Category Archives: Violence
Massachusetts Now Has the Nation’s Strongest Paid Sick Leave Requirements
Massachusetts now has the nation’s strongest requirement for providing paid sick leave. Under a ballot question passed yesterday, people who work for businesses with 11 or more employees are now entitled to up to 40 hours of paid sick time each year. Workers at smaller companies will receive 40 hours of annual unpaid sick time. NewPublicHealth has previously written on the benefits of paid sick leave, including about an American Journal of Public Health study which found that a lack of paid sick leave can be a significant factor in the spread of disease. Read more on business.
Study: Fast Food Marketing to Children Disproportionately Affects Certain Communities
Fast food marketing directed toward children disproportionately affects black, middle-income and rural communities, according to a new study out of Arizona State University (ASU). Researchers studied the marketing practices of 6,716 fast food restaurants, determining that “while most fast food restaurants sampled were located in non-Hispanic and majority white neighborhoods, those situated in middle-income neighborhoods, rural communities and majority black neighborhoods had higher odds of using child-directed marketing tactics.” “Marketing food to children is of great concern not only because it affects their current consumption patterns, but also because it may affect their taste and preferences,” said ASU researcher Punam Ohri-Vachaspati, an associate professor of nutrition in the School of Nutrition and Health Promotion. “We know that consumption of fast food in children may lead to obesity or poorer health, and that low income and minority children eat fast food more often.” Read more on nutrition.
Study: No Link Between Media Violence and Real-Life Violence
Despite the popular notion that media violence is a factor in real-life crime, homicide rates have actually fallen over the past several decades as media violence—in movies, on television and in video games—has increased, according to two new studies in the Journal of Communication. One of the studies examined the level of violence in 90 movies from 1920 to 2005, while the other looked for links between violence in video games and real-life violence among American young people from 1996 to 2011. "The idea that media has big effects on us or shapes our society is probably untenable," said author Christopher Ferguson, chair of the psychology department at Stetson University in Florida. "This doesn't mean media has no effect at all, of course, only that we need to try to move media research out of these culture wars if we're going to make any progress." Read more on technology.
During a recent webinar held by Stakeholder Health, a learning collaborative of health leaders aimed at improving population health, Margo DeMont, PhD, head of community health enhancement at Memorial Hospital of South Bend, Ind., shared about the hospital’s recent efforts to build a trauma-informed community through several innovative therapeutic programs.
For example, using eye motion desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a trained practitioner takes a person through their traumatic experience, and then follows with a series of hand movements, asking the patient to follow the movements with their eyes. After the sequence of movements, the patients are asked to review the intensity of their feelings about the trauma, with the goal of reducing the heightened emotions. The goal is to reprocess the information from the incident in their brain from the right hemisphere, where emotional experiences can be locked up, to the left hemisphere, which is the more cognitive area of the brain. While EMDR is still quite new and studies are still needed, some use of the technique has been suggested by both the U.S. Department of Defense and the American Psychiatric Association.
The goal of the behavioral interventions is to reach people who have suffered through adverse childhood experiences (ACE). Studies have shown that without help dealing with those childhood experiences, people are more likely to face long-term health problems such as substance abuse, cardiopulmonary disease, diabetes and obesity. Memorial Hospital assessed the impact of childhood trauma on adults in the community through a community health assessment.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with DeMont about the initiatives.
NewPublicHealth: When was the community health assessment done that indicated that there was a great deal of trauma in the community related to adverse events in childhood?
Margo DeMont: That was done in 2012 as part of the community benefit requirement for non-profit hospitals under the Affordable Care Act. And we saw that in terms of health issues perceived by the community, violence was rated pretty high, it was one of the priorities, and it came out as both street violence and relationship violence. I was familiar with the work done by Kaiser Permanente on childhood trauma, and we included eight questions from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey that dealt with adverse childhood experiences in random phone surveys completed by 599 adults
In connection with Domestic Violence Awareness Month, held each October, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently issued a stark report which found that sexual violence not only results in high rates of injury and death, but also other long-lasting and even lifetime health impacts. To best share the specifics of the report, the CDC created an infographic with the most striking numbers—including how many men are raped each year and how people under the age of five are sexually abused.
>>View the full infographic.
Perhaps most striking, the CDC found that a substantial proportion of U.S. female and male adults have experienced some form of sexual violence, stalking, or intimate partner violence at least once during their lifetimes.
Among the report’s recommended public health actions:
- Prevention of sexual violence must include the protection of young children.
