Category Archives: Tobacco
Fifteen Years after Tobacco Settlement, States Falling Short in Funding Tobacco Prevention: Q&A with Danny McGoldrick
On November 23, 1998, 46 states settled their lawsuits against the nation’s major tobacco companies to recover tobacco-related health care costs, joining four states—Mississippi, Texas, Florida and Minnesota—that had reached earlier, individual settlements.
These settlements require the tobacco companies to make annual payments to the states in perpetuity, with total payments estimated at $246 billion over the first 25 years.
Yesterday a coalition of health advocacy groups released the latest edition of A Broken Promise to Our Kids, an annual report on state use of tobacco funds for tobacco prevention and cessation efforts. As in years past, the report finds that most states fall short in the amount of money they allocate to prevent kids from smoking and to help current smokers quit.
The groups that jointly issued the report include the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, the American Heart Association, American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network, the American Lung Association, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights.
Key findings of the 2013 report include:
- Over the past 15 years, states have spent just 2.3 percent of their total tobacco-generated revenue on tobacco prevention and cessation programs.
- The states this year will collect $25 billion from the tobacco settlement and tobacco taxes, but will spend just 1.9 percent of it—$481.2 million—on tobacco prevention programs. This means the states are spending less than two cents of every dollar in tobacco revenue to fight tobacco use.
- States are falling short of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) recommended funding levels for tobacco prevention programs. Altogether, the states have budgeted just 13 percent of the $3.7 billion the CDC recommends.
- Only two states—Alaska and North Dakota—currently fund tobacco prevention programs at the CDC-recommended level.
To discuss the ramifications of the latest edition of the Broken Promises report, NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Danny McGoldrick, vice president of research at the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids.
NewPublicHealth: Can you give us some background on the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement?
Danny McGoldrick: This is the 15th anniversary of the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, when 46 states and the District of Columbia settled their lawsuits against the tobacco companies mostly to recover the costs that they’d incurred treating smoking-caused disease in their states. Four other states had settled individually with the tobacco companies prior to the Master Settlement Agreement, and so this provided for some restrictions on tobacco company marketing; they promised never to market to kids again, which is ironic, but it also resulted in the tobacco companies sending about $250 billion over just the first 25 years of the settlement for the states to spend as they saw fit. They left that to the province of the state legislators and governors to decide how those funds should be spent.
As smartphone technology becomes ever more ubiquitous and the dangers of tobacco become ever more apparent, it's not surprising that there are 414 quit-smoking apps available between iPhones and Androids, with Androids alone seeing about 700,000 downloads of these apps each month.
There's no question that these apps are in demand in the United States, where an estimated 11 million smokers own a smartphone and more than half of smokers in 2010 tried to quit.
The question is: Are they effective?
According to a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, the answer is too often "no," with many of the most popular apps failing to employ and advocate known and successful anti-tobacco strategies.
"Quit-smoking apps are an increasingly available tool for smokers," said lead author Lorien Abroms, ScD, an associate professor of Prevention and Community Health at the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services (SPHHS), according to Health Canal. "Yet our study suggests these apps have a long way to go to comply with practices that we know can help people stub out that last cigarette."
The study looked at the 50 top anti-smoking apps for both iPhones and Androids, analyzing their tactics on a number of fronts, including how well they aligned with guidelines from the U.S. Public Health Service on treating tobacco use. The review found serious issues with the apps' advice, especially concerning clinical practices. It found that:
- Most lacked basic advice on how to quit smoking and did not help people establish a "quit plan"
- None recommend calling a quit-line, which can more than double the chances of successfully quitting tobacco
- Fewer than one in 20 of the apps recommended medications, even though studies show how nicotine replacement therapy can help curb cravings
Taken together these, last two findings are especially troubling, as their pairing has been found to more than triple the chances of a person successfully breaking their nicotine addiction. One of the biggest takeaways from the study, according to Abroms, is that while quit-smoking apps can be important components of a larger plan to quit smoking, there might also be a simpler way to use those fancy smartphones.
"They should simply pick up their smartphone and call a quit-line now to get proven help on how to beat a tobacco addiction."
And the lack of adequate advice and guidance isn't limited to quit-smoking apps. A study by the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics found that while apps remain popular, they also remain limited.
