Category Archives: Health and Human Services
The first three years of a child's life are key, and problems then can lead to poor school achievement and poverty and crime later in life. Home visiting programs match at-risk families with trained professionals who offer support and resources during that critical time. A new report from the Pew Center on the States examines the extent to which all 50 states and the District of Columbia support evidence-based home visiting programs and tracks whether public expenditures are producing the expected outcomes.
Libby Doggett, Ph.D., director of the Pew Home Visiting Campaign, says many states are beginning to receive initial installments of a $1.5 billion, five-year federal funding stream to support home visiting programs but those public dollars must be tied to effective, efficient programs. NewPublicHealth spoke with Libby Doggett about the report and the effectiveness of home visiting programs.
NewPublicHealth: What advantages to the community does a home visiting program offer?
Libby Doggett: Home visiting programs match parents with trained professionals, often a nurse or a social worker, sometimes a well-trained paraprofessional, who provide information and support during pregnancy and throughout the child’s first few years, which is a critical developmental period. I think what’s most exciting about our visiting programs is the research behind them. We’ve found that infant mortality falls by about 60%, that the mother is half as likely to deliver a low birth weight baby, the children are less likely to end up in an emergency room or be treated for injuries and accidents, and they’re more likely to be ready for school and a have a more successful school career.
And for mothers, there are additional really good outcomes: an 83% increase in employment by the child’s fourth year, a 20% reduction in welfare use, and 46% increase in the father’s presence in the household. Those are the kind of outcomes that we want for children and for families. Most importantly, the programs reap good returns for taxpayers as well. For every dollar invested, you’re likely to get $5.70 back. That’s a pretty good rate of return. Some of that return is in cost savings because you don’t spend the money on children in ICU, for example, related to child neglect and abuse. So it’s both savings projected from the program as well as some actual savings in terms of welfare costs, food stamp costs and other expenses.
NPH: What were the key findings in the Pew report?
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has announced $700 million in grants to help build, expand and improve community health centers across the country.
Reuters is reporting that a listeria outbreak in Nebraska, Colorado and Texas has caused at least one death so far. The outbreak has been linked to cantaloupe, though officials have not yet tracked the source of the outbreak.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration held a stakeholder meeting last week on acute drug shortages across the country, including shortages of cancer and anesthesia drugs. Some of the shortage is the result of raw ingredient supply disruptions and the discontinuation of some drugs. The FDA will hold a public hearing on the issue on September 26.
A new study by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and researchers from Denmark has found a link between exposure to the pesticide DDT and asthma as well as a possible link between DDT exposure and autism, using a new computer modeling system. The study was published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.
Judging by traffic in the last 36 hours on local and federal government social media sites, preparedness has the nation’s attention right now—no surprise given the 5.8 magnitude earthquake that hit the East coast Tuesday and the increasing intensity of Hurricane Irene.
So now might be the very best time to check your “Go Kit” or create one if it isn't already on a shelf in the basement.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s latest update on Hurricane Irene offers a strong reason for why those who can prepare a kit with necessities should: While the federal agency, private organizations and state and local agencies and health departments are all preparing resources, those will be most needed, if a hurricane strikes, by people who lack the financial resources to stock up on supplies on their own.
FEMA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both have websites to help prepare individuals, families, schools, companies and health departments in case of an emergency. For consumers, preparing early increases the chance of finding discounts and a wider selection of products.
Even if you’ve packed a kit and checked it twice, some new and updated tips can help if a threat arrives:
- Several agencies including FEMA (m.fema.gov) and CDC (m.cdc.gov) have just launched mobile versions of their websites which take users directly to emergency information and are formatted for smart phones. Key the URL into a smart phone browser
- Cell phone circuits clogged up Tuesday across the East Coast from the vast increase in usage as people contacted friends and families in the wake of the earthquake, and that can happen during other emergencies as well. Text messages are more likely to get through than calls during busy periods, and just about all cell and smart phones can send and receive texts, even if the user is not signed up for a plan.