- Strategies to prevent sexual violence must include strategies that address known risk factors for perpetration and emphasize changing social norms and behaviors by using bystander and other prevention strategies.
- Primary prevention of intimate partner violence should be focused on the promotion of healthy relationship behaviors and other protective factors, with the goal of helping adolescents develop positive behaviors before their first relationships.
>>Bonus Link: CDC’s Center for Injury Prevention and Control offers many resources on sexual violence prevention geared toward people of different ages and communities.
EBOLA UPDATE: Liberia Experiencing an Exponential Increase in Infections
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that Liberia will see thousands of new Ebola cases over the next several weeks. "Transmission of the Ebola virus in Liberia is already intense and the number of new cases is increasing exponentially," according to a WHO statement. "The number of new cases is moving far faster than the capacity to manage them in Ebola-specific treatment centers." So far, 1,089 people have died of the disease in Liberia—the highest toll for any country. Approximately 2,100 people have been killed overall, and WHO estimates that as many as 20,000 people could be infected before public health workers are able to bring the epidemic under control. Read more on Ebola.
CDC Expands National Violent Death Reporting System to Cover 32 States
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has awarded $7.5 million to expand the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) to cover 32 states. The NVDRS—which currently covers 18 states—links data from law enforcement, coroners, medical examiners, crime laboratories and other sources to help states understand when and how violent deaths occur. “More than 55,000 Americans died because of homicide or suicide in 2011. That’s an average of more than six people dying a violent death every hour,” said Daniel M. Sosin, MD, MPH, FACP, acting director of CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, in a release. “This is disheartening and we know many of these deaths can be prevented. Participating states will be better able to use state-level data to develop, implement, and evaluate prevention and intervention efforts to stop violent deaths.” Read more on violence.
NIAAA to Conduct Trials on New Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) is preparing to conduct clinical trials of a potential treatment for alcohol use disorders. “Current medications for alcohol dependence are effective for some, but not all, patients. New medications are needed to provide effective therapy to a broader spectrum of alcohol dependent individuals,” said George F. Koob, PhD, director of the NIAAA, a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in a release. “Prior clinical studies of gabapentin, the active metabolite of the molecule called gabapentin enacarbil, have shown positive results in patients with AUD. We believe that the time is right to conduct a multi-site, well-controlled clinical trial.” The NIH estimates that approximately 17 million people in the United States are affected by an alcohol use disorder, with lost productivity, health care costs and property damage costs amounting to an estimated societal cost of $223.5 billion annually. Real more on alcohol.
EBOLA UPDATE: Third U.S. Aid Workers Arrives for Treatment
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
A third U.S. medical missionary has arrived at the Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha for treatment for Ebola. Rick Sacra, MD, is a SIM USA missionary, as were Kent Brantly, MD, and Nancy Writebol, who were both treated successfully for Ebola at Emory Hospital. Approximately 1,900 people have died and 3,500 have been sickened in the ongoing outbreak. Approximately 400 deaths came in the past week alone. Read more on Ebola.
CDC Report Explores the Extent and Impact of Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released a new report examining the extent and impact of intimate partner and sexual violence. According to the report, almost 20 people per minute are victims of physical violence by an intimate partner; almost 2 million women are raped each year; and more than 7 million women and men are victims of stalking each year. The report determined that since a “substantial portion” of this violence and stalking comes at a young age, primary prevention must also focus on people at young ages, accounting for the differences in victims, addressing risk factors and emphasizing health relationships. Read more on violence.
Study Links Breastfeeding, Lower Weight for Mothers
Mothers who were obese before pregnancy and who then go on to breastfeed may have an easier time losing their pregnancy weight and then keeping it off, according to a new study in journal Pediatrics. Researchers determined that previously obese mothers who breastfed weighed almost 18 pounds less than those who didn’t. "Breast-feeding not only burns extra calories but it also changes the metabolism through a series of hormonal effects required to lactate," said Lori Feldman-Winter, MD, a pediatrician and a professor of pediatrics at Children's Regional Hospital at Cooper University Health Care in Camden, N.J. "The full understanding of how breast-feeding leads to improvements in metabolism for both mother and her baby is incomplete, but there are multiple epidemiological studies showing the association." She also said that the healthier eating habits many mothers who breastfeed take up may also contribute to the lower weights. Read more on maternal and infant health.
