Category Archives: Pediatrics
FDA Approves Vaccine for H5N1 Strain of Avian Flu
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the first adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine for the prevention of the H5N1 strain of the avian flu, also known as bird flu. While most influenza A viruses do not infect people, H5N1 does and has demonstrated a 60 percent mortality rate when a person becomes infected. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has added the vaccine to the National Stockpile. “This vaccine could be used in the event that the H5N1 avian influenza virus develops the capability to spread efficiently from human to human, resulting in the rapid spread of disease across the globe,” said Karen Midthun, MD, director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. “Vaccines are critical to protecting public health by helping to counter the transmission of influenza disease during a pandemic.” Read more on infectious diseases.
Study: Excessive Television Watching Equals Excess Weight in Kids
Children and teenagers who spend excessive amounts of time watching television or in front of other screens are also more inclined to be overweight or obese, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers analyzed data on nearly 8,000 boys and girls, ages 9-16, finding that each additional hour a day spent watching television was linked to a body mass index (BMI) scale increase of about 0.1 points, or about half a pound. Kids who watch television or play video/computer games are not only for the most part physically idle, but also more likely to snack. While many parents believe their kids spend a reasonable amount of time in front of screens, the reality is that most kids in the United States and Canada surpass the recommended daily limit of two hours. "We don't pay attention to the fact that it's half an hour here, half an hour there, an hour here, an hour there," said Mark Tremblay, director of Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute in Ottawa, Canada, who was not a part of the study. Read more on obesity.
Study: One in 10 U.S. Kids has ADHD
About one in 10 U.S. children have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a new study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. A 2011 poll of more than 95,000 parents found 11 percent of kids ages 4-17 had ADHD, up from 9.5 percent in 2007. The number of kids on ADHD medication also climbed about 1 percent, with research showing that half the kids with ADHD are diagnosed before the age of 6. "This finding suggests that there are a large number of young children who could benefit from the early initiation of behavioral therapy, which is recommended as the first-line treatment for preschool children with ADHD," study author and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) researcher Susanna Visser. The study also found that while the number of kids with ADHD is still climbing, it is no longer climbing as fast—the rate was increasing about 6 percent a year in the mid-2000s, but was only 4 percent a year from 2007 to 2011. Read more on pediatrics.
CDC Releases ‘Winnable Battles Progress Report 2010-2015’
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released its Winnable Battles Progress Report 2010-2015, which details the progress made in key areas where CDC has determined that progress is possible. The individual reports detail what’s been accomplished, and what still needs to be accomplished, to reach these goals by 2015. They include healthcare-associated infections; tobacco; nutrition, physical activity and obesity; food safety; motor vehicle safety; teen pregnancy; and HIV prevention. “By implementing the programs with the greatest potential impact, we are addressing Americans’ biggest health challenges while we try to get the most health bang for precious resources,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. Read more on the CDC.
Study: One-third of Kids’ Calories from Schools, Stores, Fast Food Restaurants are ‘Empty Calories’
In the battle to improve nutrition for kids, parents need to look beyond just fast food restaurants and take a closer look at food from grocery stores and at schools. A new study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics found that roughly a third of the calories consumed from each of these three sources constituted “empty calories” coming from added sugar or solid fat. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends between 8 and 19 percent of calories should be “empty” for both kids and adults; excessive empty calories can lead to weight gain and obesity. While all three sources offered high counts of empty calories, they did so for different reasons, demonstrating the need to tailor health efforts to meet their particular obstacles. "Our study found that 20 percent of pizza and 22 percent of high-fat milk consumed by kids are provided by schools, and 72 percent of sugar-sweetened beverages like sodas, fruit drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks consumed by kids are obtained from grocery stores," said study author Jennifer M. Poti, a doctoral candidate in nutritional epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Read more on nutrition.
American Headache Society: New Guidelines on Treating Migraines, Limiting Unnecessary Treatments
The American Headache Society has issued new guidelines on how physicians can better treat patients with migraines while limiting unnecessary or even risky treatments. For example, because of their serious long-term risks, opiod painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin, as well as the barbiturate butalbital, should not be the first treatments prescribed. Also, CT scans should only be limited to non-emergency situations when possible, as MRIs are both able to diagnose more conditions and do not expose patients to radiation. "Our aim is to encourage doctors and patients to think carefully about medical care that can be harmful or unnecessary," said Elizabeth Loder, MD, president of the American Headache Society. "We didn't approach this with cost uppermost in mind. The goal is to help address the problems of low-value care." Approximately 12 percent of Americans are estimated to suffer from migraines. Read more on migraines.