"It clearly demonstrated that, to date, most efforts in app development have been in the overall wellness category with diet and exercise apps accounting for the majority available. An assessment finds that healthcare apps available today have both limited and simple functionality--the majority do little more than provide information.
Read the full story at Health Canal.
>>Bonus content: Read the previous NewPublicHealth post, "Public Health: There's An App For That"
>>Bonus link: Mobile Health and FDA Guidance
>>Bonus links: Here's a quick look at a few of the newest apps designed to improve public health in a variety of ways:
- My Health Apps offers a vast array of apps, sorted by categories such as "Mental Health," "Me and My Doctor" and "Staying Healthy"
- Hula, which helps people find STD testing, get the results on their phone and even share verified results
- My Fitness Pal, which combines guidance and community to help people lose weight
- Planned Parenthood offers a series of teen-focused apps on important issues such as birth control, condoms and even substance abuse
Study: U.S. Graphic Warning Labels Could Get 8.6M Smokers to Quit
A new study out of Canada indicates that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration may have underestimated the potential impact of graphic warning labels on tobacco products. From 2000 to 2009, the warning labels cut Canada's smoking rate somewhere between 12 and 20 percent, which would be the equivalent of between 5.3 million and 8.6 million U.S. smokers. That's also 33 to 53 times larger than the FDA's estimates when they pushed for the warning labels--and when the tobacco industry successfully challenged the measure, with the court pointing to the low impact as one of the reasons for the ruling. "Our analyses corrected for errors in the FDA's analysis, concluding that the effect of graphic warnings on smoking rates would be much stronger than the FDA found," said Jidong Huang, MD, the study's author. "Our results provide much stronger support for the FDA's revised proposal for graphic warnings, which we hope will be forthcoming in the near future." Read more on tobacco.
Expanding Nurse Practitioner Abilities Could Save Patients $472M by 2015
Expanding which health services nurse practitioners at retail health clinics can provide could save at least $34 per visit, or as much as $472 million in health costs by 2015, according to a new study in the journal Health Affairs. The estimated 6,000 retail health clinics, often found in chain pharmacies or "big box" stores, provide walk-in care for minor health problems. The rules for nurse practitioners vary from state to state, with some allowing them to prescribe medications and practice independently of a doctor's supervision. Researchers looked at insurance claims from 2004 through 2007, finding that the state's that grant wider latitude also tend to see lower costs for the patients:
- $704 -- Average cost of treatment in the 14 days after a traditional doctor's office visit
- $543 -- Average cost of care during and after a retail visit in states where nurse practitioners had no independence and could not prescribe medication
- $484 -- Average cost of care during and after a retail visit in states where nurse practitioners were allowed to practice without the supervision of a doctor
- $509 -- Average cost of care during and after a retail visit in states where nurse practitioners were allowed to practice without supervision and prescribe medication
Read more on access to health care.
New Estimate Puts 2009 Swine Flu Global Death Toll at More than 200K
The death toll from the 2009 swine flu epidemic was likely far higher than previously believed, according to a new study in the journal PLoS Medicine. Previously, the total stood at about 18,500 laboratory-confirmed deaths, though experts considered that to be a low estimate because it only factored in confirmed cases of H1N1. A new study, bringing together 60 researchers in 26 countries, now places the toll at as many as 203,000 global deaths--or 11 times higher than the previous estimate. "This study confirms that the H1N1 virus killed many more people globally than originally believed," study lead author Lone Simonsen, a research professor in the department of global health at the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services. "We also found that the mortality burden of this pandemic fell most heavily on younger people and those living in certain parts of the Americas." Read more on global health.
Chicago Announces Trio of Anti-tobacco Initiatives to Curb Youth Smoking
The city of Chicago and Mayor Rahm Emanuel this morning announced a trio of anti-tobacco initiatives designed to reduce youth access to tobacco. The first would regulate e-cigarettes as tobacco products, while the second would restrict the sale of flavored tobacco products near schools and the third would work to educate the public on the dangers of menthol-flavored cigarettes. Further details:
- By defining “tobacco products” as products that are made of tobacco or include tobacco-derived nicotine, the city would be able to regulate e-cigarettes as they do any other tobacco product. This would mean that under the Chicago Clean Indoor Air Act, e-cigarette use would be restricted everywhere where smoking is restricted, including almost all public places and places of employment.
