Category Archives: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
BSR: New Ways U.S. Companies Can Improve Population Health
U.S. companies can improve population health by improving how they engage with employees, customers, local communities, suppliers and the general public, according to a new BSR report supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. BSR interviewed 40 leading authorities on health and wellness, public health, corporate social responsibility and corporate affairs, as well as reviewed more than 35 corporate CSR reports across 10 industries and surveyed nearly 30 U.S.-based BSR member companies about their current activities on health and wellness. The report emphasizes how CSR teams can help lead the charge in improving population health. “Within business, the corporate social responsibility (CSR) teams are well-positioned to lead this work—helping their companies look carefully at the positive as well as negative impacts on health and wellness, and helping them identify opportunities to deliver better business results and health outcomes,” said Mark Little, BSR’s healthcare director. Read more on business.
CDC: Colorectal Cancer Screening Rate Remains Low
Despite continued research showing that colorectal cancer screening tests saves lives, as many as one in three adults ages 50 to 75 have not been tested, according to a new Vital Signs report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The cancer type is the second-leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States, and screening can help prevent it or even detect it early, when treatment is more effective. “There are more than 20 million adults in this country who haven’t had any recommended screening for colorectal cancer and who may therefore get cancer and die from a preventable tragedy,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Screening for colorectal cancer is effective and can save your life.” the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that all adults age 50 and older be screened by at least one of three tests, which can variously be performed at home or by a doctor, and once every year, three years or decade. Read more on cancer.
Study: Eating Disorders in Young Men Often Different Than Those in Women
While not as widely discussed or researched, young men—just like young women—can become obsessed with their appearance and develop dangerous eating disorders, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. The problem can resemble a traditional eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, or involve the use of drugs and supplements. The disorders are often paired with depression, binge drinking and recreational drug use. The researchers’ survey of 5,527 boys, ages 12-18, found that 31 percent had at some point binged on food or purged, 9 percent had a high level of concern with their body's muscularity and about 2 percent were both concerned about muscularity and had used some type of supplement, growth hormone derivative or anabolic steroid to enhance it. "The results of our studies would suggest we need to be thinking more broadly about eating disorders and consider males as well," said Alison Field, the study's lead author and an associate professor of pediatrics at Boston Children's Hospital. "For a lot of males, what they're striving for is different than females. They're probably engaged in something different than purging." Read more on pediatrics.
Medical Groups Issue New Definitions for Stages of Pregnancy
With a goal toward improving newborn outcomes and reducing non-medically related deliveries, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) are recommending four new definitions of ‘term’ deliveries:
- Early Term: Between 37 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days
- Full Term: Between 39 weeks 0 days and 40 weeks 6 days
- Late Term: Between 41 weeks 0 days and 41 weeks 6 days
- Post term: Between 42 weeks 0 days and beyond
Research over the past several years finds that every week of gestation matters for the health of newborns, and that babies born between 39 weeks 0 days and 40 weeks 6 days gestation have the best health outcomes, compared with babies born before or after this period. ACOG and SMFM encourage physicians, researchers, and public health officials to adopt these new precisely-defined terms in order to improve data collection and reporting, clinical research, and provide the highest quality pregnancy care. ACOG is a partner with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on “Strong Start,” a public awareness campaign to reduce unnecessary elective deliveries before 39 weeks’ gestation. Read more on maternal and infant health.
Poll Shows Americans Strongly Supporting Steps to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Inequality
A new poll conducted by the Center for American Progress and PolicyLink, and funded by The Rockefeller Foundation, finds that Americans are much more open to diversity and supportive of steps to reduce inequalities between racial and ethnic groups than has been previously thought. The poll was conducted by landline and cellphone in June and July among close to 3,000 U.S. citizens across the country. Some key findings of the poll include:
- Positive sentiments about opportunities from rising diversity tend to outweigh negative concerns.
- Sixty-nine percent of responders said that a bigger, more diverse workforce will lead to more economic growth and that diverse workplaces and schools will help make American businesses more innovative and competitive.
- More than 7 in 10 Americans support new steps to reduce racial and ethnic inequality in America through investments in areas such as education, job training and infrastructure improvement. Among Whites, the level of support was 63 percent.
Read more on health disparities.
CDC: Flu Season Slow So Far…But Should Pick Up Soon
While the flu season has seen relatively few cases so far, public health officials expect that to change soon and are heavily recommending that anyone who has yet to be vaccinated go ahead and do so. Joe Bresee, MD, chief of the epidemiology and prevention branch in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention's Influenza Division, said 135 to 139 million doses of vaccine should be available; the number of people who receive the vaccine annually has risen since 2009. "It's edging up in most groups, which is really gratifying, especially in some of the high-risk groups like pregnant women and kids. We are seeing good gains over the last four or five years," he said. "But we have a long way to go. Still only half of Americans get vaccinated. Vaccine is still the single best thing folks can do to prevent flu." Read more on the flu.
