRUK epidemiologist who led the study. "It would help children not to start, and it would help many adults to stop while there's still time." Read more on tobacco.

HUD Grants to Help Families Get Access to Education, Job Training, Employment
This week the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) awarded approximately $57 million in grants as part of its Housing Choice Voucher Program, which will go toward helping residents gain access to education, job training and employment. The grants will be used to hire or retain more than one thousand service coordinators who will work to connect the families with the supportive services. “This is a modest investment that can make a world of difference for families looking to find their path to self-sufficiency,” said HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan. “As America’s economy continues to recover, it’s critical that we work to make sure every American has the skills and resources they need to successfully compete for jobs in the 21st Century.” Under the program, participants sign a five-year contract requiring the head of the household to obtain employment and no longer receive welfare assistance by the end of the contract. Read more on housing.

Dec 31 2013
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Top 10 NewPublicHealth Posts of 2013

Infographics, public health news and innovative efforts to improve community health were the topics of the most widely read posts on NewPublicHealth this year.

Take a look back at our most popular posts:

  1. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Commission to Build a Healthier America will release new recommendations on early childhood education and improving community health on Monday January 13. Earlier this year, new city maps to illustrate the dramatic disparity between the life expectancies of communities mere miles away from each other. Where we live, learn, work and play can have a greater impact on our health than we realize.
  2. Three of the infographics created for the NewPublicHealth series on the National Prevention Strategy, a cross-federal agency emphasis on public health priorities, were among the most popular posts of 2013. Stable Jobs = Healthier Lives, the most widely viewed NPH infographic, tells a visual story about the role of employment in the health of our communities. One example: Laid-off workers are 54 percent more likely to have fair or poor health and 83 percent more likely to develop a stress-related health condition.
  3. Better Transportation =Healthier Lives, another 2013 infographic, tells a visual story about the role of transportation in the health of our communities. Consider this important piece of the infographic as we head into 2014: The risk of obesity increases 6 percent with every additional mile spent in the car, and decreases 5 percent with every kilometer walked.
  4. Top Five Things You Didn’t Know Could Spread Disease was the best read of the very well read stories on NewPublicHealth during Outbreak Week—an original series created by NPH to accompany the release in late December of Outbreaks: Protecting Americans from Infectious Disease, a pivotal report released by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Trust for America’s Health.
  5. Better Education=Healthier Lives, another widely viewed—and shared—infographic on NewPublicHealth, shared the critical information that more education increases life span, decreases health risks such as heart disease and—for mothers who receive more years in school—increases the chance that her baby will die in infancy.
  6. How Healthy is Your County? In 2014 the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation will release the fifth County Health Rankings, a data set more and more communities rely on to see improvements—and room for change—in the health of their citizens. NewPublicHealth’s 2013 coverage of the County Health Rankings & Roadmaps included posts on the six communities that won the inaugural RWJF Roadmaps to Health Prize for their innovative strategies to create a culture of health by partnering across sectors in their communities.
  7. The Five Deadliest Outbreaks and Pandemics in History, was our seventh best read post of the year. Read it again and ask: Are we prepared as a nation for the next big outbreak?
  8. What does architecture have to do with public health? Visit the Apple Store in New York City’s SoHo neighborhood, Texas’ Red Swing project, or....view our post from earlier this year.
  9. Less than a month after the shootings in late 2012 at Sandy Hook elementary school in Connecticut, the Harvard School of Public Health held a live webcast town hall meeting on gun violence on the legal, political, and public health factors that could influence efforts to prevent gun massacres. And toward the end of 2013, NewPublicHealth sat down with former Surgeon General David Satcher, MD, MPH, to talk about the role of research in preventing gun violence.
  10. NewPublicHealth covered the release of a report by Trust for America’s Health that found that most states are not implementing enough proven strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse. But the year ended with some better news on the critical public health issue. An NPH news roundup post reported on a study funded by the National Institutes of Health which found that rates of prescription drug abuse by high school students have dropped slightly.