- Flavored tobacco products, including menthol products, could not be sold within 500 feet of schools, and existing stores would not be grandfathered in. This would be the first regulation of menthol-flavored cigarettes anywhere at the federal, state or local levels.
- Understanding that menthol-cigarettes are often—and wrongly—viewed as less unhealthy than other tobacco products, as well as that fact that the flavoring makes them more appealing to kids, the city is launching a public service advertising campaign on the realities of the products.
“E-cigarettes, as well as flavored products, are gateway tobacco products targeted at our kids,” said Emanuel. “The tobacco industry has spent years developing products that are aimed at hooking our youth on nicotine and getting them smoking for their entire life.” Read more on tobacco.
FDA to Investigate Reports on Weight-related Problems with the Morning-After-Pill
Following yesterday’s report that the European equivalent of the Plan B One-Step “morning after pill,” Norlevo, is less effective for women who weigh 165 pounds or more and ineffective for women who weigh 176 pounds or more, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has announced it will perform its own investigation into the product. The agency is "currently reviewing the available and related scientific information on this issue, including the publication upon which the Norlevo labeling change was based," said FDA spokeswoman Erica Jefferson said in a Monday statement. "The agency will then determine what, if any, labeling changes to approved emergency contraceptives are warranted." By law, the morning-after pill is available to all U.S. women of child-bearing age, over the county and with no point-of-sale restrictions. Read more on sexual health.
Concerns Over Cost, Sexual Activity Keep Many Parents From Having Kids Vaccinated Against HPV
Costs and parental concern over their kids’ sexual activity may be the reason that so view children—both girls and boys—are not being vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a new review of 55 studies appearing in JAMA Pediatrics. HPV vaccines protect against the strains of genital warts that cause approximately 70 percent of cervical cancers, and they are recommended for girls aged 11 to 12. Boys are recommended to receive the vaccine as young as age 11, as it protects not just against genital warts, but also oral, penis and rectal cancers. However, the review found that many parents put off the vaccination either because they believe their child is not sexually active—so doesn’t “need” the vaccine—or because they fear it will encourage them to become sexually active. Researchers determined that a physician’s recommendation was one of the strongest motivators toward deciding to accept the vaccination, although this did not happen nearly enough. The researchers recommended improving these statistics by educating doctors and parents on the importance of the vaccine. Read more on cancer.
Kids Today Slower, Less Fit than Their Parents as Kids
An average child in 1975 in a one-mile race with an average child today would win by an average of a minute and a half, according to new research. Kids today are also about 15 percent less aerobically fit, with heart endurance falling an average of 6 percent per decade from 1970 to 2000. That means today’s kids are more likely to be unhealthy in adulthood, with weaker hearts, thinner bones and overall lower quality of life. Grant Tomkinson, a senior lecturer in the University of South Australia's School of Health Sciences, pointed to a number of factors, including communities designed to discourage walking, bicycling and backyard play; reduced or even completely absent physical education in schools; and the prevalence of television, computer, tablet and smartphone screens that keep kids indoors. "We all live in an environment that's toxic for exercise, and our children are paying the price," Tomkinson said. Tomkinson said in order to reverse this trend, kids need at least 60 minutes of serious physical exercise a day, such as running, swimming or cycling. "You want exercise to be fun, but there needs to be some huff and puff there as well," he said. "It needs to make them somewhat tired." Read more on physical activity.
Study: Symptoms of ‘Sudden’ Cardiac Arrest Can Be Seen Up to a Month Earlier
Symptoms of “sudden” cardiac arrest can be seen up to a month beforehand in middle-age men, according to new findings presented this week at the annual scientific sessions of the American Heart Association, held this year in Dallas. Researchers looked at the medical records of 567 men, ages 35-65, who had out-of-hospital heart attacks, finding that approximately 53 percent showed symptoms beforehand. They included chest pain (56 percent); shortness of breath (13 percent); and dizziness, fainting or palpitations (4 percent). Sumeet Chugh, senior author of the study and associate director for genomic cardiology at the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles, said the “entirely unexpected” findings show that people may be able to prevent heart attacks if they seek treatment earlier for these symptoms. "The findings were entirely unexpected," said "We never thought more than half of these middle-aged men would have had warning signs so long before their cardiac arrests,” Chugh said. “Previously we thought most people don't have symptoms so we can't do anything about it." Read more on heart health.
