Category Archives: Maternal and Infant Health

Jan 14 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: January 14

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HHS: 2.2M Enrolled for Coverage Under Affordable Care Act Through December
Despite a glitch-filled October 1 launch that saw only about 27,000 people enroll in the first month, by December 28 an estimated 2.2 million Americans had enrolled for health coverage available through the Affordable Care Act, according to the latest data from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The state and federal online marketplaces enrolled nearly 1.8 million in December alone. Of the 2.2 million enrollees:

  • 54 percent are female and 46 percent are male
  • 30 percent are age 34 and under
  • 24 percent are between the ages of 18 and 34
  • 60 percent selected a Silver plan, while 20 percent selected a Bronze plan
  • 79 percent selected a plan with Financial Assistance

Read more on the Affordable Care Act.

Task Force Recommends All Pregnant Women Be Screened for Gestational Diabetes
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force is now recommending that all pregnant women be screened for gestational diabetes after 24 weeks of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can increase the risk of pregnancy complications (such as preeclampsia) and labor complications, due to the baby growing larger than normal. Newborns are also at higher risk of low blood sugar levels after being exposed to the mother’s high blood sugar. Early diagnosis and treatment—lifestyle changes, blood sugar monitoring and insulin—can reduce the risks for both mother and child.  "The number of women who have gestational diabetes is rising, and gestational diabetes has effects not only on the mother, but also on the baby," said task force chairwoman Virginia Moyer, MD, vice president for maintenance of certification and quality at the American Board of Pediatrics. "We want to prevent adverse outcomes for both of them." Read more on maternal and infant health.

West Virginia Closer to Restoring Safer Tap Water After Chemical Leak
About 35,000 people in the area of Charleston, West Virginia, can now drink their tap water safely after it was declared usable again, according to West Virginia American Water. More than 300,000 customers were told their water was unsafe to drink and or use for washing after it was discovered last week that as much as 7,500 gallons of 4-methylcyclohexane methanol, or crude MCHM, from Freedom Industries had leaked into the Elk River. Officials estimate it will take a few more days before the entire system is once again safe. MCHM-tainted water can cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea, rashes and reddened skin; 231 people visited emergency departments with symptoms and 14 were admitted. Read more on water and air quality.

Nov 22 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: November 22

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CDC Report Finds Health Disparities, Inequalities Persist across the U.S. Population
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released a new report examining the disparities in mortality and disease risk as they relate to income, education level, sex, race, ethnicity, employment status and sexual orientation. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report — United States, 2013 is the second CDC report to take this wide look at the U.S. population. Among its key findings:

  • The overall birth rate for teens 15-19 years old dropped 18 percent from 2007 to 2010, although it varied widely from state to state
  • People who are Hispanic, are low wage earners, were born outside of the United States, have no education beyond high school, or are male are more likely to work in an occupation in which workers are more likely than average to be injured or become ill
  • Binge drinking is most common for people ages 18-34, men, non-Hispanic whites and people with higher household incomes

“It is clear that more needs to be done to address the gaps and to better assist Americans disproportionately impacted by the burden of poor health,” said Chesley Richards, MD, MPH., director of CDC’s Office of Public Health Scientific Services, which produced the report. “We hope that this report will lead to interventions that will allow all Americans, particularly those most harmed by health inequalities, to live healthier and more productive lives.” Read more on health disparities.

HUD Grants to Help Transform Distressed Communities into Thriving Communities
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is granting approximately $4.37 million to help nine areas transform their public or other HUD-assisted housing and distressed neighborhoods into thriving communities. Fifty- two communities had applied for the Choice Neighborhoods Planning Grants. The agency’s Choice Neighborhoods Initiative supports locally-driven economic developments to create renewed, sustainable communities, with a focus on creating energy-efficient, mixed-income housing that has easy access to high-quality services, education programs, early learning programs, public assets and public transportation. Full details on each community can be found here. Read more on housing.

