Category Archives: Injury Prevention
Pediatricians: Parent’s Religion Should Not Stand in the Way of Child’s Medical Care
While noting that parents have the right to determine a child’s medical care, a parent’s religious beliefs should not stand in the way of necessary medical care when the child is at risk for serious disability or death, according to a new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. The organization is also calling for a repeal of all state exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws, as well as an end to funding for any religious or spiritual healing. "I think it's important that all children get appropriate medical care, that state policies should be clear about the obligations to provide this care and that state monies directed toward medical care should be used for established and effective therapies," said Armand Antommaria, MD, directors of the Ethics Center at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Ohio and one of the statement’s lead authors. Many religious groups currently decline mainstream and proven medical treatments. For example, Christian Scientists advocate prayer over medical treatment, and Jehovah’s Witnesses opposed blood transfusions. Read more on pediatrics
Study: Low-cost Football Gear as Effective as High-tech, High-cost Equipment at Preventing Head Injuries
A group of experts has performed an extensive study to determine which football helmets and mouth guards are best at preventing youth concussions: none of them. The researchers compared high-tech and custom equipment to low-cost, off-the-shelf equipment, finding no difference in the number of concussions for 1,300 players at 36 high schools during the 2012 football season. There are approximately 40,000 sports-related concussions in U.S. high schools every year. "We're certainly not saying that helmets and mouth guards aren't important. They do what they are supposed to do. Mouth guards prevent dental injuries, and helmets prevent skull fractures and scalp and face lacerations," said Margaret Alison Brooks, MD, the study's lead co-investigator. "But I don't think the manufacturing companies have the data to support [the claim that] if a parent buys a specific model, their child will have a reduced risk of concussion." The findings will be presented today at an American Academy of Pediatrics meeting in Orlando, Fla. Read more on injury prevention.
FDA: Recall of Certain Kraft and Polly-O String Cheese Products
Kraft Foods Group has announced a voluntary recall of some varieties of Kraft and Polly-O String Cheese and String Cheese Twists products because they might spoil before their “Best When Use By” code dates. Approximately 735,000 cases of the product will be affected throughout the United States, each with code dates between October 25, 2013 and February 11, 2014. Kraft announced the recall after receiving several reports of premature spoilage and ceasing the production and distribution of the questionable products. For full refunds, customers can return the products to the store where they were purchased or call Kraft Foods Consumer Relations at 1-800-816-9432 between 9 am and 6 pm (Eastern). Read more on food safety.
Use of tourniquets—a piece of tightly tied cloth used to keep a victim with an arm or leg wound from bleeding to death—has been discouraged over the last few decades out of concern that the method can save the life, but lose the limb. But a new article in The Wall Street Journal finds that multiple examples of successful use of tourniquets on battle fields in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as after the bombing at the Boson Marathon earlier this year, has reopened the debate. The pros and cons of tourniquet use is on the agendas of several upcoming medical meetings and preparedness conferences.
Read the full story here.
>>Bonus Link: Read a NewPublicHealth post on new approaches to teaching more people CPR.
New NIH Study to Look at House-to-House HIV Testing, Other Measures, to Reduce HIV Burden in Africa
A study in South Africa and Zambia is assessing whether house-to-house voluntary HIV testing and prompt treatment of HIV infection, along with other proven HIV prevention measures, can substantially reduce the number of new HIV infections across communities. The trial is funded primarily by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), administered by the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator. “Through this new study, we aim to learn whether the treatment of HIV-infected individuals as a form of HIV prevention, an approach previously tested in roughly 1,800 heterosexual couples where one partner was infected, will be just as effective when implemented across an entire adult population,” said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, MD. “The study also will tell us whether this method of delivering population-wide HIV treatment as prevention is feasible and cost-effective.” The trial is being conducted in South Africa and Zambia because the HIV prevalence in those countries is among the highest in the world. An estimated 12.5 percent of adults in Zambia and 17.3 percent of adults in South Africa are infected. The study team will measure the impact of the two HIV prevention packages by determining the number of new HIV infections among a representative sample of 52,500 adults drawn from the 21 study communities and followed for three years. The study is expected to end in 2019. Read more on AIDS.