Close runners up included How Do You Transform a Community After a Century of Neglect?, which looked at how Bithlo, Fla. is working to bring much-needed services to its main street through the “Transformation Village” initiative, as well as ‘Unprecedented Destruction’: Ocean County Public Health Continues to Respond to Hurricane Sandy, which brought together a NewPublicHealth video and a Q&A to illustrate how public health officials and departments worked together to help their regions recover from the devastating superstorm. Also in the top 20 for year was an interview with New York State Health Commissioner Nirav R. Shah, MD, MPH, on the release of the 2013-17 Prevention Agenda: New York State’s Health Improvement Plan—a statewide, five-year plan to improve the health and quality of life for everyone who lives in New York State.

Dec 27 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: December 27

Black Women Have Highest Rates of High Blood Pressure
More black women have high blood pressure than black men and white men and women, according to a new study in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

The study included 70,000 people in the 12 southeastern states that are often referred to as the “stroke belt” because they collectively have a high rate of stroke incidence. Among the study participants, the high blood pressure rate among black women was 64 percent. Among white women the rate was 52 percent and among both black and white men the rate was 51 percent.

“For many years, the focus for high blood pressure was on middle-aged men who smoked; now we know better,” said Uchechukwu Sampson, MD, MPH. MBA, a lead author of the study and assistant professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn. “We should look for [high blood pressure] in everyone and it should be treated aggressively — especially in women, who have traditionally gotten less attention in this regard.”

Dr. Sampson’s work was supported in part by the Harold Amos Medical Faculty Award of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Read more on health disparities.

Over 40 Million Americans Experienced Mental Illness in 2012
Nearly one in five American adults, or 43.7 million people, experienced a diagnosable mental illness in 2012, a similar number to 2011, according to a new report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

SAMHSA also reported that, consistent with 2011, less than half (41 percent) of these adults received any mental health services in the past year. And among adults with mental illness who reported an unmet need for treatment, the top three reasons given for not receiving help were:

  • they could not afford the cost;
  • they thought they could handle the problem without treatment; and
  • they did not know where to go for services.

The Department of Health and Human Services recently launched MentalHealth.gov to help people find easy-to-understand information about basic signs of mental health problems, how to talk about mental health and mental illness, and how to locate help.

The recent SAMHSA report also found that 9 million American adults 18 and older (3.9 percent) had serious thoughts of suicide in the past year; 2.7 million (1.1 percent) made suicide plans and 1.3 million (0.6 percent) attempted suicide. People in crisis or who know someone they believe may be at immediate risk of attempting suicide can call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or go to SuicidePreventionLifeline.org, which provides immediate, free and confidential round-the-clock counseling to anyone in need throughout the country, every day of the year. Read more on mental health.

NHTSA Extends Its Partnership with Auto Makers on Technology to Stop Drunk Drivers
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has extended, for five years, its agreement with the Automotive Coalition for Traffic Safety (ACTS), made up of 15 auto makers, to continue researching advanced alcohol detection technology that could prevent vehicles from being driven by a drunk driver.

Under the partnership, NHTSA is working with ACTS to develop a car system that could accurately and reliably detect when a driver is above the legal alcohol limit of 0.08 BAC adopted by all 50 States and territories. The automatic system would be enabled every time the car is started, but not pose an inconvenience to a non-intoxicated driver.

“In this age of innovation, smart technology may be the breakthrough we need to prevent drunk drivers from getting behind the wheel and endangering the safety of others on our roads,” said NHTSA Administrator David Strickland. “The research program has shown significant promise to date, offering real potential in the future to prevent several thousand deaths annually.”

NHTSA expects to have models ready for testing in 2015. In 2012, deaths in crashes involving drunk drivers increased 4.6 percent, resulting in 10,322 deaths — up from 9,865 in 2011. Read about NHTSA’s “Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over" campaign.

 

Dec 26 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: December 26

Many Still Have Signup Options for Health Insurance Coverage under the Affordable Care Act
Although the December 23 signup deadline for health insurance coverage beginning January 1 has passed, the White House announced on Christmas Eve that signup has been extended for several days for anyone who was unable to complete their online application because of heavy traffic on the site. States and insurers may impose their own deadlines, however, so people not enrolled should reach out to their state insurance hotlines by calling 800-318-2596. Additional information options include clicking the “what is the marketplace in my state” or “live chat” features on the healthcare.gov home page.