- People who have supplies and a go bag all ready should ask themselves what has changed since the items were collected. Are prescription drugs up-to-date? Do the spare clothes still fit? Is there a newly-diagnosed food allergy to prepare for?
- Check chain stores for battery-powered chargers for cell and smart phones to use in case the power goes out, and then stock up on batteries.
- CDC’s site has a link to a map of all state health departments that can come in handy for updated information if an emergency occurs. Virginia, for example, added information to its site on Wednesday about Hurricane Irene.
- Need more incentive than an impending hurricane to get prepared? CDC has announced a preparedness video contest. Submit entries from August 29 through September 30.
- The Department of Heath and Human Services just announced an app challenge. While it’s limited to software application developers, the idea behind it may get even laymen thinking about how Facebook might be used before and after an emergency. According to HHS, the ideal application includes a way for users to identify lifelines, to create and share a personal preparedness plan including health considerations with these lifelines, and to encourage others to use the application.
Weigh In: Has your community updated emergency recommendations?
The Department of Health and Human Services has announced $40 million in grants to help and enroll eligible children for Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). The two year grants were awarded to state agencies, community health centers, school-based organizations and non-profit groups in 23 states.
A new study of close to 40,000 women in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that pregnant women who take multivitamins regularly about the time they get pregnant seem to have a lower risk of going into labor prematurely or having a smaller-than-normal weight baby.
Between 1990 and 2008, close to 100,000 children under r 18 were treated at hospitals for injuries they sustained after falling out of a window, according to a new study in Pediatrics. Toddlers accounted for two thirds of all cases and two in 1,000 cases resulted in deaths.
New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg last year proposed a two-year trial ban on using food stamps to purchase soda and other drinks with added sugar, but the Obama administration has turned down the request, the WSJ reports.
In the summer of 2011, nearly 800 public health and informatics professionals from across the country convened in Atlanta for the Public Health Informatics 2011 conference.
Around the conference, NewPublicHealth spoke with Farzad Mostashari, M.D., S.c.M., Director of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, to get his perspective on how health information technology can impact public health, and how the public health informatics field is evolving.
NewPublicHealth: The Public Health Informatics Conference is coming up this month. For those who aren't familiar with the field, what exactly is public health informatics?
Dr. Mostashari: I think that I’m a little bit of a student of public health informatics myself, and an avid follower. In the early days it was about building better systems – disease surveillance and outbreak detection systems. The second phase was building the connection between those systems and clinical systems, and using clinical information systems as primary data sources for public health. The third stage is about how public health informatics systems can embed within them a public health consciousness. I think about having a Tom Frieden [Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)] on the left shoulder of every physician to help inform clinical decisions from a public health perspective, as enabled by health information technology.
NPH: What is the role of the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) in advancing public health informatics?
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced women’s preventive health services that must be covered without co-pay, co-insurance or deductible under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
New health plans that begin on or after August 1, 2012 will need to include these services:
- well-woman visits;
- screening for gestational diabetes;
- human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing for women 30 years and older;
- sexually-transmitted infection counseling (complementing previous STI screening requirements);
- HIV screening and counseling;
- FDA-approved contraception methods and contraceptive counseling;
- breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling; and
- domestic violence screening and counseling.
Today’s announcement completed the list of preventive services required to be covered at no cost to the consumer by new private health plans under the Affordable Care Act. Services such as mammograms and blood pressure checks were already required by the Act. The included services for women are informed by a report released by the Institute of Medicine last month.
To find out more about today’s announcement, NewPublicHealth spoke with Mayra Alvarez, M.P.A., Director of Public Health Policy in the Office of Health Reform at HHS.
NPH: What will you do to help promote the use of these preventive services?
Mayra Alvarez: That’s a great question. We have strong partnerships with community-based organizations across the country where women can get information and ask their questions. In addition, we’ll be doing our own education campaigns to call attention to the services. State and local health departments, as well as our regional offices around the country, are also a tremendous resources for disseminating information about the covered services.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is requesting public comment on issues related to the ethics, safety, and oversight of human research, according to a news release. The proposed changes are designed to strengthen protections for human research subjects. The comment period ends in late September.