Study: Certain Health Behaviors Tied to Complication-free Pregnancies
Women who engage in certain healthy behaviors—and avoid certain unhealthy ones—are more likely to have complication-free pregnancies, according to a new study in the journal BMJ. An analysis of health data on more than 5,600 women found that eating fruit, having a healthy weight, having lower blood pressure, having a job, and stopping drug and alcohol abuse at 15-20 weeks of gestation "may increase the likelihood of normal pregnancy outcomes," according to Lucy Chappell, of the Women's Health Academic Center of King's College London. The most common pregnancy-related complications are babies who were too small for their gestational age, high blood pressure, preterm birth and preeclampsia. Read more on maternal and infant health.

Nov 7 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: November 7

FDA Takes Another Step to Reduce Consumption of Trans Fats
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has taken another step to reduce American’s consumption of trans fats with a preliminary determination that partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs) are not “generally recognized as safe” for use in food. PHOs are the primary dietary source of artificial trans fat in processed foods. Up next is a 60-day comment period to collect more information and input on exactly what it would take for food manufacturers to reformulate products so that they do not include PHOs. “While consumption of potentially harmful artificial trans fat has declined over the last two decades in the United States, current intake remains a significant public health concern,” said FDA Commissioner Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D. “The FDA’s action today is an important step toward protecting more Americans from the potential dangers of trans fat. Further reduction in the amount of trans fat in the American diet could prevent an additional 20,000 heart attacks and 7,000 deaths from heart disease each year—a critical step in the protection of Americans’ health.” Read more on food safety.

Lack of Light Disrupts Sleep Cycles During Hospital Stays, Increases Patient Discomfort
Hospital stays may be even more uncomfortable for most patients than necessary because of an overall lack of adequate light, according to a new study in the Journal of Advanced Nursing. The small study found that lower levels of daytime light exposure were connected to worse mood, as well as more fatigue and pain, in patients. The poor light interfered with their bodies’ ability to adopt a normal sleep-wake cycle. Researchers found the lowest levels of daytime light exposure were tied to worse mood and more fatigue and pain among patients, compared to those whose rooms were better-lit during the day. "Until now, no one has looked at the associations among light and outcomes such as sleep, mood and pain experienced in the hospital," said Esther Bernhofer, lead author of the study and a nurse researcher at the Cleveland Clinic's Nursing Institute. "This study forms a basis for testing future lighting interventions to improve sleep-wake patterns, mood and pain in hospitalized adults.” Read more on mental health.

Study: No Link Between IVF, Increased Risk of Cancer in Kids
Despite years of concerns, a new study on in vitro fertilization (IVF) found no link between the conception technique and an increased risk of cancer in children. The findings were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Researchers analyzed data on more than 106,000 children born through assisted reproduction between 1992 and 2008, finding the risk of them developing cancer was "the same as naturally conceived children," according to lead researcher Alastair Sutcliffe, MD, a specialist in general pediatrics at the University College London. More than 5 million children have been born through IVF since the first successful birth in 1978. "This study is extremely reassuring and should relieve anybody's anxiety about IVF," concluded Lawrence Grunfeld, MD, an associate clinical professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive science at the Mount Sinai Icahn School of Medicine, in New York City. Read more on cancer.

Nov 6 2013
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Stakeholder Health: Q&A with Kimberlydawn Wisdom

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Stakeholder Health, formerly known as the Health Systems Learning Group, is a learning collaborative made up of 43 organizations, including 36 nonprofit health systems, that have met for close to two years to share innovative practices aimed at improving health and economic viability of communities.

The idea for the learning collaborative came from a series of meetings at the White House Office and U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Centers for Faith-Based & Neighborhood Partnerships. The Stakeholder Health administrative team is based at Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare Center for Excellence in Faith and Health in Memphis, Tenn., and at Wake Forest Baptist Health System in Winston-Salem, N.C. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation provided a grant to share the group’s findings and lessons learned.

Earlier this year, Stakeholder Health released a monograph to help identify proven community health practices and partnerships. Kimberlydawn Wisdom, MD, MS, Senior Vice President of Community Health & Equity and Chief Wellness Officer at the Henry Ford Health System was a key contributor to the monograph.

NewPublicHealth recently spoke to Wisdom about Stakeholder Health’s objectives, goals and emerging successes, which she also presented on at the American Public Health Association’s annual meeting in Boston.

NewPublicHealth: What are examples of implementation of the Stakeholder Health recommendations at the Henry Ford Health System?