The absolute deadline to sign up for 2014 coverage with no financial penalty is March 31, 2014, but signup after Jan 1, 2014 will generally result in coverage beginning a little later in the year. However there is no deadline for people signing up for Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program. Enrollment for those coverage options, for those that qualify, is open throughout the year, with no penalties assessed.  

Healthday.com has a Q&A on what you need to know about signing up for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act as 2013 comes to an end. Read more on the Affordable Care Act.

Professional Truck Drivers Offer Safety Tips for Holiday Travel
America's Road Team Captains, members of the American Trucking Associations who are elite professional truck drivers with millions of accident-free miles, have advice on how to navigate through highway traffic and winter driving conditions during the busy holiday driving season. Their tips include:

  • Prepare your vehicle for long distance travel: Check your wipers and fluids. Have your radiator and cooling system serviced. Simple maintenance can prevent many of the problems that strand motorists on the side of the road before you leave your home.
  • Plan ahead: Before you get on a highway, know your exit by name and number, and watch the signs as you near the off-ramp. Drivers making unexpected lane changes to exit often cause accidents.
  • Do not cut in front of large trucks: Remember that trucks are heavier and take longer to make a complete stop, so avoid cutting quickly in front of them.
  • Be aware of truck blind spots: When sharing the road with large trucks, be aware of their blind spots.  If you can't see the truck driver in his or her mirrors, then the truck driver can't see you.
  • Pack your emergency kit: Contents should include a battery-powered radio, flashlight, blanket, jumper cables, fire extinguisher, first aid kit, bottled water, non-perishable foods, maps, tire repair kit and flares.
  • Check the weather: Be aware of changes in weather during your travel even if it’s just a trip of a few hours. Temperatures can drop and rain and fog can develop since you got started on the road. Check weather conditions before you leave and each time you stop.
  • Keep your eyes on the road: Distracted driving is a major cause of traffic accidents. Even just two seconds of distraction time doubles the chances of an accident. Use your cell phone when stopped and never text while driving.

Read more on transportation.

CPSC Recommends Checking to See if Winter Gear, Gifts, Have Been Recalled
As you pull out winter clothes or start to use holiday gifts, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) recommends you first check to see if anything you or your family will be using was recalled for a safety hazard. Items recalled in 2013 include children’s clothing with appliques and toys with small pieces that can pose choking risks. Read more on injury prevention.

Dec 9 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: December 9

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Improved Prevention and Treatment Decrease U.S. Stroke Deaths
Stroke deaths in the United States have declined dramatically in the last few decades because of improved prevention and treatment, according to a scientific statement published in Stroke, published by the American Heart Association. “The decline in stroke deaths is one of the greatest public health achievements of the 20th and 21st centuries,” said Daniel T. Lackland, DrPH, chair of the statement writing committee and professor of epidemiology at the Medical University of South Carolina, in Charleston, S.C. “The decline is real, not a statistical fluke or the result of more people dying of lung disease, the third leading cause of death,” said Lackland, who added that “although all groups showed improvement, there are still great racial and geographic disparities with stroke risks as well many people having strokes at young ages [and] we need to keep doing what works and to better target these programs to groups at higher risk.” Public health efforts that have helped lower stroke rates include hypertension control that started in the 1970s; smoking cessation programs; improved control of diabetes and high cholesterol levels; and improved stroke treatment options. Read more on prevention.

NHTSA Announces New Safety Efforts for Older Drivers
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has announced a new strategic plan to help ensure the safety of older drivers and passengers. In 2012, according to NHTSA, more than 5,560 people over the age of 65 died, and 214,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. That’s a three percent increase in the number of fatalities and a 16 percent increase in the number of injuries from the previous year. In addition, since 2003 the population of older adults—defined as age 65 and older—has increased by 20 percent and the number of licensed older drivers increased by 21 percent, to 35 million licensed older drivers in 2012.