Kids Today Slower, Less Fit than Their Parents as Kids
An average child in 1975 in a one-mile race with an average child today would win by an average of a minute and a half, according to new research. Kids today are also about 15 percent less aerobically fit, with heart endurance falling an average of 6 percent per decade from 1970 to 2000. That means today’s kids are more likely to be unhealthy in adulthood, with weaker hearts, thinner bones and overall lower quality of life. Grant Tomkinson, a senior lecturer in the University of South Australia's School of Health Sciences, pointed to a number of factors, including communities designed to discourage walking, bicycling and backyard play; reduced or even completely absent physical education in schools; and the prevalence of television, computer, tablet and smartphone screens that keep kids indoors. "We all live in an environment that's toxic for exercise, and our children are paying the price," Tomkinson said. Tomkinson said in order to reverse this trend, kids need at least 60 minutes of serious physical exercise a day, such as running, swimming or cycling. "You want exercise to be fun, but there needs to be some huff and puff there as well," he said. "It needs to make them somewhat tired." Read more on physical activity.
Study: Symptoms of ‘Sudden’ Cardiac Arrest Can Be Seen Up to a Month Earlier
Symptoms of “sudden” cardiac arrest can be seen up to a month beforehand in middle-age men, according to new findings presented this week at the annual scientific sessions of the American Heart Association, held this year in Dallas. Researchers looked at the medical records of 567 men, ages 35-65, who had out-of-hospital heart attacks, finding that approximately 53 percent showed symptoms beforehand. They included chest pain (56 percent); shortness of breath (13 percent); and dizziness, fainting or palpitations (4 percent). Sumeet Chugh, senior author of the study and associate director for genomic cardiology at the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles, said the “entirely unexpected” findings show that people may be able to prevent heart attacks if they seek treatment earlier for these symptoms. "The findings were entirely unexpected," said "We never thought more than half of these middle-aged men would have had warning signs so long before their cardiac arrests,” Chugh said. “Previously we thought most people don't have symptoms so we can't do anything about it." Read more on heart health.
ACS Tips on Quitting Tobacco for Tomorrow’s ‘Great American Smokeout’
Tomorrow is the American Cancer Society (ACS) Great American Smokeout, held every year on the third Thursday of November. The annual event was founded to encourage people to quit using tobacco—perhaps to stop smoking on that day, or to make a plan on how to quit at a later date—and to provide the tools and resources that can help the decision stick. According to ACS, research shows that people are most successful at quitting tobacco when they have support, and recommends combing two or more of the following tactics to improve the odds:
- Telephone smoking-cessation hotlines
- Stop-smoking groups
- Online quit groups
- Nicotine replacement products
- Prescription medicine to lessen cravings
- Guide books
- Encouragement and support from friends and family members
>>NewPublicHealth continues a new series to highlight some of the best public health education and outreach campaigns every month. Submit your ideas for Public Health Campaign of the Month to info@newPublichealth.org.
Glass thermometers. Compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. Medical equipment. Gauges and other science equipment. Thermostats, switches and other electrical devices.
Mercury lives in all of these devices—and all can be found in schools. While it may be common, mercury is also incredibly dangerous. Mercury poisoning can negatively impact the nervous system, lungs and kidneys. It can even lead to brain damage or death.
Often mercury poisoning is the result of a kid thinking it’s “cool”— taking it, playing with, passing it around to friends. Metallic mercury easily vaporizes into a colorless, odorless, hazardous gas.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), part of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has released a new website that brings together a suite of tools to educate kids, teachers, school administrators and parents about the dangers of mercury poisoning. They include an interactive human body illustration and facts sheets, as well as a 30-second “Don’t Mess With Mercury” animated video to raise awareness about the dangers of mercury.
Construction Workers Frequently Impacted by Pain and Stress
Construction workers are frequently stressed about work-related injuries and pain, but often fail to get help for either, putting themselves at risk for additional injuries and mental health issues, according to a new study in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The researchers, based at the Harvard School of Public Health, reviewed data compiled by the School’s Center for Work, Health and Wellbeing and found that the construction industry has one of the highest rates of work-related injuries and suicides in the U.S. workplace, as well as a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among its workers. The researchers also conducted a mental health survey of 172 New England construction workers at four construction sites. Sixteen percent of the workers reported being distressed, 75 percent had experienced musculoskeletal pain over the previous three months and 42 percent reported one or more work injuries in the preceding month. A follow-up survey found that more than half of those who previously said they felt distressed had not sought professional help—likely, say the researchers, because of fear of stigmatization or job loss. Read more on injury prevention and mental health.