Study: Better Awareness Likely Reason for Increase in ER Visits for Youth Concussions
Improved awareness of the signs and symptoms of traumatic brain injuries (TMI)—such as concussions—is likely the cause of a noticeable increase in TMI-related emergency department visits by children, according to a new study from doctors at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. The study appeared in the journal pediatrics. Visits for these types of injuries climbed about 92 percent from 2002 to 2011, while the overall severity of the injuries decreased and the hospitalization rate remained at around 10 percent. "We are doing a better job at educating ourselves and educating the public about concussion," said Dr. Holly Hanson, lead study author and an emergency medicine fellow. "People and doctors are recognizing sports-related concussions more. People are recognizing the signs and symptoms. People are more aware of the complications. So people are coming in more." According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevent, each year TMI accounts for about 630,000 emergency department visits, 67,000 hospitalizations and 6,100 deaths in children and teens annually. Read more on injury prevention.
HHS Developing New Burn Treatments to Improve Disaster Response, Daily Care
Through its Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HUD) is working to develop five new types of burn treatments for disaster response and daily emergency medical care. The thermal burn medical countermeasures—which could take the form of drugs, vaccines or medical products—will be for chemical, radiological or nuclear incidents. Developing new measures is critical, because with only 127 burn centers in the country, a mass casualty event could quickly overwhelm the public health response. “Sustainability of these medical countermeasures for thermal burns is critical for their availability when they are needed most,” said BARDA Director Robin Robinson, PhD. “Our repurposing and multi-purpose strategy facilitates development, ensures availability, and reduces overall costs for thermal burn medical countermeasures.” Read more on disasters.
U.S. Circumcision Rate Down 10 Percent over Past Three Decades
The circumcision rate of U.S. newborns dropped approximately 10 percent from 1979 to 2010, according to new date from the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2010 about 58.3 percent of boys born in U.S. hospitals were circumcised; the rate was 64.5 percent in 1979. While beginning as a religious ritual, the use of circumcision expanded due to potential health benefits such as reduced risk of urinary tract infections in infants and reduced risk of sexually transmitted diseases. Last August the American Academy of Pediatrics said that these benefits outweigh any risks. However, the procedure also has many opponents. While the report did not go much into the reasons for the decline, possible explanations include the fact that Medicaid has stopped paying for circumcisions in 18 U.S. states, some insurers are not covering procedures without strong medical justifications and shorter hospital stays for new mothers means some circumcisions are performed later as outpatient procedures. Read more on maternal and infant health.
Eating Fruit Helps Prevent Certain Aneurysms
An apple—or any other fruit—a day may lower a person’s risk of an abdominal aneurysm, according to a new study in the journal Circulation. The thirteen year study of 80,000 people ages 48 to 64 in Swede found that people who reported eating more than two servings of fruit daily had a 25 to 31 percent lower risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm than those who ate little or no fruit. High levels of antioxidants in fruits might protect against abdominal aortic aneurysm by preventing oxidative stress that can promote inflammation, according to the researchers, who found no similar association for vegetables, which are also rich in antioxidants, but may lack some of the components in fruits. However, vegetables remain important to a person’s diet, say the study authors. Combined with fruit they may help decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and several cancers. The American Heart Association advises the average adult to eat four to five servings each of fruits and vegetables daily, based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Read more on nutrition.
Study: CTE Victims First Present with Impaired Mood or Thinking
People suffering from chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)—a neurodegenerative disease that can only be diagnosed after death—will likely first begin exhibiting either impaired behavior and mood or impaired memory and thinking abilities, according to a new study in the journal Neurology. CTE is characterized by impulsivity, depression and erratic behavior. "The study itself is relatively preliminary, [but] we found two relatively distinct presentations of the disease," said study co-author Daniel Daneshvar, a postdoctoral researcher at the university's Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy. "So little is known about the clinical presentation of CTE that anything we found is not necessarily surprising, simply because there's a dearth of information about CTE." Researchers emphasized that far more study is needed. CTE and other head trauma have become increasingly prominent issues over the last several years, with cases linked to both sports injuries and battlefield injuries. There is currently a lawsuit by almost 4,000 former NFL players claiming the league did not properly inform them of the dangers of concussions or adequately protect their health. Read more on injury prevention.
Kids and their parents aren’t the only ones who need to do some back-to-school prep as the fall term starts. A new survey of U.S. school bus drivers released by the National Association of Directors of Pupil Transportation Services (NADPTS) last week found that more than 80,000 vehicles illegally passed a stopped school bus on a single day this past year. That translates to nearly 15 million violations during the 180-day school year, according to the association.
Laws and regulations can vary somewhat by state, but generally drivers must come to a full stop when they are behind or across the street from a school bus when it has its stop sign out and its lights are flashing. The NADPTS maintains a list of state laws regarding what cars must do when they see a stopped school bus.