A new study in the journal Pediatrics finds that use of the varicella (chickenpox) vaccine in the U.S., first introduced in 1995, has reduced the death rate from the disease by 97 percent among children and adolescents. The researchers reviewed data gathered by the National Center for Health Statistics from 1990-2007. The authors note that the previous one dose recommendation was changed to two doses as of 2006, which may reduce the death rate from chicken pox even further.
A study in the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology finds women at risk for chlamydia are more likely to undergo screening if they can do the testing at home rather than at a clinic.
A new study in Pediatrics finds that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are less likely than children without the disorder to cross safely at crosswalks. The children with ADHD crossed with smaller gaps in traffic and less time to spare between reaching the end of the crosswalk and the next car driving by.
A study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention finds that smoking in top grossing child-oriented films has dropped for the fifth year in a row. The study shows a nearly 72 percent drop since 2005 in smoking images in top-grossing movies rated G, PG or PG-13, from 2,093 incidents in 2005 to 595 in 2010.
The Department of Health and Human Services has awarded $95 million to 278 school-based health centers that serve close to 800,000 students, according to a news release from the agency. HHS expects the award to help the centers to expand their services by over 50 percent.
The Social Security Administration has announced compassionate allowances for twelve heart conditions, which can expedite benefits for people who meet the agency’s criteria.
California health officials say smoking rates in the state are down to 11.9 percent, a new low. And the latest figures make it only the second state so far to achieve a federal target of reducing adult smoking rates to 12 percent by 2020 so far.
The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services and the Food and Drug Administration have launched a joint national multimedia public service campaign, Food Safe Families, to help prevent food poisoning at home.
A 29-year Swedish study published in the journal Radiology has found that mammogram reduce breast cancer deaths even more than had previously been thought. The study included over 130,000 women ages 40 to 74. For the entire group, the study found 30 percent fewer deaths from breast cancer compared to women who did not receive mammograms. The benefit was smaller, but still apparent, for women in their 40s.
Tobacco sales to minors fell to an all-time low in 2010 after increasing in 2009, a new report shows.
Obesity is an important contributor to premature death in women who have never smoked, especially among women in low income groups, according to a study in the British Medical Journal.
An assessment of the diets of 100 low-income families in Nebraska found that over 70 percent were not taking in adequate levels of certain nutrients, including vitamins A and C, protein, calcium and iron. The study was published in the Family & Consumer Sciences Research Journal. The researchers say eating together as a family, particularly at breakfast, might help individuals consume more of the food groups that will help supply vital nutrients, such as dairy products, fruit and fruit juices.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has created a toolkit of public health emergency text messages. In an emergency such as flooding, power outages, or severe storms, for example, public health departments can send the messages to community members who have signed up for the service.
The messages contain brief reminders, toll-free phone numbers and links to websites for more information. Examples include:
- Prevent child drownings. Keep kids from playing in or around flood water. More info from CDC 800-232-4636 or http://go.usa.gov/bGa.
- Keep generators 25 ft outside door/window. Don't grill inside. Fumes can kill. More info from CDC 800-232-4636 http://go.usa.gov/bfv.
- Don’t drive through floodwater; it can be deeper than you think. More info from CDC 800-232-4636 or http://go.usa.gov/bGc.
Before, during and after an emergency such as severe flooding, health departments can download and distribute the text messages using their existing cell phone emergency message distribution systems. To receive the texts, community residents can sign up with the local emergency management office.
According to HHS, the messages, all limited to 115 characters, can be used as received or tailored to specific local emergencies. Health departments can register by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org to receive current, new and updated text messages. Over 400 state and local health agencies have signed up so far.
Weigh In: Have you used text messaging to alert community residents to an emergency or potentially dangerous situation?