Category Archives: Alcohol
The January 2014 VitalSigns report, a monthly report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on leading health indicators, looks at the failure of too many health care professionals to counsel patients on the risks of consuming too much alcohol and binge drinking. According to a recent survey cited in the new report, only one in six adults reports counseling by a health care professional during routine visits, and that number drops to one in four for binge drinkers, despite the fact that studies show that counseling could save lives and reduce health care costs.
Research by the CDC finds that having physicians ask patients about alcohol consumption and brief counseling could reduce the amount of alcohol consumed on an occasion by 25 percent. At least 38 million adults drink too much and most are not alcoholics, according to the CDC. Drinking too much includes binge drinking, high weekly use, and any alcohol use by pregnant women or those under age 21. And it causes about 88,000 deaths in the United States each year, costing the economy about $224 billion.
Significantly, alcohol screening and brief alcohol counseling are now covered by many health insurance plans without a copay as a result of the Affordable Care Act.
A review of studies by CDC researchers found that brief (6-15 minutes) intervention sessions were effective in significantly reducing weekly alcohol consumption. A patient survey conducted following brief counseling sessions found that patients reported:
- 3.6 fewer drinks per week for adults
- Binge level drinking was reported by 12 percent fewer participants
- Increased adherence to recommended drinking limits was achieved by 11 percent more participants.
“Drinking too much alcohol has many more health risks than most people realize,” says CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Alcohol screening and brief counseling can help people set realistic goals for themselves and achieve those goals. Health care workers can provide this service to more patients and involve communities to help people avoid dangerous levels of drinking.”
In a briefing for reporters today, Frieden said that for every one alcoholic in the United States there are about six people who drink too much, and many don’t realize that their drinking is excessive.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults who drink only do so in moderation, which is defined as up to one drink a day for women and two for men.
The National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse recommends that health professionals discuss alcohol use with all patients and has a screening tool to help determine how much patients drink, assess problems associated with drinking and refer patients for specialized treatment if needed.
- Read a recent NewPublicHealth interview with Lori Butterfield, who produced the recent documentary, Lipstick and Liquor, about hidden drinking by too many women.
- The Guide to Community Preventive Services provides evidence-based strategies for helping to reduce alcohol consumption among individuals and in communities.
Study: Strong State Laws Can Help Curb Binge Drinking
Strong state laws can help curb binge drinking, according to a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Binge drinking, defined as more than four or five alcoholic drinks in a two-hour period, is a factor in about half of the 80,000 alcohol-related deaths each year. Researchers analyzed and graded 29 alcohol control policies across the United States, finding that those with the better policies were one-fourth as likely as those with poorest scores to have binge drinking rates in the top 25 percent of states. They also found that rates were 33 percent higher in states in the bottom quarter of grades than those in the top quarter. "Unfortunately, most states have not taken advantage of these policies to help drinkers consume responsibly, and to protect innocent citizens from the devastating secondhand effects and economic costs from excessive drinking," said study senior author Tim Naimi, MD, an associate professor of medicine at Boston University Schools of Medicine and attending physician at Boston Medical Center. "The bottom line is that this study adds an important dimension to a large body of research demonstrating that alcohol policies matter—and matter a great deal—for reducing and preventing the fundamental building block of alcohol-related problems." Laws and policies that can help prevent binge drinking include limiting hours of sale, increasing alcohol taxes and holding those who sell alcohol legally responsible for harm inflicted by consumers who recently consumed alcohol, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Read more on alcohol.
VP to Announce $100M to Improve Access to Mental Health Services
Vice President Joe Biden will today announce $100 million to improve access to mental health services across the country. The plan comes a year after the school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, and Biden will make the announcement at a meeting of the families of the victims of the tragedy and mental health advocates. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) will provide the funding. "HHS will soon issue a $50 million funding opportunity to help Community Health Centers establish or expand behavioral health services for people living with mental illness or addiction," said a White House official, according to Reuters. "Additionally, USDA has set a goal of financing $50 million for the construction, expansion, or improvement of mental health facilities in rural areas over the next three years." Read more on mental health.