Kimberlydawn Wisdom: There are several. Stakeholder Health talks quite a bit about transformative partnerships and the importance of those transformative partnerships. And we have some stellar examples here in southeast Michigan of transformative partnerships, and one that I’d like to point to in particular is an effort we established called Sew Up the Safety Net, which addresses decreasing the infant mortality rate in our region, which is appallingly high.

We’ve developed a partnership with three other competing health systems within the Detroit region. So while on one level we are very strong competitors, on another level, we’ve actually joined our strategies and resources together in order to address the infant mortality challenge that we have in our communities. We also have private partners and public partners that are involved with us at various levels, but I think having that unprecedented partnership with competing health systems and getting real work done is something that we’re very proud of and work very hard to maintain.

Read more

Nov 1 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: November 1

CDC: U.S. Malaria Cases Reached 40-year High in 2011
U.S. malaria cases reach a 40-year high in 2011, with 1,925 total cases and five associated deaths, according to a supplement of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). The 2011 total was a 14 percent increase over the 2010 statistic. According to the CDC, the vast majority of the U.S. cases were acquired overseas, with about 69 percent coming from Africa, and 63 percent of those cases from West Africa. “Malaria isn’t something many doctors see frequently in the United States thanks to successful malaria elimination efforts in the 1940s,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “The increase in malaria cases reminds us that Americans remain vulnerable and must be vigilant against diseases like malaria because our world is so interconnected by travel.” Preventative measures include antimalarial drugs, insect repellent, insecticide-treated bed nets, and protective clothing. Read more on infectious disease.

FDA Proposes New Rules to Combat Prescription Drug Shortages
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) yesterday proposed a new plan to combat drug shortages by requiring drug and biotechnology firms to immediately notify the FDA of any potential disruptions in the supply of medically important drugs. These drug shortages can delay or even deny care to patients in critical need. There were 117 drug shortages in 2012, down from 251 in 2011, when the White House issued an executive order to solve the public health problem. The new plan calls for companies to promptly notify the FDA of a permanent discontinuance or a temporary interruption likely to disrupt the supply of a prescription drug. Early notification enables the FDA to work with manufacturers to investigate the reasons for disruptions; identify other manufacturers who can help make up for the shortfall; and expedite inspections and reviews of drugs that could help mitigate a shortage. The FDA also released a strategic plan that “highlights opportunities for drug manufacturers and others to prevent drug shortages by promoting and sustaining quality manufacturing.” “The complex issue of drug shortages continues to be a high priority for the FDA, and early notification is a critical tool that helps mitigate or prevent looming shortages,” said Janet Woodcock, MD, director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “The FDA continues to take all steps it can within its authority, but the FDA alone cannot solve shortages. Success depends upon a commitment from all stakeholders.” Read more on prescription drugs.

March of Dimes: U.S. Preterm Birthrate at 15-year Low, But Country Still Gets a ‘C’ Grade
The U.S. preterm birthrate fell to a 15-year low of 11.5 percent in 2012, according to a new report from the March of Dimes. While that’s also a six consecutive year of lower rates, the national still received a “C” on the report card when compared to other countries. "Although we have made great progress in reducing our nation's preterm birth rate from historic highs, the U.S. still has the highest rate of preterm birth of any industrialized country. We must continue to invest in premature birth prevention because every baby deserves a healthy start in life," said Jennifer Howse, MD, president of the March of Dimes. Only six U.S. states received an “A” on the annual report card: Alaska, California, Maine, New Hampshire, Oregon and Vermont. An infant is premature if they are born before 37 weeks of pregnancy; the potential health complications include breathing problems, developmental delays, cerebral palsy and even death. Read more on maternal and infant health.

Oct 24 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: October 24

HHS: $8M in Research Grants to Support Hurricane Sandy Recovery
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has awarded more than $8 million in research grants to support the long-term recovery of areas of the country damaged by Hurricane Sandy in late 2012. The grants, which are part of the Hurricane Sandy Recovery and Rebuilding Supplemental Appropriation Act of 2013, will go toward research on issues such as community resilience; risk communications and the use of social media; health system response and health care access; evacuation and policy decision making; and mental health. “We hope the grants provide a catalyst for the scientific community to put more emphasis on the study of recovery from disasters; much more research is needed to support decision making in the long-term recovery process and ultimately to improve resilience,” said Nicole Lurie, MD, HHS assistant secretary for preparedness and response. “We anticipate that the findings not only will help community leaders make evidence-based decisions about recovery plans and policies in affected areas but also that the knowledge gained can improve resilience across the entire country.” Read more on disasters.

