Category Archives: Tobacco
Financial Incentives Double Smoking Quit Rates
Offering small financial incentives doubles smoking cessation rates among low-income smokers, according to research from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The study was published in the American Journal of Public Health. Participants in the intervention group could earn up to $150 in gift cards over four weeks. Progress was monitored for 12 weeks following the quit date. A control group received only cessation information, no incentives. The researchers found that quit rates were 49 percent for those in the incentive group but only 25 percent in the control group. Read more on tobacco.
Two Thirds of Parents Would Take Kids out of Daycare if Other Children Don’t Have Their Immunizations
A national survey of parents with children ages 0-5 found that three quarters of them would take their children out of daycare if at least one quarter of the children at daycare were not up to date on their vaccines. The researchers say the scenario is realistic since about 25 percent of preschool children in the United States are not fully vaccinated, according to national statistics. Just over 40 percent of survey responders also said that children missing vaccines should be asked to leave daycare until they are up to date. Read more on vaccines.
Three Drugs During Pregnancy Better Than Current Complicated Regimen for Preventing Mother-to-Baby HIV Transmission
For HIV-infected women in good immune health, taking a three-drug regimen during pregnancy prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission more effectively than taking one drug during pregnancy, another during labor and two more after giving birth, according to a new study funded by the National Institutes of Health. Read more on maternal and infant health.
More than 1 in 5 High School Students Currently Uses Tobacco
Almost 23 percent of high school students currently use a tobacco product, according to new data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC.) “Nine out of ten smokers tried their first cigarette by age 18,” said Tim McAfee, MD, MPH, director of the CDC’s Office on Smoking and Health. “We must do more to prevent our youth from using tobacco products, or we will see millions of them suffer and die prematurely as adults. Fully implementing proven tobacco control programs would help keep our youth from falling victim to tobacco.” A review by CDC researchers of the agency’s National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) found that in 2013, 22.9 percent of high school students and 6.5 percent of middle school students reported using a tobacco product within the last 30 days and nearly half of all high school students and 17.7 percent of middle school students said they had used a tobacco product at least once in their lifetime. The survey also found that 12.6 percent of high school students say they currently use two or more tobacco products. The researchers found that most young adults who use tobacco believe they will be able to quit, but about three out of four high school smokers continue smoking into adulthood. Read more on tobacco.
Climate Change Expected to Increase Airborne Allergens
Results of a new study by researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst strongly suggest that there will be increases in grass pollen production and allergen exposure up to 202 percent in the next 100 years, leading to a significant, worldwide impact on human health because of predicted rises in carbon dioxide. The researchers exposed grass plants to different atmospheric gas concentrations and found that high levels of carbon dioxide increased pollen production per flower by 53 percent. Read more on environment.
Many Asthma Patients Would Like to Talk to Their Doctors about Cost Concerns
Asthma patients concerned about their ability to pay for medical care would like to talk about cost-related concerns with their physicians—but often do not get that opportunity, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. The study, published in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society, found that less than half of patients who expressed a preference for such discussions with their doctors reported having the conversations. “Financial burden from out-of-pocket health care expenses poses significant safety concerns and risk of poor outcomes to patients and society when patients utilize risky strategies, such as non-adherence, to address these burdens,” said Minal Patel, MD, U-M assistant professor of health behavior and health education and the lead author of the study. “Patients need to communicate with health care providers in order to access affordable options such as free samples, verification to access community assistance programs, and [a prescription change] or to adjust treatment recommendations.” Read more on access to health care.
Child Mortality Rates Improve in Many Developing Countries
The child mortality gap has narrowed between the poorest and wealthiest households in a majority of more than 50 developing countries, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. And the rates have dropped fastest among the poorest families. The researchers found four common factors in countries with a narrowing child-mortality gap: Government effectiveness, rule of law, control of corruption and regulatory quality. Read more on global health.
State Level Heart Disease Data from CDC Can Help Improve Interventions
New state heart disease specific data compiled and evaluated by researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide information at the state level for the first time, a key tool for creating targeted intervention programs, according to the agency. Nearly 800,000 people die each year from heart disease, making it the leading cause of death in the United States. Although heart disease has continued to decline during the past 40 years, the rates of decline vary significantly by state. Factors, and interventions that can impact heart disease—and its successful prevention and treatment—include hypertension, smoking, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and little consumption of vegetables and fruits. Read more on heart and vascular health.