Kids Who Watch Violent Movies Also Exposed to Other Risky Behaviors
Exposing kids to violent movies can also expose them to other examples of potentially harmful behavior, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. "Parents should be aware that youth who watch PG-13 movies will be exposed to characters whose violence is linked to other more common behaviors, such as alcohol and sex, and that they should consider whether they want their children exposed to that influence," said study lead author Amy Bleakley, a policy research scientist at the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg Public Policy Center. The study analyzed nearly 400 top-grossing movies released from 1985 to 2010, finding that 90 percent included at least one act of violence that involved a main character, and that a main character used tobacco, consumed alcohol or engaged in sexual behavior in 77 percent of the films. Read more on violence.
Study: Children, Teens Exposed to Far Too Many Alcohol Ads on Television
Children and teens continue to see too many television ads for beer, wine and other alcoholic drinks, with the industry failing to follow its own voluntary standard covering the number and frequency of ads, according to new research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore. The voluntary standards call for alcohol companies not to advertise during programs when more than 30 percent of the viewing audience is likely to be younger than 21. However, using data from 25 of the largest markets in 2010, the study found that nearly one in four of the alcohol ads on the most popular programs for viewers aged 12-20 violated the voluntary standards. Alcohol contributes to an estimated 4,700 deaths among underage youth in the United States each year, with studies showing that exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood of underage drinking. "Underage drinking harms teens, their families and their communities," CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD. "Exposing teens to alcohol advertising undermines what parents and other concerned adults are doing to raise healthy kids." The findings appeared in the latest CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Read more on alcohol.
Kaiser Family: Most Americans Support Global Health Efforts, Although Don’t Fully Understand It
A new survey from the Kaiser Family Foundation finds that while the majority of Americans support the current U.S. efforts to improve public health in developing countries, there remain misconceptions about the levels of U.S. spending and how it is allocated. The 2013 Survey of Americans on the U.S. Role in Global Health was conducted in August 2013, through a random phone survey of 1,507 adults. According to the survey, 31 percent of Americans says we spend too little and 30 percent say we spend enough. However, the average American also believes foreign aid accounts for 28 percent of the federal budget, when in reality it is approximately 1 percent. Most people polled also don’t realize that most of the aid goes toward specific program areas, and is not simply a blank check to be allocated by the recipient country. Read more on global health.
About 10 Percent of Americans, 25 Percent of Adults Suffer from Arthritis
About 10 percent of Americans have arthritis, with half of them so severely affected that they can’t perform normal daily activities, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The report found that about 52.5 million adults—or about one quarter of all U.S. adults—had some form of arthritis; experts expect that number to climb to 57 million by 2030 as the population grows older. However, there are other possible explanations for the increasing problem. "The increase in arthritis definitely has to do with the aging of our population, but it's also potentially linked to the obesity epidemic," said the study's lead author, CDC epidemiologist Kamil Barbour. Read more on aging.
Lipstick & Liquor, a recently released documentary, takes a close-up look at a secret that is killing women and harming their families. Excessive alcohol use is the third leading cause of preventable death among women between the ages of 35 and 55. Excessive drinking among women is also a contributing factor in one-third of suicides, one-fourth of accidental deaths and one-half of traffic deaths. Significantly, drinking is more likely to reach advanced stages before it is discovered.
The film, which will launch on iTunes and Amazon.com in December, shares the stories of four women and their struggles with alcoholism. The goal of the film, says Lori Butterfield, the film’s writer and producer as well as a senior vice president of creative content for Home Front Communications, is to help women everywhere shake off the stigma associated with women alcoholics, and to provide understanding and insight into the struggle to stay sober. The documentary includes expert commentary from medical researchers, addiction specialists and authors who shed light on the conditions impacting the increase in alcohol use and abuse among American women.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Lori Butterfield about the film.
NPH: How did the documentary come about?
Lori Butterfield: My interest in raising awareness began with a story about a woman named Diane Schuler. In the summer of 2009, Diane made headlines after killing herself and seven other people while driving the wrong way on the Taconic Parkway in Westchester County, New York. The toxicology report showed that Diane had been drinking and yet her husband and other family members came out very publicly and said, “Oh she would never do that, she was a wonderful mother, she was a perfect wife.” And I remember thinking at the time, how could someone hide their alcoholism so well that their own family had no idea? That story really stuck with me.
Then, in November of that year, I was overseeing a video project for an Ad Council campaign about “Buzzed driving” [see recent Buzzed Driving campaigns from the Ad Council]. That’s when I read a very startling statistic. It said the number of DUI arrests for women had shot up more than 30 percent in the last decade while the rate for men was actually going down. And I also read that binge drinking for women was on the rise, so something was happening, but I wasn’t quite connecting the dots.