Electronic Laboratory Reporting Increasing
Federal agencies are reopening today after a 16 day shutdown and public health updates such as FluView from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are expected to come back online within the new few days. CDC’s last news release before the shutdown was on the increasing capability of laboratories to report findings to local and state health agencies electronically. The report was published in the most recent issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).
According to CDC, the number of state and local health departments receiving electronic reports from laboratories has more than doubled since 2005, however, progress is still needed. The MMWR report shows that only about a quarter of the nation’s labs are reporting electronically and that electronic reporting lags for some diseases behind others. For example, 76 percent of reportable lab results for general communicable diseases were sent electronically, compared to 53 percent of HIV results and 63 percent of results for sexually transmitted diseases. Read more on infectious disease.
District Laws and Policies Reduce Sugary Foods and Drinks at School Parties
Schools with a district policy or state law discouraging sugary foods and beverages were 2.5 times more likely to restrict those foods at school parties than were schools with no such policy or law, according to a new study published online in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health examined the linkages between state laws, district, and school-level policies for classroom birthday and holiday parties through surveys of more than 1,999 schools in 47 states.
About half the schools had either no restrictions or left the decision to teachers; one-third had school-wide policies discouraging sugary items; and fewer than 10 percent actually banned sweets during holiday parties or did not allow parties.
The study was supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Read more on nutrition.
Children of Same Sex Marriages Less Likely to be Covered by Health Insurance
Children with same sex parents are less likely to have private health insurance than children with married opposite-sex parents, according to a recent study in Pediatrics. Using data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey on children aged 0-17 years, the researchers found that 78 percent of children with married opposite-sex parents had private health insurance coverage, compared to 63 percent of children with same-sex fathers and 68 percent of those with same-sex mothers.
However, in states with legal same-sex marriage or civil unions, or in states that allowed second-parent adoptions, the disparities in private health insurance was lower for children of same-sex parents, suggesting that children of gay and lesbian households benefited from these policies. The American Academy of Pediatrics endorsed same-sex marriage in March. Read more on access to health care.
Add flu surveillance to the list of casualties of the current government shutdown.
Every flu season, states collect data on flu cases — including case reports and viral specimens — and send those to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta for recording and tracking. That tracking is critical in order to:
- provide information on how well-matched the seasonal flu vaccine is to the flu viruses found in the community;
- identify severe outbreaks that require increased supplies of antiviral medicines for people who contract the flu; and
- identify emerging strains that might require a new vaccine to be developed this season, which is what happened several years ago when CDC identified the H1N1 influenza virus toward the end of the flu season, and quickly ramped up for a new vaccine.
Flu season generally runs October through April, with the peak from about January to March. If the shutdown continues then, “as the flu season goes on, our knowledge of what’s happening will be impaired,” says William Schaffner, MD, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, and the immediate past president of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases.
CDC director Thomas Frieden, MD, MPH, underscored his concern in a tweet on the first day of the government shutdown: “CDC had to furlough 8,754 people. They protected you yesterday, can't tomorrow. Microbes/other threats didn't shut down. We are less safe.”
One of the most sought-after experts at the second national Health Impact Assessment (HIA) meeting, currently underway in Washington, D.C., is Arthur Wendel, MD, MPH, team lead for the Healthy Community Design Initiative at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is a sponsor of the HIA meeting. Health impact assessments are decision-making tools that help identify the health consequences of policies in other sectors.
NewPublicHealth caught up with Dr. Wendel just after the first plenary session.
NewPublicHealth: How’s the meeting so far?
Arthur Wendel: The first plenary speaker, councilman Joseph Cimperman form Cuyahoga County in Cleveland, was just an outstanding speaker and made such a good impression for the whole conference. When you have a policymaker come in and provide a fresh perspective about how health impact assessments can make a difference, that sets the stage for attendees.
>>Editor’s Note: NewPublicHealth will be speaking with Councilman Cimperman later this week about his championing of HIA work in Cleveland, including a health impact assessment on the city’s budget, the first time the tool has been used that way.
NPH: How long has CDC been involved in health impact assessments?
Arthur Wendel: CDC has been involved with health impact assessments, through the Healthy Community Design Initiative, since 2003. The initiative is part of CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health, and initially we were just kind of trying to figure out the field of health impact assessments, learn a little bit about it from some domestic and international groups that conducted health impact assessments. Some of the initial steps were just trying to provide technical assistance for a few HIAs. That gave us a little bit of flavor for how health impact assessments were done, and from that initial effort we started to compile some research. One of the initial papers that came out of our group was identifying the first 27 HIAs that were conducted in the United States and some of the common characteristics among them.