NIH, CDC Launch National Registry on Sudden Deaths in the Young
The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention have come together in the launch of the Sudden Death in the Young Registry. The registry will catalogue conditions such as heart disease and epilepsy in order to help researchers better understand the issues and establish future research priorities. According to the NIH, up until now there have not been agreed upon standards or definitions for reporting these deaths, which has impeded efforts to determine the best prevention efforts. "The sudden death of a child is tragic and the impact on families and society is incalculable," said Jonathan Kaltman, MD, chief of the Heart Development and Structural Diseases Branch within the Division of Cardiovascular Sciences at the NIH's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "This registry will collect comprehensive, population-based information on sudden unexpected death in youths up to age 24 in the United States. It is a critical first step toward figuring out how to best prevent these tragedies." Read more on research.

Mother’s Smoking During Pregnancy Increases Infant’s Risk of Infections, Death
Mothers who smoked during pregnancy are more likely to have children who are at increased risk for hospitalization and death during infancy, according to a new study in the journal Pediatric Infectious Diseases. The study analyzed hospital records and death certificates of approximately 50,000 Washington state infants born between 1987 and 2004. Researchers say a weakening of the child’s immune system may be responsible for the heightened risk. "We've known for a long time that babies born to mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at high risk for serious medical problems relating to low birth weight, premature delivery and poor lung development," said lead author Abigail Halperin, MD. "While respiratory infections have been recognized as a common cause of these sometimes life-threatening illnesses, this study shows that babies exposed to smoke in utero [in the womb] also have increased risk for hospitalization and death from a much broader range of infections—both respiratory and nonrespiratory—than we knew before.” Read more on tobacco.

Oct 23 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: October 23

Medical Groups Issue New Definitions for Stages of Pregnancy
With a goal toward improving newborn outcomes and reducing non-medically related deliveries, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) are recommending four new definitions of ‘term’ deliveries:

  • Early Term: Between 37 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days
  • Full Term: Between 39 weeks 0 days and 40 weeks 6 days
  • Late Term: Between 41 weeks 0 days and 41 weeks 6 days
  • Post term: Between 42 weeks 0 days and beyond

Research over the past several years finds that every week of gestation matters for the health of newborns, and that babies born between 39 weeks 0 days and 40 weeks 6 days gestation have the best health outcomes, compared with babies born before or after this period. ACOG and SMFM encourage physicians, researchers, and public health officials to adopt these new precisely-defined terms in order to improve data collection and reporting, clinical research, and provide the highest quality pregnancy care. ACOG is a partner with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on “Strong Start,” a public awareness campaign to reduce unnecessary elective deliveries before 39 weeks’ gestation. Read more on maternal and infant health.

Poll Shows Americans Strongly Supporting Steps to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Inequality
A new poll conducted by the Center for American Progress and PolicyLink, and funded by The Rockefeller Foundation, finds that Americans are much more open to diversity and supportive of steps to reduce inequalities between racial and ethnic groups than has been previously thought. The poll was conducted by landline and cellphone in June and July among close to 3,000 U.S. citizens across the country. Some key findings of the poll include:

  • Positive sentiments about opportunities from rising diversity tend to outweigh negative concerns.
  • Sixty-nine percent of responders said that a bigger, more diverse workforce will lead to more economic growth and that diverse workplaces and schools will help make American businesses more innovative and competitive.
  • More than 7 in 10 Americans support new steps to reduce racial and ethnic inequality in America through investments in areas such as education, job training and infrastructure improvement. Among Whites, the level of support was 63 percent.

Read more on health disparities.