Study: 40 Percent of Antibiotics Released from 1980-2009 Withdrawn from Market
Safety concerns, lack of effectiveness when compared to existing drugs and weak sales led more than 40 percent of the antibiotics released between 1980 and 2009 to be withdrawn from the market, according to a new study in the Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. The rate was three times as high as that for any other type of drug. “This study raises the question whether or not money would be better spent on higher quality antibiotics, rather than a larger quantity” and whether “approving a flood of new lower-quality antibiotics might actually trigger much higher levels of resistance,” said author Kevin Outterson, JD, LLM, professor at Boston University School of Law and co-director of the Boston University Health Law Program. Antibiotic use can lead to bacteria becoming resistant to a strain. A recent report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that as many as 50 percent of prescriptions for antibiotics are either not needed or prescribed inappropriately. Antibiotic-resistant infections sicken more than two million Americans each year, killing more than 23,000 in the process. Read more on prescription drugs.
Locations of Drinking Can Influence Types of Partner Violence
Where and when a person drinks can affect the type of partner violence that can follow, according to a new study from the journal Addiction. The study looked at six drinking locations: restaurants, bars, parties at someone else's home, quiet evenings at home, with friends in one's own home and in parks/other public places. Researchers from the Prevention Research Center in California and Arizona State University found that men drinking in bars and at partners away from home and women drinking in parks/other public places were linked with an increased rate of male-to-female violence. They also found that men drinking during quiet evenings at home was associated with increased female-to-male violence. The findings could help prevent partner violence by encouraging people in risky relationships not to drink in particular places/situations, which could prove more effective than counseling people simply to drink less. Read more on alcohol.
Multiple Myeloma Group Hopes Opening Records to Hundreds of Patients Will Advance Research
The Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation's (MMRF) Researcher Gateway is opening global online access to genetic and research data on hundreds of patients in an effort to help identify biological targets for future treatments, improve enrollment in studies by pairing them with the right patients and enhance researcher collaboration. The MMRF Research Gateway is a $40-million program funding by the foundation and drug company partners. The main component of the effort will be the Commpass study which will enroll 1,000 new multiple myeloma patients and monitor them throughout the course of the disease; cancer tissue banks typically include only one sample per patient. "There is going to be new information generated there that you would never get unless you followed patients through first relapse and second relapse and beyond," said George Mulligan, director of translational medicine for Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Japan's Takeda Pharmaceutical Co.’s oncology unit, which is one of the co-sponsors. "The size of it in patient numbers and the breadth and richness of it on a biological level, it's going to grow over time and mushroom into something that's going to be really special.” About 86,000 people are diagnosed with multiple myeloma each year, with about 20,000 of those from the United States. Read more on research.
CDC: Excessive Alcohol Consumption Costs States Billions
Excessive alcohol use cost states and the District of Columbia a median of $2.9 billion in 2006. On a state by state basis, those costs range from a low of $420 million in North Dakota to a high of $32 billion in California, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Binge drinking—five or more drinks for men or four or more drinks for women—was responsible for about 70 percent of that; an estimated 18 percent of U.S. adults report binge drinking. “Excessive alcohol use has devastating impacts on individuals, families, communities, and the economy,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “In addition to injury, illness, disease, and death, it costs our society billions of dollars through reduced work productivity, increased criminal justice expenses, and higher healthcare costs. Effective prevention programs can support people in making wise choices about drinking alcohol.” Read more on alcohol.
Poll: After Jolie’s Mastectomy, More Women Inclined to Discuss Issue with Doctors
In the wake of actress Angelina Jolie’s announcement that she underwent a preventative double mastectomy, more women have decided to seek medical advice on that procedure or ovary removal, according to a new poll from HealthDay. The survey found that 86 percent of women knew about Jolie’s decision and 5 percent would speak with their own doctors about the issue. That translates to about 6 million U.S. women. Jolie’s decision was made because she carries a mutation in a gene called BRCA1, which increases her risk of developing breast cancer to about 60 percent and her risk of developing ovarian cancer to as much as 40 percent. The U.S. averages are 12 percent for breast cancer and 1.4 percent for ovarian cancer. Still, doctors stress that genetic testing is only recommended for women deemed at “high risk,” which includes those with a personal history or a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancers. The American Cancer Society (ACS) Board of Directors has stated that "only very strong clinical and/or pathologic indications warrant doing this type of preventive operation," and ACS says the procedure is not 100 percent effective. Read more on cancer.