Proposed Tobacco Merger Could Boost Smoking Rates
The proposed merger of the Reynolds American and Lorillard tobacco companies announced earlier this week could result in increased smoking rates, according to the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. “This proposed merger is clearly driven by steep smoking declines in the U.S.,” said Matthew L. Myers, president of Tobacco-Free Kids. Myers said cigarette sales fell by 37.1 percent from 2000 to 2013, with the largest decline in 2009, when a 62 cent per-pack increase in the federal cigarette tax was implemented. “Reynolds and Lorillard no doubt hope the economic and political power of a merged company will help them slow or reverse these trends. Elected officials and regulators must be equally aggressive in working to accelerate progress in reducing smoking and other tobacco use.” Read more on tobacco.
Health Education Program Also Reduces Youth Dating Violence
A health education program designed to delay sexual behavior and promote healthy data relationships also significantly reduces dating violence behaviors among minority youth, according to a new study in the American Journal of Public Health. Researchers at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) analyzed 766 students in 10 middle schools in a large, urban school district in southeast Texas, where 44 percent were African American and 42 percent were Hispanic. They looked at four areas—physical victimization, emotional victimization, physical perpetration and emotional perpetration—finding that the It’s Your Game...Keep it Real program reduced all but physical dating violence, which comprised the smallest portion of the program; a revised program with a heavier emphasis on this area is currently being tested in schools. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 10 percent of high school youth are victims of physical dating violence (with ethnic-minority students at increased risk), with other studies indicating that as many as 20 percent are victims of emotional dating violence. Read more on violence.
CDC Report Finds High Rates of Youth Fruit, Vegetable Consumption
Approximately 77.1 percent of U.S. youth ages 2-19 years consume fruit on any given day and 92 percent consume vegetables, according to a recent NCHS Data Brief from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, the rate drops as youth age, while at the same time the amount of fruits and vegetables they eat should be increasing. The report used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. The focused report looked only at whether the foods were consumed, and now how much was consumed. Read more on nutrition.
CDC: One in 25 U.S. Drivers Report Falling Asleep at the Wheel in the Previous 30 Days
Approximately one in 25 U.S. drivers reported falling asleep while driving at least once in the previous 30 days, according to the latest Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC data found that, from 2009-2010, people who slept six or fewer hours per night, snored or unintentionally fell asleep during the day were most likely to fall asleep behind the wheel. They also identified binge drinking and unsafe seatbelt use as linked to a higher risk of falling asleep while driving. The report data was culled from information from the 92,102 respondents in 10 states and Puerto Rico to the 2011–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Read more on transportation.
Study: Adults with Dyslexia Far More Likely to Have Been Abused as Children
Approximately one third of dyslexic adults report having been physically abused as children, according to a new study in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. The percentage was far less—seven percent—for adults without dyslexia. Researchers say more work is needed to identify the cause or causes for this disparity. “It is possible that for some children, the presence of dyslexia and related learning problems may place them at relatively higher risk for physical abuse, perhaps due to adult frustrations with chronic learning failure" said study co-author, Stephen Hooper, professor of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, and Associate Dean and Chair of Allied Health Sciences at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, in a release. "Alternatively, given the known association between brain dysfunction and maltreatment, it could be that the experience of physical abuse may also contribute to and/or exacerbate such learning problems, secondary to increased neurologic burden." Read more on violence.
Poultry Recall Connected to Massive Salmonella Outbreak
Sixteen months after the start of a salmonella outbreak that has sickened nearly 600 people across 27 states, Foster Farms has announced it will recall contaminated chicken that has been linked to the outbreak. The California-based poultry company said the recalled products—produced at three facilities on March 8, 10 and 11 of this year—were distributed in California, Hawaii, Washington, Arizona, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, Oregon and Alaska. "This recall is prompted by a single illness associated with specific fresh chicken product, but in the fullest interest of food safety, Foster Farms has broadened the recall to encompass all products packaged at that time. Foster Farms regrets any illness associated with its products," said the company in a statement. Read more on food safety.
Public Health Campaign of the Month: National Crime Prevention Council, AAP Campaigns Urge Firearm Safety
NewPublicHealth continues a new series to highlight some of the best public health education and outreach campaigns every month. Submit your ideas for Public Health Campaign of the Month to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Two national multimedia campaigns are urging precautions and safe practices when it comes to firearms and children.
The National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC)—in partnership with the Ad Council and funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance—has launched the Safe Firearms Storage campaign to encourage owners to make safe firearms storage a priority. According to a study by the RAND Corporation, about 1.4 million homes have firearms stored in a way that makes them accessible to children, at–risk youth, potential thieves and people who could harm themselves or others.
