Category Archives: Flu
CDC: Two U.S. MERS-CoV Cases Did Not Spread Any Further
In May of this year the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced two cases of imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the United States, with one in Florida and the other in Indiana. Both patients were health care providers who lived and worked in Saudi Arabia. The CDC has now confirmed that in neither case did the disease spread to either members of the patients’ households or health care workers who treated the patients. “The negative results among the contacts that CDC considered at highest risk for MERS-CoV infection are reassuring.” said David Swerdlow, MD, who is leading CDC’s MERS-CoV response. “Today, the risk of MERS-CoV infection in the United States remains low, but it is important that we remain vigilant and quickly identify and respond to any additional importations.” Read more on infectious disease.
FDA Approves the Manufacture of Cell-based Influenza Vaccine
Yesterday the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced approval to manufacture the first cell-based seasonal influenza vaccine in a U.S. facility. The Holly Springs, N.C., facility, which is owned by the Swiss company Novartis, will also be capable of manufacturing vaccines against pandemic influenza viruses. The technology was created in partnership with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. According to a statement from Robin Robinson, PhD, ASPR Director and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, the cell-based vaccines will be part of multi-use approach that “strengthens everyday systems and increases our resilience in emergencies.” Read more on influenza.
Study Links Air Pollution, Cognitive Decline in Older Adults
One way to help reduce age-related cognitive decline may be to reduce air pollution, according to a new study in The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. Researchers determined that older adults who live in areas with low concentrations of fine particulate matter air pollution—from sources such as vehicle exhaust—made fewer cognitive errors on math and memory tests than did older adults who lived in areas with high pollution levels. “Although finding a link between the air we breathe on a daily basis and our long-term brain health is alarming, the good news is that we have made remarkable progress in the last decade in reducing levels of air pollution across the country, and there are efforts underway to further reduce air pollution,” said study co-author Jennifer Ailshire, of the Center for Biodemography and Population Health and the Andrus Gerontology Center at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Read more on aging.
Faster Mass Vaccination Response Could Save Lives, Costs in a Flu Pandemic
A faster response of mass vaccinations after the start of a severe flu outbreak would save both lives and health care costs, according to a new study in Annals of Internal Medicine. Researchers created a computer model of a how an outbreak of H7N9 or H5N1 would affect a U.S. metropolitan city with characteristics similar to New York City, depending on when public health officials were able to vaccinate 30 percent of the population. They determined that reaching that vaccination target in 12 months would mean 48,254 persons would die; at 9 months would save an additional 2,365 lives; at 6 months would save an additional 5,775 lives and $51 million at a city level; and at 4 months would save an additional 5,633 lives and $50 million. Read more on the flu.
Study: Current Weight at 25 a Better Indicator of Later Obesity Risk than Duration of Obesity
In a study of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) at age 25, obesity later in life and biological indicators of health, researchers determined current weight—and not the duration of obesity—was a more effective indicator of cardiovascular and metabolic risk, according to a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. They did also note that people who were obese by age 25 were in fact at higher risk of more severe obesity later in life. Using data from the 1999-2010 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the study found that men who were obese at age 25 had a 23.1 percent estimated probability of class III obesity (BMI greater than 40) after age 35, compared to a 1.1 percent chance for men of a normal weight at age 25. For women who were obese at age 25 the risk of later class III obesity was 46.9 percent, compared to only 4.8 percent for women of a normal weight. “This is good news in some respects, as overweight and obese young adults who can prevent additional weight gain can expect their biological risk factors to be no worse than those who reach the same level of BMI later in life,” said study lead author Jennifer B. Dowd, MD, associate professor, epidemiology and biostatistics, City University of New York (CUNY) School of Public Health, Hunter College. Read more on obesity.