CDC: Flu Season Slow So Far…But Should Pick Up Soon
While the flu season has seen relatively few cases so far, public health officials expect that to change soon and are heavily recommending that anyone who has yet to be vaccinated go ahead and do so. Joe Bresee, MD, chief of the epidemiology and prevention branch in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention's Influenza Division, said 135 to 139 million doses of vaccine should be available; the number of people who receive the vaccine annually has risen since 2009. "It's edging up in most groups, which is really gratifying, especially in some of the high-risk groups like pregnant women and kids. We are seeing good gains over the last four or five years," he said. "But we have a long way to go. Still only half of Americans get vaccinated. Vaccine is still the single best thing folks can do to prevent flu." Read more on the flu.

Oct 15 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: October 15

Even Low Levels of Air Pollution Tied to Low Birth Weights
Even low levels of pollution can increase the risk of low-birth weight babies, according to a new study in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. Researchers analyzed data on more than 74,000 women in 12 European countries, finding that all types of air pollution were linked to both increased risk of low birth weights and smaller average head circumference at birth.  The determined that every increase of 5 micrograms per cubic meter (mcg/m3) of fine particulate matter also increases the risk of low birth weight by 18 percent. The European Union’s current regulations call for a limit of 25 mcg/m3, but the study found the risk is still there at limits below this threshold; lowering it to the World Health Organization's guideline of 10 mcg/m3 could prevent as many as 22 percent of the cases. "Our findings suggest that a substantial proportion of cases of low birth weight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution—particularly fine particulate matter—was reduced," said lead author Marie Pedersen, MD, from the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Barcelona, Spain. Read more on infant and maternal health.

Regular Exercise Can Boost Sperm Count, Improve Odds of Conception
Regular exercise—especially done outdoors—may boost a man’s sperm count and improve the odds of conception, according to a new study to be presented at the International Federation of Fertility Societies and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in Boston. Researchers found that men who spent about an hour a day exercising had a 48 percent higher concentration than men who spent less than one hour a week exercising. The study also found clear associations between higher sperm counts and time spent either outdoors or lifting weights. Possible explanations include higher vitamin D levels in men who spent time outdoors in the sunshine and the increased testosterone levels and insulin sensitivity that come with lifting weights. Also, contradicting popular conceptions, the study found no link between caffeine and alcohol and decreased fertility. Read more on sexual health.

Study: Hospital CEO Salaries Tied to Patient Satisfaction, Not Quality of Care
Hospital CEO salaries tend to be higher at hospitals with high patient satisfaction ratings, and does not seem on average to be linked to either their quality of care nor the benefits they offer to their communities, according to a new study in JAMA Internal Medicine. "I was hoping I'd see even some modest relationship with quality performance," said lead researcher Ashish Jha, MD. "I think we were a little disappointed." Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health analyzed data on 1,877 CEOs from 2,681 private, non-profit hospitals across the country, finding an average salary of $596,000; those in the lowest 10 percent earned about $118,000 and those in the highest earned about $1.7 million. While many different factors account for the wide range, Jha said the growing emphasis on improving quality measures suggests that the quality of care should be a factor when determining executive salaries. "If you're going to ask doctors and nurses to be accountable, if you're going to ask patients to be accountable…then I think we should make sure that everybody's in, and that senior managers of hospitals also have a stake in insuring high-quality care." Read more on access to health care.

Oct 9 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: October 9

Airport Noise May Increase Heart Disease and Stroke Risk
People who live near busy international airports may be at increased risk of heart disease and stroke due to the high levels of noise, according to two new studies in the British Medical Journal. One study looked at hospital admissions around London Heathrow airport, finding the risks were 10 to 20 percent higher when compared to areas with the least noise. The other study, by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and Boston University School of Public Health, analyzed data on more than 60 million Americans ages 65 and older living near 89 airports, finding that areas with 10 decibel higher aircraft noise also saw a 3.5 percent increase in the hospital admission rate. Researchers say the link needs further study to show causation. "The exact role that noise exposure may play in ill health is not well established," said Anna Hansell of Imperial College London, who led the British study. "However, it is plausible that it might be contributing, for example by raising blood pressure or by disturbing people's sleep." The findings indicate that populated areas must be looked at closely when communities consider expanding large airports. Read more on heart health.