NHTSA has several new efforts in place to reduce these deaths and injuries:

  • The agency is researching advanced vehicle technologies, including vehicle-to-vehicle communications, collision avoidance and crashworthiness that could help reduce the risk of death or injury to older occupants in the event of a crash. It is also considering adding a “silver” rating system, meaning cars with certain technologies might be preferable for older drivers.
  • NHTSA will conduct studies to better understand the effects of age-related medical conditions, including dementia.
  • NHTSA will continue public education efforts on functional changes that can impact driving, including vision, strength, flexibility and cognition.

Read more on transportation.

Poll: Parents Concerned Over Lack of Physical Activity During School Day
A recent poll conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health, National Public Radio and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation found that many parents are concerned about inadequate levels of physical education at schools. More than 1,300 parents of public school students were polled on a range of issues concerning education and health in the their child’s school, and one in four parents (25 percent) said their child’s school gives too little emphasis to physical education, compared with one in seven who say the same thing about reading and writing (14 percent) or math (15 percent). About three in 10 parents (28 percent) give a low grade (C, D or F) to their child’s school on providing enough time for physical education, while almost seven in 10 parents (68 percent) report that their child’s school does not provide daily physical education classes, a recommendation included in U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for schools. “In a period with a significant public debate about the content of educational reform, it is significant that many parents feel that more physical education is needed in the schools,” said Robert Blendon, ScD, Richard L. Menschel professor of Health Policy and Political Analysis at Harvard. Read more on education.

Dec 4 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: December 4

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NHTSA: Motorcoaches, Large Buses to Require Seatbelts for All Passengers and Driver
New motorcoaches and large buses will be required to provide lap and shoulder seatbelts for all passengers and driver, under a new rule issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). While the buses are an overall safe way to travel, the large numbers of people they carry and the high speeds at which they travel mean a single collision can lead to a significant number of injuries, according to NHTSA. An average of 7,934 riders are injured each year in motorcoaches, and an average of 21 passengers are killed. "Buckling up is the most effective way to prevent deaths and injuries in all vehicular crashes, including motorcoaches," said Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator Anne S. Ferro, in a release. "Requiring seat belts in new models is another strong step we are taking to reach an even higher level of safety for bus passengers." The rule will apply to buses with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 26,000 pounds,) excluding transit buses and school buses. Read more on transportation.

Study: Women With Breast Cancer Should Get Mammograms Every 12 to 18 Months
Breast cancer patients should undergo mammograms every 12 to 18 months to determine whether their cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, according to a new study to be presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America. Study researcher Lilian Wang, MD, evaluated more than 300 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer because of a routine mammogram, dividing them into three groups based on their treatment history. She found that only 9 percent of the women who had 12- to 18-month intervals between mammograms saw their cancer spread to their lymph nodes; the rates were 21 percent for those who waited one-and-a-half to three years and 15 percent for those who waited three or more years. "If you catch someone with early stage cancer, they are going to need less extensive surgery, and maybe no chemo," said Laura Kruper, MD, director of the Cooper-Finkel Women's Health Center at the City of Hope Cancer Center, in Duarte, Calif., who was not a part of the study. "[The new study] adds more power behind the fact that we do need screening mammograms starting at age 40 and every year.” Read more on cancer.

FDA: Certain HeartStart AEDs May Not Work During Cardiac Emergencies
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced yesterday that certain automated external defibrillator (AED) devices made by Philips Medical Systems may not function properly when needed. In a new safety communication, FDA revealed that the devices may not deliver the needed shock to restore normal heart rhythm during a cardiac emergency. “The FDA advises keeping all recalled HeartStart AEDs in service until you obtain a replacement from Philips Healthcare or another AED manufacturer, even if the device indicates it has detected an error during a self-test,” said Steve Silverman, director of the Office of Compliance in the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. “Despite current manufacturing and performance problems, the FDA considers the benefits of attempting to use an AED in a cardiac arrest emergency greater than the risk of not attempting to use the defibrillator.” Read more on heart health.

Nov 20 2013
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How Do You Transform a Community After a Century of Neglect?