Higher High School GPAs Linked to Greater Earnings in Adulthood
A one-point increase in high school grade point average (GPA) can raise annual earnings in adulthood by approximately 12 percent for men and 14 percent for women, according to a new study in the Eastern Economic Journal. Researchers also determined that a 1-point increase in GPA increased the likelihood of completing college from 21 percent to 42 percent for both genders. “Conventional wisdom is that academic performance in high school is important for college admission, but this is the first study to clearly demonstrate the link between high school GPA and labor market earnings many years later,” said Michael T. French, director of the Health Economics Research Group (HERG) in the Department of Sociology at the UM College of Arts and Sciences, and corresponding author of the study, adding, “High school guidance counselors and teachers can use these findings to highlight the importance of doing well in high school for both short term (college admission) and longer term (earnings as an adult) goals.” Read more on education.
Flu Vaccine Reduces Risk of Child’s Flu-Related ICU Hospitalization by 74 Percent
Receiving a flu vaccine dramatically reduces a child’s risk of flu-related intensive care hospitalization, according to a new study in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzed the medical records of 216 children age 6 months through 17 years admitted to 21 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the United States during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 flu seasons, finding that the a flu vaccination reduces the risk of being admitted to a PICU by 74 percent. “These study results underscore the importance of an annual flu vaccination, which can keep your child from ending up in the intensive care unit,” said Alicia Fry, MD, a medical officer in CDC’s Influenza Division. “It is extremely important that all children—especially children at high risk of flu complications—are protected from what can be a life-threatening illness." Kids younger than 5 and those with chronic medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes or developmental delays are at especially high risk of serious flu complications. Read more on influenza.
CDC Releases Expansive Salmonella Report for Researchers
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released an expansive, first-of-its kind report charting the past four decades of laboratory-confirmed surveillance data on 32 Salmonella serotypes. An Atlas of Salmonella in the United States, 1968-2011, includes data and analysis by age, sex, season and geography down to the county level. The report is available both online and in a downloadable format. Salmonella causes an estimated 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations and 450 deaths each year in the United States. “We hope these data allow researchers and others to assess what has happened and to think more about how we can reduce Salmonella infections in the future,” said Robert Tauxe, MD, deputy director of CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases. “The more we understand Salmonella, the more we can make progress in fighting it all along the farm to table chain.” Read more on research.
GlaxoSmithKline Recalling Alli Non-Prescription Weight-Loss Drug Amid Reports of Tampering
GlaxoSmithKline is working with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in recalling all supplies of its non-prescription weight-loss drug Alli in the United States and Puerto Rico, after reports that some bottles had been tampered with and may not contain authentic Alli. The drug comes in a turquoise-blue capsule, but the company has received inquiries from consumers in seven U.S. states about bottles containing a range of tablets and capsules of various shapes and colors. Read more on safety.
EPA Sets Cleaner Fuel and Car Standards to Cut Air Pollution and Improve Health
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today finalized emission standards for cars and gasoline to significantly reduce harmful pollution and prevent thousands of premature deaths and illnesses. According to the EPA, the new standards will also create efficiency improvements for cars and trucks. The standards go into effect by 2017.
The new standards cut emissions of a range of harmful pollutants that can cause premature death and respiratory illnesses. By 2030, EPA estimates that up to 2,000 premature deaths; 50,000 cases of respiratory ailments in children; 2,200 hospital admissions and asthma-related emergency room visits; and 1.4 million lost school days, work days and days when activities would be restricted due to air pollution will be prevented. Total health-related benefits in 2030 will be between $6.7 and $19 billion annually.
The program will also reduce exposure to pollution near roads. More than 50 million people live, work, or go to school in close proximity to high-traffic roadways, and the average American spends more than one hour traveling along roads each day. Read more on environment.
Study Finds Many Parents Support Flu Shots at School
Half of parents in the United States would agree to have their children get their flu shots at school, according to a survey from the Brown School of Public Policy at Washington University in St. Louis. Researchers at the school conducted a nationally representative online survey of more than 1,000 parents of school-aged children. Convenience was the chief reason for parents supporting flu shots at school. Thirty two percent of parents surveyed were not sure if they would consent to giving the shots at school and 17 percent said they would not consent. Most likely to support flu shots at school were college-educated parents and parents of uninsured children. The study was published in the journal Vaccine.