“We teach all drivers to buckle up in case of accidents and to lock their cars,” said Ann M. Harkins, President and CEO of the NCPC. “The same logic applies to this campaign; we want owners to lock up their firearms to prevent accidents and keep them out of the wrong hands. Safe storage ensures that owners are doing their part to increase public safety.”
In addition to a website, the NCPC campaign features television, radio, print, outdoor and online PSAs that call on firearms owners to use safety devices such as trigger locks, as well as to store ammunition in a separate locked container. A “Snapguide” illustrates options for properly storing a firearm in a household, and the website also offers resources to help firearm owners talk with their children about firearm safety.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), in partnership with the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, is also making a beginning-of-summer push as part of its ongoing ASK campaign—“Asking Saves Kids”—to remind parents to ask whether there is an unlocked, loaded gun in a home before a child goes on a play date. A response of “yes” should be followed with questions about where the gun is and whether the children will be supervised. Concerned parents should then not be afraid to suggest the children play somewhere else, such as a playground or another home without a gun.
A report from a White House Task Force on sexual assaults on campus several weeks ago found that one in five women have been attacked, but only about 12 percent of the attacks are ever reported, often because of a campus climate that places blame on women and sends messages to men that sexual attacks are manly. The task force is asking colleges and universities to survey their students about sexual assault and other “campus climate” issues, and to track assaults and enforcement of campus policies that govern such assaults.
One idea gaining traction for reducing sexual assaults is called bystander intervention, which not only trains individuals to find safe ways to help prevent assaults, but seeks to change the campus cultures that can condone attacks.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Dorothy Edwards, executive director of Green Dot etc., which provides training for high schools and colleges on bystander intervention.
NewPublicHealth: Where does the name Green Dot come from?
Dorothy Edwards: Well, two different ways. I started my career in the field in Texas and for whatever reason for Sexual Assault Awareness Month green was the color of the ribbons. What was more intentional was the “dots” piece. That came out of one of the challenges in mobilizing bystanders to prevention, which is that this issue feels so big. People have been hearing about it for decades and I think there’s a kind of resignation that has settled in. Because when you hear the same number over and over and programs come and programs go and it’s an issue this big, people can just feel that there’s nothing they can do about it. “I’m one person, I can’t change this.”
So, one of the original challenges when we were playing with this idea of bystander intervention and highlighting more the integral role of this kind of third character—apart from victim and perpetrator—was that we knew in order for it to be effective it wasn’t just about skill and knowledge, it was about giving people a sense of possibility, giving people a sense of manageability. And when you say the word dot, a dot is small. So instead of saying we’ve got to change the whole culture, we’ve got to change all college campuses, we’ve got to change sexual assault—which feels so big—we can say to people, gosh, all we need you to actually deal with is a single green dot, a single moment, a single choice. And suddenly something very big feels very small and manageable
Starting at Age 30, Inactivity Accounts for Greatest Risk of Heart Disease for Women
A new study in the British Journal of Sports Medicine finds that from the age of 30 onward, physical inactivity exerts a greater impact on a woman's lifetime risk of developing heart disease than other risk factors, including being overweight, smoking and having high blood pressure. The research was based on a longitudinal study of more than 30,000 Australian women ages 22-64 over almost twenty years. Read more on heart health.
Domestic Violence Victims More Likely to Take Up Smoking
A new study in 29 low and middle-income countries by researchers at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University links intimate partner violence (IPV) with smoking. The researchers examined the association between IPV and smoking among 231,892 women ages 15-29 data collected from health surveys. Reports of IPV ranged from 9 to 63 percent, and using a meta-analysis that accounted for other factors including age, education, and household wealth, the researchers found a 58 percent increased risk for smoking among the women who experienced IPV. The study points to a specific need for investments to help IPV victims avoid tobacco, according to the researchers, who suggest that information about the consequences of smoking, motivation to quit smoking and smoking-cessation treatments could be incorporated into IPV treatment by health care providers who routinely interact with IPV victims. Read more on violence.
Many Veterans Face Food Insecurity
A new study by researchers at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health has found that 27 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are facing food insecurity—nearly double the rate of the general population. The findings came from a university-supported sturdy of veterans’ behavioral health begun in 2001. Researchers found that people who report being food insecure tend to get less sleep, report using cigarettes, tend to be unemployed, ten not be married or partnered and have lower incomes. Veterans would be helped by increasing awareness of the issue so that they are connected to assistance both for food and for employment opportunities. Read more on poverty.