ACS Tips on Quitting Tobacco for Tomorrow’s ‘Great American Smokeout’
Tomorrow is the American Cancer Society (ACS) Great American Smokeout, held every year on the third Thursday of November. The annual event was founded to encourage people to quit using tobacco—perhaps to stop smoking on that day, or to make a plan on how to quit at a later date—and to provide the tools and resources that can help the decision stick. According to ACS, research shows that people are most successful at quitting tobacco when they have support, and recommends combing two or more of the following tactics to improve the odds:
- Telephone smoking-cessation hotlines
- Stop-smoking groups
- Online quit groups
- Nicotine replacement products
- Prescription medicine to lessen cravings
- Guide books
- Encouragement and support from friends and family members
Six Killed, Dozens Injured as Tornados Sweep Across the U.S. Midwest
At least six people were killed and dozens left injured after a flurry of tornados swept through the American Midwest yesterday. Tornado watches were announced for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin; by the end of the day, an estimated 77 had touched down, mostly in Illinois, according to the National Weather Service. The severe weather left thousands without power (approximately 89,000 in Northern Illinois alone) and leveled entire neighborhoods. “I went over there immediately after the tornado, walking through the neighborhoods, and I couldn’t even tell what street I was on,” said Tyler Gee, an alderman on the Chicago City Council, to radio station WBBM in Chicago. “It just completely flattened some of the neighborhoods here in town, hundreds of homes.” Read more on disasters.
NHTSA: 2012 Highway Fatalities Up for the First Time Since 2005
While highway traffic fatalities continue to hover around historic lows, the total number of deaths increased by 1,082 from 2011 to 2012, to a total of 33,561, the first increase since 2005. The findings are part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) 2012 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data. "Highway deaths claim more than 30,000 lives each year and while we've made substantial progress over the past 50 years, it's clear that we have much more work to do," said U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx. "As we look to the future, we must focus our efforts to tackle persistent and emerging issues that threaten the safety of motorists, cyclists and pedestrians across the nation." Read more on safety.
Heart Groups’ New Risk Guidelines, Calculator Apparently Flawed
The risk guidelines and calculator released last week by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, meant to improve the assessment of potential cardiovascular disease, could possibly instead greatly overestimate the risk and as built could lead to millions of unnecessary statin prescriptions. The potential problems, first identified by two Harvard Medical School professors, will be published today in The Lancet. One possible explanation for the problem is that the system relies on old data, while populations and their behaviors have changed. Steven Nissen, MD, chief of cardiovascular medicine at the Cleveland Clinic and a past president of the American College of Cardiology, called the findings “stunning,” adding “We need a pause to further evaluate this approach before it is implemented on a widespread basis.” However, after emergency meetings at the American Heart Association’s annual meeting this weekend in Dallas, both organizations said despite the apparent flaws the guidelines are still a major step forward, noting that patients are also advised to speak with their doctors, and not simply follow the results of the calculator. Read more on heart health.
CDC: Emerging Tobacco Products Gaining Popularity among Middle and High School Students
A new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) finds that emerging tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and hookahs are quickly gaining popularity among middle- and high-school students, but with no significant decline in students’ cigarette smoking or overall tobacco use. The new report was culled from data in the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, which shows that electronic cigarette use rose among middle school students from 0.6 percent in 2011 to 1.1 percent in 2012 and among high school students from 1.5 percent to 2.8 percent. Hookah use among high school students rose from 4.1 percent to 5.4 percent from 2011 to 2012.
The study authors say the increase in the use of electronic cigarettes and hookahs could be due to an increase in marketing, availability and visibility of the products, as well as the perception that they may be safer alternatives to cigarettes. While electronic cigarettes, hookahs, cigars and certain other new types of tobacco products are not currently subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the agency has said recently that it plans to issue a proposed rule that would deem products meeting the statutory definition of a "tobacco product" to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act—as cigarettes are.