New Study Finds Cigars as Risky as Cigarettes
Many smokers think cigars are less likely than cigarettes to cause cancer and other diseases and rates of cigar smoking doubled between 2000 and 2011. However, a new study in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention finds that cigar smoke—just like cigarette smoke—emits toxic chemicals. The researchers say this is an important study because cigar smoking has increased among kids and teens, who often think that cigars don’t pose the same health risk as cigarettes. Read more on tobacco.
EBOLA UPDATE: WHO Plans on Ebola Vaccine Tests in January
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The World Health Organization plans to begin testing two experimental Ebola vaccines in West Africa by January. The vaccines will likely be tested on more than 20,000 frontline health care workers and others in the region. The global health agency also announced that a blood serum treatment could be available for use in Liberia within two weeks. Read more on Ebola.
Study: Automated Tracking Improves Vaccine Compliance in Health Care Workers
Automated tracking of influenza vaccinations increases vaccination compliance in health care personnel while also reducing the workload burden on human resources and occupational health staff, according to a new study in the journal Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. Researchers analyzed data on nearly 7,000 people including in a mandatory vaccination program, finding that “automated reminders and tracking accounted for more than 98 percent of compliance among healthcare personnel.” "Mandatory vaccination programs help protect vulnerable patients, but can be tremendously time and resource dependent," said Susan Huang, MD, MPH, an author of the study, in a release. "By successfully automating a system to track and provide feedback to healthcare personnel who have not received their seasonal flu vaccine, we are providing safer places for care and reducing the administrative burden of our mandatory vaccination program." Read more on vaccines.
Study: Living with a Smoker is as Bad as Living in a Highly Polluted City
Living with a smoker is the same as living in a smoke-free home in a heavily polluted city such as Beijing or London, with the non-smokers exposed to three times the World Health Organization’s officially recommend safe levels of damaging air particles, according to a new study in the journal Tobacco Control. In a collection of four studies, researchers determined that the concentration of fine particulate matter was approximately 10 times higher in smoking homes than it was in non-smoking homes. “Smokers often express the view that outdoor air pollution is just as much a concern as the second-hand smoke in their home,” said Sean Semple, MD, of University of Aberdeen, in a release. “These measurements show that second-hand tobacco smoke can produce very high levels of toxic particles in your home: much higher than anything experienced outside in most towns and cities in the UK. Making your home smoke-free is the most effective way of dramatically reducing the amount of damaging fine particles you inhale.” Read more on air quality.
Parents know how difficult it can be to find kid-friendly supermarket checkout counters without candy or magazines. Now a new mobile-friendly website from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids offers parents a way to find retailers who don’t sell tobacco. Public health experts applaud its debut:
- Tobacco companies spend more than 90 percent of their annual $8.8 billion marketing budget at the point-of-sale in stores, and this marketing has been shown to increase youth tobacco use.
- Every day, more than 2,800 U.S. kids try their first cigarette. That’s more than one million kids who take their first puff each year.
- 5.6 million children alive today will die prematurely from smoking unless current trends are reversed.
- An estimated 375,000 U.S. retail stores sell tobacco products. That sends a terrible message to kids that tobacco use is normal, acceptable and appealing.
The new website includes an interactive map that shows the locations of Tobacco-Free Retailers across the country. All CVS Pharmacies have just gone tobacco-free and other retailers who don’t sell tobacco include Wegmans and Target. As part of a new national campaign, stores that are tobacco-free can also display stickers from Tobacco-Free Kids.
EBOLA UPDATE: Death Rate Now Stands at 70 Percent; 4,447 Dead
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The World Health Organization (WHO) now puts the Ebola outbreak death rate at 70 percent, up from a previous estimate of 50 percent. WHO assistant director- general Bruce Aylward, MD, who announced the figure at a news conference, said this classifies Ebola as a “high mortality disease.” The global health agency also predicts there could be as many as 10,000 new cases per week within two months. The official toll so far is 4,447 deaths in 8,914 cases. Read more on Ebola.
DOD Adds Climate Change Threats to its Defense Mandate
Citing its effect on issues such as infectious disease, hunger and poverty, the U.S. Department of Defense has announced its intention to integrate climate change threats into all of its “plans, operations, and training.” The assessment came in the Pentagon’s 20-page Climate Change Adaptation Roadmap. "Rising global temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, climbing sea levels, and more extreme weather events will intensify the challenges of global instability, hunger, poverty, and conflict. They will likely lead to food and water shortages, pandemic disease, disputes over refugees and resources, and destruction by natural disasters in regions across the globe," wrote Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in the report. Read more on the environment.