USPSTF: Cannot Recommend For, or Against, Vitamin Supplements to Help Prevent Cancer, Heart Disease
Citing the fact that there is simply too little evidence to make a conclusion either way, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has concluded at this time that it can’t recommend for or against taking vitamin and mineral supplements to help prevent cancer and heart problems. In a draft statement, the panel also ruled that neither beta-carotene nor vitamin E should be taken to prevent heart disease or cancer; beta-carotene was previously found to exacerbate the risk of lung cancer for people who were already at high risk. The researchers analyzed data from 26 studies between January 2005 and January 2013, which included people across an array of demographics, finding no difference between those who took the supplements and those who took placebos. Vitamin supplements are a $12 billion per year industry in the United States. Read more on prevention.
Study: Simple Urine Test Could Identify Young Type 1 Diabetes Patients with Highest Risk of Heart, Kidney Disease
A basic urine test could help doctors prevent heart and kidney disease in kids who are at higher risk due to their type 1 diabetes, according to a new study in the journal Diabetes Care. As many as 40 percent of youth with type 1 diabetes may be at increased risk for the health problems. Researchers at the University of Cambridge, in England, analyzed data on more than 3,300 diabetes patients between the ages of 10 and 16; an estimated 490,000 kids worldwide have type 1 diabetes. "Managing type 1 diabetes is difficult enough without having to deal with other health problems," study lead author David Dunger. "By using early screening, we can now identify young people at risk of heart and kidney disease. The next step will be to see if drugs used to treat heart and kidney disease—such as statins and blood-pressure-lowering drugs—can help prevent kidney and heart complications in this young, potentially vulnerable population.” Read more on pediatrics.
BSR: New Ways U.S. Companies Can Improve Population Health
U.S. companies can improve population health by improving how they engage with employees, customers, local communities, suppliers and the general public, according to a new BSR report supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. BSR interviewed 40 leading authorities on health and wellness, public health, corporate social responsibility and corporate affairs, as well as reviewed more than 35 corporate CSR reports across 10 industries and surveyed nearly 30 U.S.-based BSR member companies about their current activities on health and wellness. The report emphasizes how CSR teams can help lead the charge in improving population health. “Within business, the corporate social responsibility (CSR) teams are well-positioned to lead this work—helping their companies look carefully at the positive as well as negative impacts on health and wellness, and helping them identify opportunities to deliver better business results and health outcomes,” said Mark Little, BSR’s healthcare director. Read more on business.
CDC: Colorectal Cancer Screening Rate Remains Low
Despite continued research showing that colorectal cancer screening tests saves lives, as many as one in three adults ages 50 to 75 have not been tested, according to a new Vital Signs report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The cancer type is the second-leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States, and screening can help prevent it or even detect it early, when treatment is more effective. “There are more than 20 million adults in this country who haven’t had any recommended screening for colorectal cancer and who may therefore get cancer and die from a preventable tragedy,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Screening for colorectal cancer is effective and can save your life.” the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that all adults age 50 and older be screened by at least one of three tests, which can variously be performed at home or by a doctor, and once every year, three years or decade. Read more on cancer.
Study: Eating Disorders in Young Men Often Different Than Those in Women
While not as widely discussed or researched, young men—just like young women—can become obsessed with their appearance and develop dangerous eating disorders, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. The problem can resemble a traditional eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, or involve the use of drugs and supplements. The disorders are often paired with depression, binge drinking and recreational drug use. The researchers’ survey of 5,527 boys, ages 12-18, found that 31 percent had at some point binged on food or purged, 9 percent had a high level of concern with their body's muscularity and about 2 percent were both concerned about muscularity and had used some type of supplement, growth hormone derivative or anabolic steroid to enhance it. "The results of our studies would suggest we need to be thinking more broadly about eating disorders and consider males as well," said Alison Field, the study's lead author and an associate professor of pediatrics at Boston Children's Hospital. "For a lot of males, what they're striving for is different than females. They're probably engaged in something different than purging." Read more on pediatrics.