Stimulant-related ER Visits Up 300 Percent for Younger Adults
Emergency department visits due to central nervous system (CNS) stimulants rose by about 300 percent for younger adults from 2005 to 2011, according to a new report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). There were 22,949 such visits in 2011, with about 30 percent of the visits also involving alcohol. There were also about 1.24 million visits related to the nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals. “Nonmedical use of any drug, even an over-the-counter drug, can be dangerous, but these CNS stimulants can potentially cause significant and lasting harm, including heart problems and addiction,” said SAMHSA Chief Medical Officer Elinore F. McCance-Katz, MD, PhD. “We must raise awareness of this public health risk and do everything possible to prevent it.” Nonmedical use of CNS prescription drugs—which include those used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder—is linked to heart and blood vessel problems, as well as drug abuse or dependence. When paired with alcohol they can increase the risk of alcohol poisoning or alcohol-related injuries. Read more on substance abuse.
Yale Report Finds U.N. Responsible for Haiti Cholera Outbreak
A new report from the Yale University Schools of Public Health and Law finds that the United Nations (U.N.) inadvertently caused a deadly cholera epidemic in Haiti. The report confirms prior accounts that U.N. peacekeepers inadvertently but negligently brought cholera into Haiti, causing one of the largest epidemics in recent history. Because of inadequate water and sanitation facilities at the U.N. base in the Haitian town of Méyè, sewage from the base contaminated the Artibonite River, the largest river in Haiti and one the country’s main water sources. By July 2011, cholera spread through the country, infecting one new person per minute. The epidemic continues, and public health experts estimate it will take a decade or more to eliminate the disease from Haiti. Prior to this outbreak, cholera had not existed in Haiti for more than a century. The report calls for setting up a claims commission, as well as providing a public apology, direct aid to victims, infrastructural support, and adequate funding for the prevention and treatment of cholera. Read more on global health.
Eyes May be a Window to Stroke Risk
Retinal imaging—easily done in many ophthalmology practices and clinics—may alert practitioners to patients at higher risk of a stroke by providing information on the status of blood vessels in the brain, according to a new study in the journal Hypertension. Worldwide, high blood pressure is the single most important risk factor for stroke, however it is still not possible to predict which high blood pressure patients are most likely to develop a stroke. Researchers tracked stroke occurrence for an average of 13 years in close to 3,000 patients with high blood pressure who had not previously experienced a stroke. At baseline, each had photographs taken of the retina; damage to the retinal blood vessels was scored as none, mild or moderate to severe. During the follow-up, 146 participants experienced a stroke caused by a blood clot and 15 by bleeding in the brain, but even after adjusting for stroke risk factors such as age and cholesterol levels the researchers found that the risk of stroke was 35 percent higher in those with mild hypertensive retinopathy and 137 percent higher in those with moderate or severe hypertensive retinopathy. And risk remained high for patients with photographic evidence of retinopathy even if they were had good blood pressure control through medication. Read more on vision.
NIH Releases Online Alcohol Screening Course to Help Detect Problems in Young Adults
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism has released a new online training course to help health care professionals conduct fast, evidence-based alcohol screening and brief intervention with young adults. According to the Institute, underage drinking is widespread and a major public health problem. Over the course of adolescence, the proportion of youth who drink more than a few sips escalates from 7 percent of 12-year-olds to nearly 70 percent of 18-year-olds. Heavy drinking is common. Having five or more drinks on one occasion is reported by half of 12 to 15-year-olds who drink and two-thirds of 16 to 20-year olds who drink.
“Some may see underage drinking as a harmless rite of passage, but when you look at the risks, it is a big deal,” said Vivian B. Faden, PhD, associate director for behavioral research, director of the Office of Science Policy and Communications at NIAAA, and co-author of the course. “We developed the guide and the continuing medical education (CME) course to help health care professionals reduce underage drinking and its risks in a way that fits easily into their practice.”
Each year, about 190,000 people under age 21 visit emergency rooms for alcohol-related injuries and about 5,000 die as a result of underage drinking. And young adults who drink also have an increased risk of developing alcohol dependence later in life. The new course includes a two-question screening tool. One question asks about the drinking habits of an adolescent’s friends and the other question asks about the adolescent’s own drinking frequency. Read more on alcohol.