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Bithlo, Fla. is a town of 8,000 that is just 30 minutes outside Orlando and not much farther from the “happiest place on Earth” — but is beset by poverty, illiteracy, unemployment and toxic dumps that have infiltrated the drinking water. The water is so bad that it has eroded many residents’ teeth, making it that much harder for them to find jobs. Streets filled with trash, frequent road deaths and injuries from a lack of transportation options and safe places to walk, and dropping out before 10th grade were all the norm.

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In just a short time, a collection of partners and volunteers have begun to reverse some of the decades-old problems Bithlo has faced. And earlier this week, the town that had been forgotten for almost a century was the scene of a hubbub of activity as hundreds of volunteers descended on the town to continue work on “Transformation Village,” Bithlo’s future main street, which will sport a combination library/coffee shop, schools, shops and many other services, all long missing from Bithlo.

Over the last few months, NewPublicHealth has reported on initiatives of the participating members of Stakeholder Health, formerly known as the Health Systems Learning Group. Stakeholder Health is a learning collaborative made up of 43 organizations, including 36 nonprofit health systems, that share innovative practices aimed at improving health and economic viability of communities.

>>Read more on the Stakeholder Health effort to leverage health care systems to improve community health.

One of the Stakeholder Health members is the Adventist Health System, a not-for-profit health care system that has hospitals across the country. Recently, Adventist’s flagship health care provider, Florida Hospital in Orlando, began supporting United Global Outreach (UGO), a non-profit group aimed at building up communities in need, in their four-year-long effort to transform the town of Bithlo.

NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Tim McKinney, executive vice president of United Global Outreach, and Verbelee Neilsen-Swanson, vice president of community impact at Florida Hospital, about the partnerships and commitment that have gone into Bithlo’s transformation into a town that is looking forward to new housing stock, jobs, stores, better education and improved health outcomes for the its citizens.

Read more

Nov 18 2013
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Ride Sharing: Just Urban Hip or Critical Transportation Alternative?

Two professional women, Helen Stagg and Christina Sanders walking across a parking lot.

Atlantic Cities recently reported on a ride sharing program called Lyft, which requires riders to join up and input credit card information to be eligible for the carpool-like rides. Lyft’s licensed drivers are pinged to pick up passengers whom the system tracks as headed in the same direction as other riders already in the car.

The article focuses on the "cool" factor, and the potential for building social relationships, making it a great solution for college kids or young adults looking for a safe way to get home on nights out—a critical public health service, particularly when research released earlier this year found that more than one-third of designated drivers end up drinking.

But another potential future use could be to help alleviate massive transportation challenges in rural areas, particularly for those with limited income or no access to a car for other reasons. One Department of Transportation study found, "Close to 40 percent of all rural counties are not served by rural transit, while another 28 percent have limited service. And, nearly 57 percent of the rural poor do not own a car, while 1 in every 14 households in rural America has no vehicle." In the future, perhaps ride sharing programs could catch on as a viable transportation option in rural towns far away from the neon lights.  

>>Bonus Link: A second transportation article in Atlantic Cities this week finds that despite the growth in ridership of bike share programs across the country, PBSC, a Montreal-based major supplier of city bikeshare equipment and software faces major transportation woes. PBSC bike share customers include London, D.C. and Chicago, the city with the largest bike-share program in the nation.

Nov 14 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: November 14

DOT and HUD Release Neighborhood Affordability Tool
The U.S. Departments of Housing and Transportation (HUD and DOT, respectively) have released a Location Affordability Portal, a new tool that lets users estimate housing and transportation costs for neighborhoods across the country.

“Many consumers make the mistake of thinking they can afford to live in a certain neighborhood or region just because they can afford the rent or mortgage payment. Housing affordability encompasses much more than that,” said HUD Secretary Donovan. “The combined cost of housing and transportation consumes close to half of a working family’s monthly budget, and the [Portal] will help to better inform consumers, help them save money, and provide them with a broader perspective of their housing and transportation options.”

The new tool was developed with the input of real-estate industry professionals, academics, and staff from HUD and DOT, and uses statistical models that were developed from various sources that capture key neighborhood characteristics including population density, transit and job access, average number of commuters and distance of commutes, average household income and size, median selected monthly owner costs. and median gross rent. Read more on housing and transportation.