No one organization keeps tabs on all children injured and killed by drivers who didn’t stop for a school bus, but three children were killed in such accidents in North Carolina alone last year, bringing that state’s total of children killed in such accidents to a dozen since 1998.
“There are nearly a half million school buses on the road each day in the United States,” said Max Christensen, NADPTS president, and, “any driver who passes a stopped school bus illegally is gambling with a child’s life.” According to the association, some states are adopting more stringent safety measures, such as improved motorist education, increased fines, and more law enforcement, including the use of photo evidence in court cases from cameras mounted on the sides of school buses.
>>Recommended Reading: To help reduce the number of injuries and fatalities related to school bus accidents, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has a school bus safety website stocked with information.
The following post originally appeared on the Harvard Law School blog, Bill of Health, launched in September 2012 by Harvard's Petrie-Flom Center. The blog explores news, commentary, and scholarship in the fields of health law policy, biotechnology, and bioethics. This post examines the policies that impact proper use of child car seats and booster seats.
Author Kathleen West is an intern with the Public Health Law Research program. Her summer work has included researching and creating a comprehensive dataset on child restraint systems across the United States using LawAtlas, a gateway database to key laws aimed at improving our health or access to health care. Read more on LawAtlas.
As the world watched Prince William place the new royal baby, reluctantly snug in his car seat, into a vehicle a few weeks ago, my thoughts were not limited to, “Oh, how cute!” After two months researching and collecting a dataset to capture the U.S. laws and regulations for child passenger restraint systems, I also thought, “I wonder if he took a class and knows how to do that correctly?” Perhaps an odd thought, but misuse and faulty installation of child restraint systems is actually a major concern.
According to the CDC, proper restraint use can reduce the risk of death or injury by more than 50 percent. Yet, ongoing studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are finding that as many as 20 percent of drivers with child passengers are not reading any of the instructions regarding proper installation, while 90 percent of drivers of child passengers are reporting that they are confident that they are properly installing and using child restraint systems.
>>NewPublicHealth continues a new series to highlight some of the best public health education and outreach campaigns every month. Submit your ideas for Public Health Campaign of the Month to info@newPublichealth.org.
“Oh my gosh, what have I done?” That’s the first question a man asked himself after he looked up from texting “I Love You” to his wife, to find that his car had crashed into a buggy carrying an Amish family and killing three of their children. That story, and three others, make up a new 36-minute video by acclaimed documentary film maker Werner Herzog, “From One Second to the Next.” The video was produced for AT&T and supported by Sprint, T-Mobile and Verizon, to show drivers of all ages what can happen when texting while driving. In the documentary, what happens is that five people die, two have their health ruined and bills pile up into the millions, and one sees his injuries put an end to his career.
Wireless firms hope to distribute the film to tens of thousands of high schools, safety organizations and through government agencies for maximum impact.
According to the National Highway Safety Administration, 3,000 people were killed in distracted driving accidents in 2011 alone. “When you get a message while driving, it’s hard not to pick up your phone,” said Herzog. “With this film, we want to help make people more aware of the potential consequences of that action.”
New Tools from DOT to Help Keep Pedestrians Safe
The U.S. Department of Transportation has released a new set of tools to help communities reverse a rise in pedestrian deaths in the last two years. As part of the campaign, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is making $2 million in pedestrian safety grants available to cities with the highest rate of pedestrian deaths. States have until August 30 to apply for the grants. In addition, NHTSA and the Federal Highway Administration have launched a new website that includes pedestrian safety tips and resources for community officials, city planners and community residents. According to NHTSA data, 4,432 pedestrians were killed in traffic crashes in 2011. That’s an 8 percent increase since 2009. Three out of four pedestrian deaths occurred in urban areas and 70 percent of those killed were at non-intersections. The data also shows that 70 percent of deaths occurred at night and many involved alcohol. Read more on injury prevention.
National Farmers Market Week
In observance of National Farmers Market Week, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has released data showing that that 8,144 farmers market are now listed in USDA's National Farmers Market Directory, up from about 5,000 in 2008. The agency has also announced that the Food and Nutrition Service has increased the number of farmers markets able to accept SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) payments, which will improve access to fresh produce for SNAP recipients. Currently, more than 3,800 farmers markets are authorized to accept SNAP in FY 2012, and farmers markets generate more than $16 million in SNAP sales. Read more on nutrition.
Researchers Create Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool to Help Prevent Falls
One in three adults ages 65 and older suffer falls every year—many at home, since more seniors are continuing to live in their homes as they grow older. To help prevent falls, researchers and occupational therapists at the University at Buffalo SUNY School of Public Health and Health Professions have created the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool which details ways to prevent falls. The tool includes safety tips and checklists for each room of a home, including common hazards such as area rugs, which account for many home falls when people catch a shoe heel at the edge. Read more on aging.