Flu season can last in the United States through April, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This is especially the case in communities where the season started later in the fall or early winter. In a recent report, CDC researchers found that the flu vaccine “offered substantial protection against the flu this [2013-2014] season,” reducing a vaccinated person’s risk of having to go to the doctor for flu illness by about 60 percent across all ages
“We are committed to the development of better flu vaccines, but existing flu vaccines are the best preventive tool available now. This season vaccinated people were substantially better off than people who did not get vaccinated. The season is still ongoing. If you haven’t yet, you should still get vaccinated," said CDC director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH, in a recent release. Read more on flu.
Online Ratings Currently Not Used Much to Choose Physicians
Online ratings that review physicians can influence which doctor a patient chooses, but most patients rank insurance acceptance and distance from home or office as more important, according to a new study in JAMA.
- 9 percent of responders said they consider doctor rating websites “very important” in their search for a physician
- 89 percent of responders ranked “accepts my health insurance” as “very important.”
- 59 percent said a convenient office location very important
The study also found that only five percent of those surveyed have ever posted ratings online, although two-thirds of responders were aware of ranking sites, a higher percentage than found in previous studies.
“These may seem useful, but no one is regulating this ‘crowdsourced’ information about doctors. There’s no way to verify its reliability, so online ratings may not currently be the best resource for patients,” David Hanauer, a primary care pediatrician and clinical associate professor of pediatrics at C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital in Detroit. Read more on community health.
CDC: H1N1 Flu Killing at Epidemic Levels
The H1N1 flu virus has been killing at epidemic levels since mid-January, according to new data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). While flu is known to disproportionately affect the very young and very old, this strain—also known as the swine flu and the cause of the 2009 global pandemic that killed tens of thousands—has so far caused 243 deaths of residents younger than 65 this year in California alone, with an additional 41 unconfirmed cases. In the 2012-13 season there were 26 deaths at this point and in the 2011-12 season there were nine. According o the CDC the average age of someone diagnosed with flu this season is 28.5 years. “These severe flu outcomes are a reminder that flu can be a very serious disease for anyone, including young, previously healthy adults,” CDC spokesman Jason McDonald said to The Washington Post. Read more on influenza.
Teens Who Text About Condoms, Birth Control More Likely to Use Them
Teens who talk about condoms and other types of birth control over text message and other technology are more likely to use them, according to a new study in the Journal of Adolescent Health. Researchers studied 176 high school juniors and seniors, finding that half of the 64 who reported being sexually active also failed to use condoms consistently. According to the U.S. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, close to 40 percent of the 47 percent of high school students who reported having sex did not use a condom the last time. However, the study found that students who texted or used other private electronic technology to discuss condoms or other forms of birth control were approximately four times more likely to use them. It also found that the odds of consistently using condoms doubled among students reporting discussions of pregnancy or sexual limits. "Although prior research and media attention has focused on the risks of technology use, like sexting, we found that adolescents might also use electronic tools to communicate about ways they might promote their sexual health," said study lead author Laura Widman, who studies adolescent sexuality at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "It's not all about risky behavior. It might be another way that teens can have these conversations that can be a little bit awkward.” Read more on sexual health.
Study: Average Obese Woman Gets Only One Hour of Vigorous Exercise Each Year
The average obese woman in the United States gets only one hour of vigorous exercise each year, and the average obese man gets only 3.6 hours, according to a new study in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. The study utilized the results of a 2005-2006 government survey of adults aged 20 to 74, which covered areas such as weight, diet and sleep patterns of the nearly 2,600 adults and use accelerometer devices to track their movements. The study defined "vigorous" exercise as fat-burning activities such as jogging and jumping rope. “They're living their lives from one chair to another," said Edward Archer, a research fellow with the Nutrition Obesity Research Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. "We didn't realize we were that sedentary. There are some people who are vigorously active, but it's offset by the huge number of individuals who are inactive." According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately one in three U.S. adults is obese, which increases the risk of cardiovascular problems such as heart disease and stroke, diabetes and some cancers. Read more on obesity.