The researchers say cigar use in young adults is of particular concern. During 2011-2012, cigar use increased dramatically among non-Hispanic black high school students from 11.7 percent to 16.7 percent, and has more than doubled since 2009, and similar to the rate of cigarette use among high school males (16.3 percent). Read more on tobacco.
Tobacco featured prominently as a public health issue at the American Public Health Association (APHA) meeting this week, including a regulatory update from Mitch Zeller, JD, who became director of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products earlier this year. Zeller previously worked on tobacco issues in government as associate commissioner and director of FDA’s first Office of Tobacco Programs, and also as a U.S. delegate to the World Health Organization (WHO) Working Group for the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
NewPublicHealth spoke with Zeller ahead of the APHA meeting.
Mitch Zeller: I think most broadly my goals are to help give the center and the agency the greatest chance of fulfilling the public health mission behind the law passed in 2009 giving the Food and Drug Administration authority over tobacco. This really is an important piece of legislation. It’s really stunning that in 2013—with everything that we know about the harms associated with tobacco use—that it remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease both in this country and globally.
There are some very powerful tools that Congress has given FDA to use wisely and supported by evidence. That’s where I think, the greatest opportunity lies: to use the tools relying on regulatory science to try to protect consumers and reduce the death and disease toll from tobacco.
There are two areas where I think these tools can make a profound positive impact on public health. The first is something called product standards, which is basically the power to ban, restrict or limit the allowable levels of ingredients in tobacco or tobacco smoke. We are exploring potential product standards in three areas: toxicity, addiction and appeal. And we are funding research in all three areas and working very hard behind the scenes to find out what our options are for potential product standards in those three areas.
Firearm Injuries Cost $16B in U.S. Health Care in Less than a Decade
Firearm injuries cost more than $16 billion in hospital care between from 2000 to 2008, according to new research to be presented today at the American Public Health Association’s 141st Annual Meeting in Boston. The 275,939 victims spent approximately 1.7 million days in the hospital, for an average stay of 6.7 days and an average cost of medical treatment of $59,620. About one in three patients did not have insurance. “The impact is probably much higher than $16 billion since the years of life lost, disability, lack of productivity, societal well-being and emotional turmoil associated with such injuries is far-reaching,” said Min Kyeong Lee, DMD, Annual Meeting presenter. “This is one of the foremost reasons why health care costs in this country have gotten out of control and underlies the need for better preventive policies.” Read more on violence.
Study: Secondhand Smoke in the Workplace Down Overall, But Certain Groups Still at Risk
While recent policies and regulations have helped reduce the overall exposure rates of secondhand smoke in the workplace, certain professions continue to experience high rates, according to new findings to be presented today at the American Public Health Association’s 141st Annual Meeting. The study looked at exposure rates in Massachusetts since 2004, when its Smoke-Free Workplace Law was enacted to require all enclosed workplaces to be smoke free. However, that means that workers in installation, repair and maintenance still experience an overall secondhand smoke exposure rate of 37.4 percent; the national rate in 2010 was 5.4 percent. “We’re seeing a steady decline in prevalence of exposure, but it’s clear that there are still specific groups of workers that deserve our attention,” said Kathleen Fitzsimmons, MPH, lead researcher of the study. “Findings like these that combine information about occupation and environmental tobacco smoke provide helpful information for evaluating comprehensive statewide smoke-free workplace laws and for targeting interventions to reduce risks.” Read more on tobacco.
Study: HPV Screenings Better than Pap Tests at Protecting Against Invasive Cervical Cancer
Human papillomavirus (HPV) screenings are both more effective than Pap tests when it comes to screening against invasive cervical cancer, according to a new study in the journal The Lancet. Researchers analyzed the results of four clinical trials in Europe covering more than 175,000 women ages 20 to 64. The studies tracked them women for an average of 6.5 years after one of the screening types, finding that they were about equal in protection levels for the first 2.5 years, but that following that short time frame HPV screening provided as much as 70 percent greater protection. The findings were particularly significant in women ages 30 to 35. Read more on cancer.