Health Index May Reduce Hospital Readmissions
A health risk score used during hospital stays using routine data from hospital electronic medical records may be able to identify patients at high risk of unplanned hospital readmission, according to a study published in Medical Care.

The score is calculated automatically using patient data such as vital signs, nursing assessments, skin condition, heart rhythms and laboratory tests. Lower Rothman Index scores (from a maximum of 100) indicate a higher risk of readmission. The study evaluated the ability of the Rothman Index to predict hospital readmission, based on data from more than 2,700 patients hospitalized during 2011. The researchers found that patients whom the Index calculated as being high risk for readmission were 2.5 times as likely to be readmitted within 30 days of discharge as patients calculated by the Index to be low risk.

About 20 percent of Medicare patients are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge, at an estimated cost of $17 billion per year, according to the study authors. Medicare has begun reducing payments by up to 2 percent for hospitals with high readmission rates. Read more on community health.

Rapid Flu Testing in the ER Leads to More Effective Treatment
Using rapid influenza tests to diagnose flu in patients who come to the emergency room results in fewer unnecessary antibiotics, increased prescriptions for antiviral medicines, and fewer additional lab tests compared to patients diagnosed with influenza without testing, according to a new study the Journal of the Pediatrics Infectious Diseases Society.

Among patients diagnosed with influenza without rapid testing, 23 percent of the emergency department visits included a prescription for antibiotics, which are not effective in to treat influenza because it is a viral infection. However, for patients who were diagnosed by rapid testing, only 11 percent of visits resulted in the patient getting antibiotics. Additional laboratory tests, including chest X-rays, blood tests, and urinalysis, were also ordered less frequently for patients whose influenza illness was diagnosed with a rapid test.

"While other studies have shown that physicians can accurately diagnose influenza without testing, our results suggest that using an influenza test increases diagnostic certainty and leads to the physician providing more specific and appropriate care,” says Anne J. Blaschke, MD, PhD, of the University of Utah School of Medicine, the study’s lead author. Read more on infectious disease.

Oct 29 2013
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Teen Driver Safety: 5 to Drive

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The U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has launched a new campaign that challenges parents to discuss with their teen drivers five practices that can prevent serious injuries and even deaths in the event of a crash:

  • No cell phone use or texting while driving
  • No extra passengers
  • No speeding
  • No alcohol
  • No driving or riding without a seat belt

NHTSA data show motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers 14-18 years-old in the United States. In 2011, 2,105 teen drivers were involved in fatal crashes. Of those teens involved in fatal crashes, 1,163 (55 percent) survived and 942 (45 percent) died in the crash.

"Safety is our highest priority, especially when it comes to teens, who are often our least experienced drivers," said DOT Secretary Anthony Foxx. "The ‘5 to Drive’ campaign gives parents and teens a simple, straightforward checklist that can help them talk about good driving skills and most importantly, prevent a tragedy before it happens."

The list of precautions matches the top causes of death in teen crashes:

  • In 2011, over half of the teen occupants of passenger vehicles who died in crashes were unrestrained
  • Speeding was a factor in 35 percent of fatal crashes involving a teen driver
  • Twelve percent of teen drivers involved in fatal crashes were distracted at the time
  • In 2011, 505 people nationwide died in crashes in which drivers ages 14-18 years had alcohol in their systems, despite the fact that all states have Zero Tolerance Laws for drinking under age 21

NHTSA research also finds that peer pressure is a contributing factor in teen crash deaths. When the teen driver in a fatal crash was not wearing a seat belt, almost four-fifths of that driver’s teen passengers were also unrestrained. And a teenage driver was 2.5 times more likely to engage in risky behaviors when driving with one teenage passenger, but three times more likely when driving with multiple teenager passengers.

Additional NHTSA research found that poor decisions among teen drivers can lead to crashes and fatalities at any time of the day, but that they were most frequent between 3 p.m. and 8 p.m., and remained high until midnight.

>>Bonus Link: NHTSA provides a wealth of resources on safe driving for teens.