AHA Releases Stroke Prevention Guidelines for Women
For the first time, the American Heart Association (AHA) has released stroke prevention guidelines for women. The guidelines outline stroke risks unique to women and provide evidence-based recommendations on how best to treat them, including:
- Women with a history of high blood pressure before pregnancy should be considered for low-dose aspirin and/or calcium supplement therapy to lower preeclampsia risks.
- Women who have preeclampsia have twice the risk of stroke and a four-fold risk of high blood pressure later in life. Therefore, preeclampsia should be recognized as a risk factor well after pregnancy, and other risk factors such as smoking, high cholesterol, and obesity in these women should be treated early.
- Pregnant women with moderately high blood pressure (150-159 mmHg/100-109 mmHg) should be considered for blood pressure medication; expectant mothers with severe high blood pressure (160/110 mmHg or above) should be treated.
- Women should be screened for high blood pressure before taking birth control pills because the combination raises stroke risks.
- Women who have migraine headaches with aura should stop smoking to avoid higher stroke risks.
- Women over age 75 should be screened for atrial fibrillation risks; a risk factor for stroke.
Read more on prevention.
New Study Predicts Flu Severity
Researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis say flu patients, regardless of age, who have elevated levels of three particular immune system regulators, called cytokines, early in the infection were more likely to develop severe flu symptoms and to be hospitalized than patients with lower levels of the same regulators. Study participants ranged in age from 3 weeks to 71 years.
The study, published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, found that cytokine levels early in the infection were predictive of flu-related complications regardless of patient age, flu strain, the ability of the virus to replicate and other factors. The cytokines studied help to regulate inflammation caused by the body’s immune response to the flu until antibodies and T cells take over. Patients with the elevated cytokines seem to develop airway distress as a reaction to the immune response, a development separate from the effects of the flu virus. “We need to explore targeted therapies to address this problem separately from efforts to clear the virus, says study author Paul Thomas, PhD, an assistant member of the St. Jude Department of Immunology. Read more on flu.
Community Health Worker Model Can Reduce Hospital Readmissions
A new study in JAMA Internal Medicine reports on a community health worker (CHW) program developed at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine that hired people from the local community to help discharged patients navigate the health care system and address key health barriers, such as housing instability or food insecurity. The study found that the intervention improved patient experiences and health outcomes and reduced hospital readmissions.
The Penn team tested the model in a randomized trial with 446 hospitalized patients who were either uninsured or on Medicaid, and lived in low-income communities in which more than 30 percent of the population lived below the Federal Poverty Level. More than one-third of all readmissions to the hospitals participating in the study come from a five-zip code region. Patients in the trial received support from CHWs hired for traits such as empathy and active listening. The CHWs connected during a patient's hospital stay and continued after they were discharged to help with issues including scheduling doctor appointments, accessing medications, or finding child care or shelter. The control group received routine hospital care, medication reconciliation, written discharge instructions, and prescriptions from the hospital. The CHW group had a 52 percent greater chance of seeing a primary care physician within two weeks after being discharged from the hospital and scores measuring a patient's confidence in managing their own care in the future more than doubled in the CHW group. While the two groups had similar rates of at least one hospital readmission (15 percent vs 13.6 percent), the CHW group was less likely to have multiple readmissions (2 percent vs 6 percent in the control group). Read more on health disparities.
Interactive Map Helps Communities Prepare for Peaks in Flu Cases
Flu season for most of the country should peak in January, according to a new website that utilizes modern weather prediction technology to turn real-time influenza estimates into 94 local forecasts of future flu activity. The website was developed by infectious disease experts at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health. By predicting when areas are likely to see the highest incidence of flu cases, public health officials can better manage medicine and other supplies.