New York City Council Votes to Raise Tobacco-purchasing Age to 21
With studies repeatedly showing that the earlier someone begins smoking, the more likely they are to become addicted, the New York City Council has voted to raise the age minimum required to buy tobacco products from to 21 years, up from 18 years. The bill passed 35-11. Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg has already announced he will sign the bill. The law would apply to all tobacco products, including cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, cigars and cigarillos. “This is literally legislation that will save lives,” said Christine C. Quinn, the Council speaker, according to The New York Times. The Council also voted to increase the penalties for retailers who evade tobacco taxes; for a prohibition on discounts for tobacco products; and for a minimum price of $10.50 a pack for cigarettes and little cigars. Read more on tobacco.
Analysis: Sports-related Youth Concussion Diagnoses Climbing
The growing number of diagnosed concussions in young athletes and their reluctance to admit when they have suffered a head injury—despite ever-growing awareness of the dangers of concussions—demonstrates the need for sports leagues and government agencies to become more active in preventing traumatic brain injuries, according to a new report from the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council. In 2009, about 250,000 youth ages 5-21 were treated for sports-related concussions and other brain injuries in U.S. hospitals, up from approximately 150,000 in 2001. The analysis pointed to Hannah Steenhuysen, a high school soccer goalie in Rehoboth, Massachusetts, as an example of why relying on youth to report their head injuries on their own is not always an effective strategy. "You don't tell anyone usually when you get a headache because you don't want to be out of the game," she said. "I couldn't watch TV or text or even read—it was really tough. When I tried to go back to school, I couldn't keep up and everything got jumbled in my head." Read more on injury prevention.
Tips for Kids with Food Allergies on Halloween
Trick-or-treating and Halloween parties can be difficult for kids with food allergies. However, there are steps both kids and parents can take to make sure kids with food allergies still have a full night of fun, according to Joyce Rabbat, MD, a pediatric allergy specialist with the Loyola University Health System, in Chicago. "The key is education,” she said. “Make sure your child knows what he or she can eat. When in doubt, throw it out." Among her tips:
- Plan parties and events that do not include food, candy or other edible treats.
- Inform the host of any Halloween party if your child has a food allergy. You can also provide a list of foods that may trigger an allergic reaction.
- Clean all cooking utensils, pans or other dishes if they have been in contact with a food allergen. Also make sure to wipe down surfaces.
- Read labels to find out whether foods contain allergens or have been made on the same machine as other products that contain an allergen.
- Carry self-injectable epinephrine.
Read more on food safety.
On First Anniversary, States Still Helping Residents Displaced and Impacted by Hurricane Sandy
Flags will fly at half mast in New York State and other regions of the Northeast today as residents mark the one year anniversary of the day that Hurricane Sandy made landfall. New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut—which saw dozens killed and hundreds injured—continue to help residents rebuild and recover from injuries, loss of homes and loss of businesses. Read more about Hurricane Sandy.
AAP: Parental ‘Media Use Plans’ Needed to Limit Kids’ Time in Front of TVs, Other Screens
Parents should create a “media use plan” that limits kids’ screen time to no more than two hours per day, as well as keeps television and Internet access out of their bedrooms, according to a new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Council on Communications and Media. Marjorie Hogan, MD, one of the statement's lead authors, said the issue isn’t television and other media access overall, but the fact that excessive media use been linked to obesity, sleep problems, school problems and aggression; the average child spends about eight hours each day in front of various screens. The key is for parents to find a balance between the positives and negatives of media. "We're not media-bashers," said Hogan. "We love media…For teens, connectivity, being connected to your peers, having a chance to create your persona, can be a really positive thing.” Read more on pediatrics.
Study: Smokers Most Likely to Think About Quitting on Mondays
An analysis of online searches related to smoking cessation shows that smokers are most likely to think about quitting smoking on Mondays, which could give anti-tobacco efforts a new way to make anti-smoking campaigns more effective by enacting weekly cues to remind smokers to keep trying on Mondays, according to a new study in JAMA Internal Medicine. Researchers found the number of Monday searches was 25 percent higher than the combined average of the rest of the days of the week; the findings were the same for searches conducted in English, French, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. "Popular belief has been that the decision to quit smoking is unpredictable or even chaotic," said study lead author John Ayers, of San Diego State University."By taking a bird's-eye view of Google searches, however, we find anything but chaos. Instead, Google search data reveals interest in quitting is part of a larger collective pattern of behavior dependent on the day of the week." Read more on tobacco.