Study: Smoking Linked to 14 Million Major Medical Conditions
Cigarette smoking harms nearly every bodily organ and is linked to an estimated 14 million major medical conditions in U.S. adults, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema and is the illness most closely linked to smoking. The study was published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine. “The disease burden of cigarette smoking in the United States remains immense, and updated estimates indicate that COPD may be substantially underreported in health survey data,” wrote the study authors. The study also linked smoking to 2.3 million cases of heart attack 1.3 million cases of cancer, 1.2 million cases of stroke and 1.8 million cases of diabetes. Read more on tobacco.
EBOLA UPDATE: Spain Sees Ebola’s First Transmission Outside of Africa
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
Four people have been hospitalized and twenty-two are being monitored in Spain after the first confirmed transmission of Ebola outside of West Africa. The nurse, who tested positive yesterday, had treated two Spanish missionaries who contracted the disease in Africa. And while the World Health Organization believes the further spread of Ebola in Europe is “unavoidable,” the global health agency also says that the content is prepared to handle the disease. Read more on Ebola.
CDC Launches Social Media Campaign on the Importance of Tobacco Cessation
More than 20 million Americans have died from tobacco-related causes since the first U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Health more than 50 years ago. As a reminder of the ongoing need for tobacco cessation efforts—and in honor of those lost—the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched the “#20Million Memorial” social media campaign. The CDC will collect social media posts of people sharing messages or photos dedicated to someone they lost across Facebook, Google+, Instagram, Twitter or Vine using the hashtag "#20Million. Smokers looking for free help with quitting and go here; go here for more information on the #20Million Memorial. Read more on tobacco.
HUD: $60 Million to Improving Housing, Stimulate Growth in 90 Tribal Communities
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has announced approximately $60 million in funding to help improve housing conditions and stimulate community development in more than 90 tribal communities across the country. The funds are provided through HUD’s Indian Community Development Block Grant (ICDBG) Program. “ICDBG funds are an important investment in the remote and low-income tribal communities that need it most,” said HUD Secretary Julián Castro, in a release. “Through this work, we’re proud to help our tribal partners expand opportunity in their community by determining on their own, not from Washington, which local projects meet their needs and strengthen their future.” Read more on health disparities.
EBOLA UPDATE: U.S. Nurses Unsure of their Ability to Handle Ebola Patients
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
While the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has repeatedly stated that the U.S. health care system and U.S. hospitals are prepared to treat any and all Ebola-infected patients, a new report from Reuters finds that many nurses aren’t as certain. According to Reuters, many “have gone to hospital managers, seeking training on how to best care for patients and protect themselves and their families from contracting the deadly disease,” and they are also concerned that “inadequate preparation could increase the chances of spreading Ebola if hospital staff fail to recognize a patient coming through their doors, or if personnel are not informed about how to properly protect themselves.” Approximately 3,338 people have died so far from the outbreak originating in West Africa. Read more on Ebola.
CDC: Smoking Prohibitions in Subsidized Housing Could Save $497 Annually
As much as $497 million could be saved each year in assorted costs by prohibiting smoking in government-subsidized housing, including public housing, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC estimates that the ban would save about $310 million in secondhand smoke-related health care, $134 million in renovation expenses and $53 million in smoking-attributable fire losses. “Already, over 500 public housing agencies have adopted some form of a smoke free policy, protecting approximately 200,000 families,” said Matthew Ammon, Acting Director of the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Office of Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes, in a release. “This study reinforces HUD’s work that promotes health and reduces costs by encouraging public housing agencies, multi-family housing owners and agents, as well as residents, to adopt and implement smoke-free housing policies.” Read more on housing.
HUD, VA Announced Grants to Help More than 9,000 Homeless Vets Find Housing
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) have announced more than $62 million in rental assistance to help more than 9,000 homeless veterans find permanent supportive housing. The grants are provided through the HUD-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) Program. Approximately $57 million will provide 8,276 Tenant-Based Vouchers for rental units and $5 million will provide for 730 Project-Based Vouchers for existing units or new construction in specific developments. “It is unacceptable that after their service and sacrifice, too many of our veterans find themselves living on our streets and in our shelters,” said HUD Secretary Julián Castro, in a release. “We’ve made significant progress reducing homelessness among veterans by a third in just four years, and these vouchers will continue to help communities build on these gains, providing targeted assistance to those in need to ensure that every veteran has a home.” Read more on the military.
White House Announces Significant Increase in U.S. Ebola Response
Yesterday, NewPublicHealth reported President Obama’s initial planned response to the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The White House has since expanded on the plans. They will include:
- A military command center in Liberia.