The website features:
- Interactive U.S. map that displays the relative severity of seasonal flu in cities across the country flu and incidence numbers for each
- Influenza incidence predictions by city for the coming weeks
- Map that illustrates the proportion of flu cases by region
- Charts that compare the timing and severity of the four most recent flu seasons
- Exportable data for each week of the flu season (beginning in 9/29 for the 2013-2014 season)
Read more on influenza.
Minority Children Less Likely to Be in Car, Booster Seats Properly
Minority children are less likely than white children to be put into car seats and booster seats as recommended, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Potential reasons for the disparity include both access to resources and social norms. "We expected that differences in family income, parental education, and sources of information would explain the racial disparities in age-appropriate restraint use and they did not," lead author Michelle L. Macy, MD, according to Reuters. According to a survey of 600 parents with kids ages one to 12, among four- to seven-year-olds, twice as many non-white kids sat in the front seat as white kids; 10 percent of the kids in that age group overall had sat in the front seat. The study also found that 3 percent of kids under age four and 34 percent ages eight to 12 had sat in the front seat, although there were no differences based on race for these groups. Read more on safety.
Study: Access to Firearms Increases Risk of Suicide and Homicide
A person with access to a gun is three times more likely to commit suicide and about twice as likely to be murdered than someone without such access, according to a new study in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine. Researchers analyzed 15 previous gun studies—13 from the United States—looking at intentional acts of violence. They also adjusted the past studies for the likelihood of mental illness. "If you have a firearm readily available and something bad has happened to you, you might make a rash, impulsive decision that will have a bad outcome," said lead author Andrew Anglemyer, a specialist in study design and data analytics in clinical pharmacy and global health sciences at the University of California, San Francisco. "These are just normal gun owners, and we are seeing that gun owners are making very bad, impulsive decisions." Each year the United States sees approximately 31,000 deaths due to firearms. Read more on violence.
TFAH: Not Enough Americans are Getting the Flu Vaccine
Only a little more than a third of U.S. adults ages 18-64 got their flu shot last season, according to a new analysis by the Trust for America’s Health (TFAH). The report also found that 66.2 percent of adults ages 65 and older and 56.6 percent of children ages 6 months to 17 years were vaccinated. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all American above the age of 6 months be vaccinated each year. “The trend of low vaccination rates among younger adults is particularly troubling this year, when they are more at risk than usual for the effects of the H1N1 strain of flu that’s circulating,” said Jeffrey Levi, PhD, executive director of TFAH. The overall vaccination rate came out approximately 45 percent for the 2012-13 flu season, which while still far short of CDC goals surpassed the previous season’s overall rate of 41.8 percent. Read more on influenza.
FDA: New Regulations on Acetaminophen to Help Curb Liver Toxicity
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is making changes to regulations on acetaminophen to help combat the dangers of liver toxicity, calling for manufacturers of prescription combination products to limit the amount of acetaminophen to no more than 325 milligrams in each tablet or capsule, as well as update the labels on those drugs to warn about the potential risk for severe liver injury. Acetaminophen is found in opioids such as codeine (Tylenol with Codeine), oxycodone (Percocet), and hydrocodone (Vicodin). “FDA is taking this action to make prescription combination pain medications containing acetaminophen safer for patients to use,” said Sandra Kweder, MD, deputy director of the Office of New Drugs in FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Overdose from prescription combination products containing acetaminophen account for nearly half of all cases of acetaminophen-related liver failure in the United States; many of which result in liver transplant or death.” Read more on prescription drugs.
Study: Specialized School Health Programs Also Improve Healthy Behaviors at Home
Broad school health programs can improve children’s health and healthy behaviors at both school and in the home, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers tailored programs for the specific needs of individual elementary schools in ten disadvantaged neighborhoods in Edmonton, with activities such as yoga and dance classes, and then tracked their activity compared to kids at schools without the programs. They found that students with the health programs increased their average daily steps during a typical week by 21 percent, compared to 7 percent for the kids without the programs. "It shows that if you deliver a school program well, kids not only will be active more during the school hours when they are in the hands of the teachers but they're also being trained and understand that it's important to be physically active at other times," said Paul J. Veugelers, who worked on the study at the University of Alberta's School of Public Health in Edmonton. Read more on physical activity.