>>NewPublicHealth is kicking off a new series to highlight some of the best public health education and outreach campaigns every month. Submit your ideas for Public Health Campaign of the Month to info@newPublichealth.org.
Why limit your good ideas for improving population health to just one country when all the world can be your stage—to share and learn?
That’s the thinking behind Creative for Good, a new website developed by the Ad Council, a non-profit developer of public service advertisements (PSA) in the United States, Ketchum Public Relations and the World Economic Forum. The new site offers more than 60 U.S. and international case studies and well as a primer to help organizations plan and execute their own PSAs.
Creative for Good grew out of the World Economic Forum Summit in Dubai two years ago, with the goal of helping countries around the world increase the quantity and effectiveness of social cause marketing.
PSA examples on the site include:
CDC Releases Tools to Help People Keep Cool this Summer
A new study in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report shows that there were 7,233 heat-related deaths in the United States in the decade from 1999 to 2009, with an analysis of 2012 data showing the death rate is climbing. “No one should die from a heat wave, but every year on average, extreme heat causes 658 deaths in the United States—more than tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and lightning combined,” said Robin Ikeda, MD, MPH, acting director of the National Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. “Taking common sense steps in extreme temperatures can prevent heat-related illnesses and deaths.” The CDC has released a series of tools to help people stay cool, hydrated and informed during the extreme that will most likely occur in much of the country over the hot summer months. They include the Extreme Heat and Your Health Website; Environmental Public Health Tracking Data; a Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events Guidebook; and Workplace Solutions Bulletin. Read more on environment.
Study: More than One-third of Designated Drivers End up Drinking
More than one-third of designated drivers end up drinking, according to a new study in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. The researchers spoke with approximately 1,100 bar patrons (mostly white, male, college-aged) in an unidentified college town and gave blood alcohol (BAL) tests to 165 who said they were designated drivers. About 65 percent had no alcohol in their systems; 17 percent had a BAL between 0.02 and 0.049; and 18 percent had a BAL of at least 0.05. The legal limit is 0.08. "While more of the designated drivers didn't drink than did drink, which is a good thing, you have people being selected because they're the least drunk, or the least intoxicated or they've driven drunk before," said study author Adam Barry, an assistant professor at the University of Florida. "The only real safe option is to completely abstain." Read more on alcohol.
Sequester to Close all HUD Offices on June 14
Though the schedule could still change, as it stands at the moment every office of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) will be closed on Friday, June 14 as part of the sequester which is being felt across all of government. The automatic spending cuts took effect March 1. HUD’s plan is to pair its seven required furlough days with holidays and weekends. HUD is encouraging people and businesses that work with the agency to plan around the schedule day of shutdown. Read more on budgets.
New funding by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is aimed at improving treatment for bacterial infections, treating alcohol dependence and determining effective drugs for long-term diabetes treatment.
- Antibiotic Resistance: Duke University has been awarded $2 million by the NIH for a clinical research network focused on antibacterial resistance. Funding could rise to close to $70 million by 2019. According to the NIH, bacterial infections resistant to antibiotic drugs were first reported more than 60 years ago and since then have become more common in both health care and community settings. In some cases, no effective antibiotics exist. The funding will be used to conduct clinical trials on new drugs, optimizing use of existing ones; testing diagnostics and conducting research on best practices for infection control.
- Alcohol Dependence: A new study funded by the NIH and published in the Journal of Addiction Medicine finds that the smoking-cessation drug varenicline (brand name Chantix), significantly reduced alcohol consumption and craving among people who are alcohol-dependent. “Current medications for alcohol dependence are effective for some, but not all, patients. New medications are needed to provide effective therapy to a broader spectrum of alcohol dependent individuals,” said says Kenneth R. Warren, PhD, acting director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, part of NIH. Participants who took varenicline, compared with those taking a placebo, decreased their heavy drinking days per week by nearly 22 percent.
- Diabetes: The NIH is currently recruiting volunteers for a study to compare the long-term benefits and risks of four widely used diabetes drugs in combination with metformin, the most common first-line medication for treating type 2 diabetes. The study is important because if doctors find that metformin is not effective enough to help manage type 2 diabetes, they often add another drug to lower blood glucose levels. However, there have been no long-term studies on which of the add-on drugs are most effective and have fewest side effects. The study will compare drug effects on glucose levels, adverse effects, diabetes complications and quality of life over an average of nearly five years and will enroll about 5,000 patients at 37 study sites.