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has launched a new campaign that challenges parents to discuss with their teen drivers five practices that can prevent serious injuries and even deaths in the event of a crash:
- No cell phone use or texting while driving
- No extra passengers
- No speeding
- No alcohol
- No driving or riding without a seat belt
NHTSA data show motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers 14-18 years-old in the United States. In 2011, 2,105 teen drivers were involved in fatal crashes. Of those teens involved in fatal crashes, 1,163 (55 percent) survived and 942 (45 percent) died in the crash.
"Safety is our highest priority, especially when it comes to teens, who are often our least experienced drivers," said DOT Secretary Anthony Foxx. "The ‘5 to Drive’ campaign gives parents and teens a simple, straightforward checklist that can help them talk about good driving skills and most importantly, prevent a tragedy before it happens."
The list of precautions matches the top causes of death in teen crashes:
- In 2011, over half of the teen occupants of passenger vehicles who died in crashes were unrestrained
- Speeding was a factor in 35 percent of fatal crashes involving a teen driver
- Twelve percent of teen drivers involved in fatal crashes were distracted at the time
- In 2011, 505 people nationwide died in crashes in which drivers ages 14-18 years had alcohol in their systems, despite the fact that all states have Zero Tolerance Laws for drinking under age 21
NHTSA research also finds that peer pressure is a contributing factor in teen crash deaths. When the teen driver in a fatal crash was not wearing a seat belt, almost four-fifths of that driver’s teen passengers were also unrestrained. And a teenage driver was 2.5 times more likely to engage in risky behaviors when driving with one teenage passenger, but three times more likely when driving with multiple teenager passengers.
Additional NHTSA research found that poor decisions among teen drivers can lead to crashes and fatalities at any time of the day, but that they were most frequent between 3 p.m. and 8 p.m., and remained high until midnight.
>>Bonus Link: NHTSA provides a wealth of resources on safe driving for teens.
On First Anniversary, States Still Helping Residents Displaced and Impacted by Hurricane Sandy
Flags will fly at half mast in New York State and other regions of the Northeast today as residents mark the one year anniversary of the day that Hurricane Sandy made landfall. New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut—which saw dozens killed and hundreds injured—continue to help residents rebuild and recover from injuries, loss of homes and loss of businesses. Read more about Hurricane Sandy.
AAP: Parental ‘Media Use Plans’ Needed to Limit Kids’ Time in Front of TVs, Other Screens
Parents should create a “media use plan” that limits kids’ screen time to no more than two hours per day, as well as keeps television and Internet access out of their bedrooms, according to a new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Council on Communications and Media. Marjorie Hogan, MD, one of the statement's lead authors, said the issue isn’t television and other media access overall, but the fact that excessive media use been linked to obesity, sleep problems, school problems and aggression; the average child spends about eight hours each day in front of various screens. The key is for parents to find a balance between the positives and negatives of media. "We're not media-bashers," said Hogan. "We love media…For teens, connectivity, being connected to your peers, having a chance to create your persona, can be a really positive thing.” Read more on pediatrics.
Study: Smokers Most Likely to Think About Quitting on Mondays
An analysis of online searches related to smoking cessation shows that smokers are most likely to think about quitting smoking on Mondays, which could give anti-tobacco efforts a new way to make anti-smoking campaigns more effective by enacting weekly cues to remind smokers to keep trying on Mondays, according to a new study in JAMA Internal Medicine. Researchers found the number of Monday searches was 25 percent higher than the combined average of the rest of the days of the week; the findings were the same for searches conducted in English, French, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. "Popular belief has been that the decision to quit smoking is unpredictable or even chaotic," said study lead author John Ayers, of San Diego State University."By taking a bird's-eye view of Google searches, however, we find anything but chaos. Instead, Google search data reveals interest in quitting is part of a larger collective pattern of behavior dependent on the day of the week." Read more on tobacco.