>>Looking for examples of successful HIAs? Read stories from the field from CDC grantees.
Building on the success of the Inaugural Health Impact Assessment (HIA) meeting held in April 2012, leading HIA stakeholders including the Health Impact Project—a collaboration of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts—and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened the second national HIA meeting today, in Washington D.C.
>> Follow the real-time Twitter conversation about the conference with the hashtag #NatHIA13.
An HIA is a tool that helps evaluate the potential health effects of a plan, project or policy before it is built or implemented. It can provide recommendations to increase positive health outcomes and minimize adverse health outcomes. It can also bring potential public health impacts and considerations to the decision-making process for plans, projects and policies that fall outside the traditional public health arenas, such as transportation and land use.
While HIAs have been conducted for decades, their wider use has become more common in just the last few years. According to the Health Impact Project, more than 200 HIAs have been conducted in the United States on issues as diverse as transportation, economic policy and climate change.
NewPublicHealth has created a short HIA resource list with links to background information on health impact assessments.
- Health Impact Assessment posts on NewPublicHealth
- HIA Issue Brief from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
- HIA in the United States, a map from the Health Impact Project
- An HIA Infographic from the Health Impact Project
- CDC’s Healthy Places collection of HIA information
- CDC Resource on HIAs and Public Policy Development
- The World Health Organization HIA site
GUEST POST by Lisa Junker, CAE, Director of Communications at the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO).
The United States is facing a “perfect storm of vulnerability,” said U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH, yesterday at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO)—and state and local public health officials are on the front line of defense.
Frieden began his remarks by encouraging his listeners to “go back to first principles” and keep in mind the first priority of government, which is to keep people safe.
“If the government can’t keep people safe, whether it’s the police or us in public health, we are failing at our number-one responsibility to the public,” Frieden said.
And to keep the U.S. population safe today, public health officials have to keep their eyes open for threats arriving from outside our borders. Infectious diseases, drug resistance, new pathogens, intentional engineering of microbes, and globalization of travel, food and medicines: “If there’s a blind spot anywhere, we’re at risk everywhere,” Frieden emphasized.
He also focused on CDC’s partnership with state and local public health, even during the current tight fiscal atmosphere.
“Overall, our approach has been to double down on support for the front lines [state and local health agencies],” he said. “We all are in this together…We have lots of problems and lots of opportunities, and the more effectively we are connected, the more effectively we can address these opportunities.”
CDC: ‘Tips From Former Smokers’ Campaign Created Spikes in Quitline Calls, Website Visits
An additional 150,000 U.S. smokers called the tobacco cessation helpline 1-800-QUIT NOW as a direct result of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) 2013 “Tips From Former Smokers” campaign, which ran for 16 weeks, according to CDC’s latest Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. That’s an increase of about 75 percent. It also generated approximately 2.8 million visits to the campaign website, or a nearly 38-fold increase. "The TIPS campaign continues to be a huge success, saving tens of thousands of lives and millions of dollars; I wish we had the resources to run it all year long," said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. "Most Americans who have ever smoked have already quit, and most people who still smoke want to quit. If you smoke, quitting is the single most important thing you can do for your health – and you can succeed!" A recent study in The Lancet concluded that the campaign helped as many as 100,000 people quit smoking permanently. Read more on tobacco.
FDA, NIH Award as Much as $53M for 14 Tobacco Regulation Research Centers
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have joined together to award as much as $53 million in funding to create 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS). The first-of-its-kind program will bring together a diverse array of scientists, public health experts, communications veterans and marketing experts to generate research to inform the regulation of tobacco products to protect public health. “While we’ve made tremendous strides in reducing the use of tobacco products in the U.S., smoking still accounts for one in five deaths each year, which is far too many,” said NIH Director Francis S. Collins, MD, PhD. “FDA/NIH partnerships like the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science keep us focused on reducing the burden and devastation of preventable disease caused by tobacco use.” Read more on research.
Overweight, Underweight Pregnant Women See More Complications and Longer Hospital Stays
Pregnant women who are either too thing or too heavy as measured by body-mass index (BMI) are at increased risk for complications and additional hospitalization, according to a new study in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Women with higher BMIs saw increased complications; severely obese women were three times as likely as normal weight women to have high blood pressure and gestational diabetes, as well as longer overall hospitalizations. Lower-weight women also had higher rates of additional hospitalization (8 percent) compared to normal-weight women, though not as high as the rates for overweight and obese women. The findings indicate the need to fine and implement new approaches to combating obesity. "Longer-term benefits of reducing maternal obesity will show improvements, not only in the health outcomes of mothers and their babies, but the workload and cost to current maternity services," said study co-author Fiona Denison, MD, of Queens's Medical Research Institute in Edinburgh. Read more on maternal and infant health.