HHS: 2013 So Far Sees 8 Foodborne Outbreaks, 2 New Global Diseases, 37 Disasters
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has awarded more than $916 million to continue improving preparedness and health outcomes for a variety of public health threats in every state, eight U.S. territories and four of the nation’s largest metropolitan areas. “Already in 2013, local and state health agencies have responded to eight food borne outbreaks, two new global diseases, and 37 disaster and emergency declarations, a clear indication of the breadth of threats that public health departments must be capable of responding to,” said Ali Khan, MD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office for Public Health Preparedness and Response. The grants have included funding for the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) cooperative agreement and the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The programs encourage health care and state and local public health departments to work together to maximize resources and prevent duplicative efforts. Such coordination of activities with emergency management and homeland security programs supports “whole community” planning to improve national preparedness efforts.. Read more on preparedness.
DOT Issues New Rules to Reduce Truck Driver Fatigue
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has announced new safety regulations to reduce truck driver fatigue:
- The maximum hours per week a truck driver can drive has been reduced from 82 to 70.
- Truck drivers who reach the maximum 70 hours of driving within a week can resume driving if they rest for 34 consecutive hours, including at least two nights from 1 to 5 a.m.
- All truck drivers must take a 30-minute break during the first eight hours of a shift.
- As before, truck drivers have a daily 11-hour driving limit.
Read more on injury prevention.
Sleepy Teenagers Often Make Poor Food Choices
Well-rested teenagers tend to make more healthful food choices than those who are sleep deprived, according to a study by preventive medicine researchers at the Stony Brook University School of Medicine in New York State. The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies and funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. The study looked at the relationship between sleep duration and food choices in a national survey of more than 1,300 teenagers, finding that those teens who reported sleeping less than seven hours per night were more likely to consume fast food two or more times per week and less likely to eat healthful food such as fruits and vegetables. “Teenagers have a fair amount of control over their food and sleep, and the habits they form in adolescence can strongly impact their habits as adults,” said Allison Kruger, MPH, a community health worker at Stony Brook University Hospital and lead author of the study. Read more on obesity.
National Surgical Groups Offers Tips, Warnings on Fourth of July Fireworks
With the Fourth of July holiday only a few days away, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is cautioning adults and children to be careful when it comes to handling fireworks. "Many people consider consumer fireworks to be harmless fun, when in fact they can be extremely dangerous, especially when used by or near children and adolescents," said Boston orthopedic surgeon Tamara Rozental, MD, spokesperson for the group."If caution is not used and safety guidelines are not adhered to, fireworks can cause serious injuries to the hands and fingers as well as the eyes.” The total amount of fireworks purchased by Americans climbed to 212 million pounds in 2011, up from 184 million in 2010. Fireworks led to about 18,700 injuries and more than 7,300 emergency department visits. The group recommends a number of safety tips, including not handling fireworks while consuming alcohol, restriction of use by children and keeping a water source nearby. Read more on injury prevention.
WHO: Expanded Anti-smoking Measures Could Save Millions of Lives Globally
Millions of lives could be saved each year globally if more countries enacted strict anti-smoking measures such as higher taxes on tobacco products, bans on smoking advertisements and restrictions on tobacco use in public places, according to a new study published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Approximately forty countries, including Turkey and Romania, currently utilize such public health regulations. About 6 million people die each year from smoking, with that number expected to rise to eight million annually by 2030, according to the WHO. Researchers believe that by 2050 more than 7 million lives could be saved by expanding the proven anti-tobacco measures. "If anything it is an under-estimate," said Douglas Bettcher, MD, director of WHO's department of noncommunicable diseases, to Reuters. "It is a win-win situation for health and finance ministries to generate revenues that have a major impact on improving health and productivity.” Read more on tobacco.
Dating Violence Patterns Can Be Seen as Early as Middle School
Patterns in dating violence later in life can be seen as early as middle school, according to a new study in the Journal of School Health. According to the study approximately half of middle school students sampled had experienced dating violence, with about 20 percent reporting physical violence and 48.1 percent reporting nonphysical victimization. “Not only are these rates similar to those seen in older, high school populations they are similar to those seen among adult females,”, said Melissa Peskin, MD, assistant professor in the Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences at the School of Public Health. According to the researchers, the findings demonstrate the need for earlier intervention and prevention efforts. Read more on violence.