Private Talk Sessions with NICU Nurses Ease Anxiety in Mothers of Premature Babies
“Listening matters” when it comes to easing the worries of the mothers of premature infants. One-on-one talks sessions between NICU nurses and the mothers can help reduce feelings of anxiety, confusion and doubt, according to a new study in the Journal of Perinatology. "Having a prematurely born baby is like a nightmare for the mother," said Lisa Segre, an assistant professor in the University of Iowa College of Nursing. "You're expecting to have a healthy baby, and suddenly you're left wondering whether he or she is going to live." The study looked at 23 mothers who when through an average of five 45-minute sessions, find they gave mothers a chance to really talk about their worries and were effective at easing concerns across the board. "Listening is what nurses have done their whole career," said NICU nurse and study co-author Rebecca Siewert. "We've always been the ones to listen and try to problem solve. So, I just think it was a wonderful offshoot of what nursing can do. We just need the time to do it." Read more on maternal and infant health.

Early Puberty Tied to Great Risk of Experimentation with Cigarettes, Alcohol and Marijuana
Early puberty is linked to increased risk of experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana, according to a new study in the journal Addiction. Puberty typically begins between the ages of 9 and 10, will girls on average beginning it earlier than boys. "While puberty is often thought of as a solely biological process, our research has shown that pubertal development is a combination of biological, psychological and social processes that all likely interact to influence risk-taking behavior like substance use," said study author Jessica Duncan Cance, a public health researcher at the University of Texas at Austin. "Our study suggests that being the first girl in the class to need a bra, for example, prompts or exacerbates existing psychological and social aspects that can, in turn, lead to substance use and other risky behaviors early in life.” Read more on pediatrics.

Oct 3 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: October 3

Tropical Storm Karen Could Hit U.S. Gulf Coast by Weekend
CNN is reporting that a hurricane watch is in effect for parts of the U.S. Gulf Coast after a tropical storm, named Karen, formed in the southeastern portion of the Gulf of Mexico. A hurricane watch means that hurricane conditions are possible within the watch area; a watch is typically issued 48 hours before a storm is expected to hit, according to the National Hurricane Center website. Much of the National Weather Service operations are closed because of the federal shutdown, however, the National Hurricane Center website will be regularly updated, an exception to the shutdown because severe weather poses a risk to life and property. And while much of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is also shuttered, DisasterAssistance.gov remains fully operational, according to FEMA’s website, although “due to a lapse in federal funding, portions of some government websites linked to or from DisasterAssistance.gov may not be updated and some non-disaster assistance transactions submitted via those websites may not be processed or responded to until after funding is enacted.” Ready.gov, FEMA’s disaster preparedness website, was last updated on September 30, according to the agency, and will not be updated until after funding is enacted. A notice on the site says “information on Ready.gov may not be up to date.” Read more on disasters.

Study: Cesarean-section Delivery May Not Be Needed for Twin Births
Despite the common opinion, vaginal delivery may be just as safe as scheduled cesarean-section delivery for pregnant women with twins, according to a new study in the New England Journal of Medicine. Researchers looked at multiple subject groups, tracking the pregnancies and finding the no difference in the rate of serious adverse outcomes for either the babies or the mothers. "Studies have suggested that maybe cesarean delivery is the best way, but there's no evidence to support the swing to cesarean birth,” said lead author, Jon Barrett, MD, chief of maternal-fetal medicine at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center in Toronto, Canada. “Perhaps the perception is that it's better for the baby.” According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as recently as 2008 about one in three single births was performed by planned cesarean section, while about three in every four twin births was via planned cesarean section. Read more on infant and maternal health.

Study: Melanoma Patients End Up Back in the Sun in 2-3 Years
While they remain appropriately cautious for the first year or so, people who were diagnosed and treated for melanoma end up going back to their old habits within two to three years, spending as much time in the sun as people who were never diagnosed with the skin cancer, according to a new study in JAMA Dermatology. People who previously had melanoma are at increased risk of developing the dangerous cancer. The American Cancer Society estimates that about 76,000 new cases of melanoma will be diagnosed this year. Brenda Cartmel, from the Yale School of Public Health, said health professionals need to rethink exactly how they’re advocating the importance of staying out of the sun. "I don't think what we are going to advise people to do is going to be different," she said. "I just think somehow we need to get that message over maybe in a different way." Read more on cancer.