For the last several years there’s been a bit of a tradition at the annual meeting of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), with the incoming president introducing a year-long “President's Challenge” to focus the attention of state health officers on a critical national public health issue.
José Montero, MD, outgoing president of ASTHO and director of the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, chose the reintegration of public health and health care. The starting point for the challenge was a report by the Institute of Medicine, Primary Care and Public Health: Exploring Integration to Improve Population Health. In his announcement, Montero emphasized the need to take a systems approach to health care transformation in order to achieve lasting improvements in population health.
Throughout the past year, both state health departments and other public health organizations have added their integration projects to a project list maintained by ASTHO. This includes the State of New Hampshire Department of Public Health, which has collaborated with a community health center network and others to use electronic health records to link providers and tobacco quitline services, with the goal of cutting smoking rates.
>>Follow our ASTHO Annual Meeting coverage throughout the week.
Just ahead of the 2013 ASTHO annual meeting, NewPublicHealth spoke with Montero about the importance of the challenge he put forward for his fellow state health officers and next steps.
NewPublicHealth: What participation have you seen by the state health departments in your President's Challenge on reintegration of public health and health care?
José Montero: The specific metric that I used was to have states and the District of Columbia send stories that illustrate levels of partnership and integration. During the past year, the visibility of the topic has grown dramatically. In addition, ASTHO has an ongoing partnership that has brought together more than 50 different organizations for the same purpose. We meet regularly, working together on how to advance the agenda of better coordination and integration, and every day we identify new people who want to participate, and I think that has been an amazing result. I don’t want to claim that all of this is because of the ASTHO initiative. There were a lot of things that were out there already. But this was a timely call, and all of those who were working on it are joining efforts to make it happen.
Antibiotic-resistant Infections on the Rise; Threat Called "Urgent"
Antibiotic-resistant infections sicken more than two million Americans each year, killing more than 23,000 in the process, according to a new study from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The report ranked the threats according to seven factors, including health impact, economic impact, how common the infection is and how easily it is spread. It classified carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), drug-resistant gonorrhea, and Clostridium difficile as “urgent." C. difficile alone causes about 250,000 hospitalizations and at least 14,000 deaths each year. Excessive antibiotic use is the number one cause of the increase in antibiotic-resistant infections, with as many as 50 percent of prescriptions either not needed or prescribed inappropriately. “Every time antibiotics are used in any setting, bacteria evolve by developing resistance. This process can happen with alarming speed,” said Steve Solomon, MD, director of CDC’s Office of Antimicrobial Resistance. “These drugs are a precious, limited resource—the more we use antibiotics today, the less likely we are to have effective antibiotics tomorrow.” Antibiotic-resistant infections also add as much as $20 billion in excess direct health care costs and account for as much as $35 billion in lost economic productivity. Read more on prescription drugs.
Survey: Nearly 80 Percent of College Students Oppose Concealed Handguns on Campus
Nearly 80 percent of the students in 15 Midwestern colleges and universities oppose allowing concealed handguns on their campuses, according to a new study in the Journal of American College Health. Ball State University researchers surveyed 1,649 undergraduate students, finding 78 percent were against the handguns and would not apply for a permit if they were legal. “Firearm morbidity and mortality are major public health problems that significantly impact our society,” said study co-author Jagdish Khubchandani, a member of Ball State’s Global Health Institute and a community health education professor in the university's Department of Physiology and Health Science. “The issue of allowing people to carry concealed weapons at universities and colleges around the U.S. has been raised several times in recent years. This is in spite of the fact that almost four of every five students are not in favor of allowing guns on campus.”
The study also found that:
- About 16 percent of undergraduate students own a firearm and 20 percent witnessed a crime on their campus that involved firearms
- About 79 percent of students would not feel safe if faculty, students and visitors carried concealed handguns on campus
- About 66 percent did not feel that carrying a gun would make them less likely to be troubled by others
- Most students also believed that allowing concealed carry guns would increase the rate of fatal suicides and homicides on campus
Read more on violence.
‘Bath Salts’ Drugs Led to 23,000 ER Visits in 2011
The use of “bath salts” drugs accounted for almost 23,000 emergency department visits in the United States in 2011, according to a new report from the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The report is the first national study to analyze the link between the street drugs and emergency department visits. "Although bath salts drugs are sometimes claimed to be 'legal highs' or are promoted with labels to mask their real purpose, they can be extremely dangerous when used," said Elinore McCance-Katz, MD, SAMHSA's chief medical officer. The drugs can cause heart problems, high blood pressure, seizures, addiction, suicidal thoughts, psychosis and even death. About two-thirds of the visits also involved at least one other drug, with 15 percent of the visits also being linked to marijuana or synthetic forms of marijuana. There were approximately 2.5 million U.S. emergency department visits linked to drug misuse or abuse in 2011. Read more on substance abuse.