- A staging area in Senegal to help dispatch personnel and aid to affected communities more quickly
- Personnel from the U.S. Public Health Service will deploy to a new field hospitals the U.S. is setting up in Liberia.
- US AID will help distribute home kits with items such as gloves and masks to help reduce the number of Ebola cases.
Read more about Ebola.
Survey Finds Doctors are Overextended or At Capacity for Patients
A new survey of 20,000 doctors by the Physicians Foundation, a non-profit group that works with practicing physicians, finds that 81 percent of doctors say they are over-extended or at full capacity and only 19 percent indicate they have time to see more patients. Forty-four percent of doctors responding say they plan to take steps that would reduce patient access to their practices , including cutting back on patients seen, retiring, working part-time, closing their practice to new patients or seeking non-clinical jobs, leading to the potential loss of tens of thousands of physicians in the United States. The timing of the survey is significant because signup for health insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act begins in just a few weeks. Read more about access to care.
Number of Smokers Increases in New York City
Earlier this week the New York City Health Department released new 2013 data showing that 16.1 percent of adult New Yorkers are smokers, a significant increase from the city’s lowest recorded adult smoking rate of 14 percent in 2010. For the first time since 2007, there are more than one million smokers in New York City who are at risk of developing a smoking-related illness, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, emphysema, lung and other cancers, according to the health department. So far, the city does not have strong data to explain the uptick in smoking. Nationally, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 18 percent of U.S. adults are smokers, down from 20 percent several years ago. However, New York City is often a bellwether for public health issues, and the health experts across the country will be looking to see whether the city’s tobacco control efforts—including a new ad campaign that focuses on both daily and occasional smokers—have an impact on smoking rates. Read more on tobacco.
With Classes Well Underway, It’s a Good Time for Colleges and Universities to Think about their Campus Tobacco Policies
Just a few weeks ago the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University announced that it had launched the Tobacco-Free Campus Initiative, which prohibits the use of any tobacco product—not just cigarettes—in all buildings, facilities and vehicles. The initiative also forbids e-cigarettes and discourages the use of tobacco products on all outdoor campus grounds. Organizers of the initiative say that deterring the use of tobacco in all forms is crucial to protect the health of the students and workforce of the campus community.
“By keeping out all tobacco products, the initiative ensures that the School doesn’t unintentionally encourage or reinforce tobacco addiction among students, faculty and staff,” according to a statement released by the school.
However, the rest of the university won’t be taking the same steps, at least for now. In 1991, all Johns Hopkins campuses followed the example first set by the School of Public Health in becoming smoke-free, said Dennis O’Shea, a spokesman for the university, adding that the “school could follow the new initiative, but no decision has been made.”
Hopkins is not the only college deliberating. While there are a few states that require state campuses to adopt smoke-free policies most campuses voluntarily adopt them, according to Cynthia Hallett, the executive director of Americans for Non-Smokers Rights (ANR). According to ANR, there are a little more than 4,000 colleges and universities in the United States, and as of July 2014 there were 1,372 smoke-free campuses in the United States, of which 938 are 100 percent tobacco-free and 176 prohibit the use of e-cigarettes anywhere on campus. That’s up from 446 smoke-free campuses in 2010; reporting on tobacco-free campuses began in 2012, when there were 608.
Credit some of that change to the Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative (TFCCI) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), launched two years ago to promote and support the adoption and implementation of tobacco-free policies at colleges and universities. TFCCI is a partnership of HHS, the American College Health Association and the University of Michigan, with sponsorship from the American Legacy Foundation.
While support for making campuses smoke- and even tobacco-free is growing, it’s hardly a slam dunk, especially when the move requires students to vote. Universities say opposition can come from foreign students who are sometimes more likely to smoke than their U.S. counterparts or contract employees who don’t want to be barred from smoking on campus. It can even come from the media. Two years ago, when UCLA announced its campus-wide tobacco free policy, the Los Angeles Times published an editorial titled “A Smoke Free UC Goes too Far” which said that “[s]moking is a detestable, dangerous habit—but it's also a legal one, and there is plenty to say in defense of allowing adults to make bad decisions if they're not breaking the law or harming others.”
Hoping to get the initiatives to pick up steam, TFCCI has launched challenges aimed at getting more campuses—and their students, faculty and employees—to give up their smokes.
- Read a NewPublicHealth interview with former HHS Assistant Secretary Howard Koh on the goals for Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative.
- Download TFCCI resource toolkits on how to make campuses tobacco-free.