Pediatricians: Parent’s Religion Should Not Stand in the Way of Child’s Medical Care
While noting that parents have the right to determine a child’s medical care, a parent’s religious beliefs should not stand in the way of necessary medical care when the child is at risk for serious disability or death, according to a new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. The organization is also calling for a repeal of all state exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws, as well as an end to funding for any religious or spiritual healing. "I think it's important that all children get appropriate medical care, that state policies should be clear about the obligations to provide this care and that state monies directed toward medical care should be used for established and effective therapies," said Armand Antommaria, MD, directors of the Ethics Center at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Ohio and one of the statement’s lead authors. Many religious groups currently decline mainstream and proven medical treatments. For example, Christian Scientists advocate prayer over medical treatment, and Jehovah’s Witnesses opposed blood transfusions. Read more on pediatrics
Study: Low-cost Football Gear as Effective as High-tech, High-cost Equipment at Preventing Head Injuries
A group of experts has performed an extensive study to determine which football helmets and mouth guards are best at preventing youth concussions: none of them. The researchers compared high-tech and custom equipment to low-cost, off-the-shelf equipment, finding no difference in the number of concussions for 1,300 players at 36 high schools during the 2012 football season. There are approximately 40,000 sports-related concussions in U.S. high schools every year. "We're certainly not saying that helmets and mouth guards aren't important. They do what they are supposed to do. Mouth guards prevent dental injuries, and helmets prevent skull fractures and scalp and face lacerations," said Margaret Alison Brooks, MD, the study's lead co-investigator. "But I don't think the manufacturing companies have the data to support [the claim that] if a parent buys a specific model, their child will have a reduced risk of concussion." The findings will be presented today at an American Academy of Pediatrics meeting in Orlando, Fla. Read more on injury prevention.
FDA: Recall of Certain Kraft and Polly-O String Cheese Products
Kraft Foods Group has announced a voluntary recall of some varieties of Kraft and Polly-O String Cheese and String Cheese Twists products because they might spoil before their “Best When Use By” code dates. Approximately 735,000 cases of the product will be affected throughout the United States, each with code dates between October 25, 2013 and February 11, 2014. Kraft announced the recall after receiving several reports of premature spoilage and ceasing the production and distribution of the questionable products. For full refunds, customers can return the products to the store where they were purchased or call Kraft Foods Consumer Relations at 1-800-816-9432 between 9 am and 6 pm (Eastern). Read more on food safety.
HHS: $8M in Research Grants to Support Hurricane Sandy Recovery
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has awarded more than $8 million in research grants to support the long-term recovery of areas of the country damaged by Hurricane Sandy in late 2012. The grants, which are part of the Hurricane Sandy Recovery and Rebuilding Supplemental Appropriation Act of 2013, will go toward research on issues such as community resilience; risk communications and the use of social media; health system response and health care access; evacuation and policy decision making; and mental health. “We hope the grants provide a catalyst for the scientific community to put more emphasis on the study of recovery from disasters; much more research is needed to support decision making in the long-term recovery process and ultimately to improve resilience,” said Nicole Lurie, MD, HHS assistant secretary for preparedness and response. “We anticipate that the findings not only will help community leaders make evidence-based decisions about recovery plans and policies in affected areas but also that the knowledge gained can improve resilience across the entire country.” Read more on disasters.
NIH, CDC Launch National Registry on Sudden Deaths in the Young
The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention have come together in the launch of the Sudden Death in the Young Registry. The registry will catalogue conditions such as heart disease and epilepsy in order to help researchers better understand the issues and establish future research priorities. According to the NIH, up until now there have not been agreed upon standards or definitions for reporting these deaths, which has impeded efforts to determine the best prevention efforts. "The sudden death of a child is tragic and the impact on families and society is incalculable," said Jonathan Kaltman, MD, chief of the Heart Development and Structural Diseases Branch within the Division of Cardiovascular Sciences at the NIH's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "This registry will collect comprehensive, population-based information on sudden unexpected death in youths up to age 24 in the United States. It is a critical first step toward figuring out how to best prevent these tragedies." Read more on research.
Mother’s Smoking During Pregnancy Increases Infant’s Risk of Infections, Death
Mothers who smoked during pregnancy are more likely to have children who are at increased risk for hospitalization and death during infancy, according to a new study in the journal Pediatric Infectious Diseases. The study analyzed hospital records and death certificates of approximately 50,000 Washington state infants born between 1987 and 2004. Researchers say a weakening of the child’s immune system may be responsible for the heightened risk. "We've known for a long time that babies born to mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at high risk for serious medical problems relating to low birth weight, premature delivery and poor lung development," said lead author Abigail Halperin, MD. "While respiratory infections have been recognized as a common cause of these sometimes life-threatening illnesses, this study shows that babies exposed to smoke in utero [in the womb] also have increased risk for hospitalization and death from a much broader range of infections—both respiratory and nonrespiratory—than we knew before.” Read more on tobacco.