HHS Moves to Strengthen Federal Background Checks for Gun Ownership
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is taking steps to strengthen the federal background check system for the purchase of firearms by removing legal barriers under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule that could stop states from reporting information to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). The NICS is designed to ensure that felons, people convicted of domestic violence and people involuntarily committed to a mental institution cannot purchase firearms. A 2012 Government Accountability Office report found that 17 states had submitted fewer than 10 records of people prohibited from owning a firearm for mental health reasons. “There is a strong public safety need for this information to be accessible to the NICS, and some states are currently under-reporting or not reporting certain information to the NICS at all,” said HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius. “This proposed rulemaking is carefully balanced to protect and preserve individuals’ privacy interests, the patient-provider relationship, and the public’s health and safety.” Read more on mental health.
CDC: ‘Widespread’ Flu Activity in Almost Half of the Country
Half of the 50 U.S. states are already reporting influenza cases this season, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The majority of the cases have been attributed to the H1N1 virus, which killed an estimated 284,000 people across 74 countries in 2009-2010. Almost half of the country has also classified flu activity as “widespread” this season. Texas, which on December 20 issued an “influenza health alert,” has already seen 25 deaths, according to health officials. "We are seeing a big uptick in disease in the past couple of weeks. The virus is all around the United States right now," said Joe Bresee, MD, chief of Epidemiology and Prevention in the CDC's Influenza Division, adding, "There is still a lot of season to come. If folks haven't been vaccinated, we recommend they do it now.” Read more on influenza.
Slower Eating Leads to Fewer Calories
Normal-weight individuals looking for methods to maintain their healthy weight should consider simply eating slower, according to a new study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Researchers found that both normal-weight and obese or overweight people who ate at relaxed, slow-speed conditions reported feeling less hungry afterward than they did after eating fast-paced meals. However, only the normal-weight study participants consumed “significantly” fewer calories during the slower meals, according to the researchers: 88 fewer calories, compared to 58 fewer calories for obese or overweight participants. Study author Meena Shah, a professor in the department of kinesiology at Texas Christian University, in Fort Worth, said one explanation for the findings could be that “slower eating allows people to better sense their feelings of hunger and fullness.” Read more on obesity.
More Than One Million People Now Enrolled for Health Insurance Coverage under the Affordable Care Act
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), which administers the health insurance provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) reported late last week that more than one million people have now enrolled for coverage under the ACA.
CMS also reported that December enrollment as of December 27 was seven times that of October and November. Open enrollment will continue through March, with rolling dates for first day of coverage. Read more on the Affordable Care Act.
U.S. Flu Cases on the Rise
The Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota reported last week that rates of flu are on the rise in the United States, with the 2009 H1N1 virus the predominant strain. The good news is that this year’s flu vaccine is protective against H1N1.
According to CIDRAP, officials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have said that the 2009 H1N1 virus has a greater impact on younger adults and older children than seasonal flu strains typically do.
The numbers of U.S. flu cases are usually highest January through March, which means that people who have not had flu shots yet still have time to protect themselves. Full immunity from the vaccine can take up to two weeks from the time of the injection. Use the CDC’s Flu Vaccine Finder to find a flu shot in your neighborhood. Read more on outbreaks.
New Orleans Health Commissioner to become Federal Health IT Administrator
New Orleans Health Commissioner Karen DeSalvo, MD, has been appointed the new National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (IT), replacing Farzad Mostashari, who left the position earlier this year. In a memo to employees of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), which oversees the office of the National Coordinator, HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius noted that Dr. DeSalvo boosted the use of health IT as "a cornerstone of [New Orleans’s] primary care efforts and a key part of the city's policy development, public health initiatives and emergency preparedness." Dr. DeSalvo will begin her post in mid-January. Under Dr. DeSalvo's leadership, New Orleans also received the inaugural Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Roadmaps to Health Prize.