Category Archives: Pediatrics

Oct 15 2014
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Pediatricians Address Urgent Issues for Children at Annual AAP Meeting

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) met in San Diego this week for the group’s annual meeting. Key issues addressed included car seat safety for newborns, care for immigrant children, reducing poverty and young children’s exposure to media.

A study presented at the meeting found that most newborns leave the hospital with their car seat incorrectly installed, posing a risk of injury or death. A trained installer hired by the researchers observed 300 parents and babies about to leave the hospital, noting mistakes such as harnesses that were too high and clips fastened incorrectly. The technician made adjustments before the families left the hospital.

“Car safety seats can be difficult to use correctly for many families, and we need to provide the resources and services they need to help ensure the safest possible travel for newborns and all children,” said Benjamin Hoffman, MD, FAAP, lead author of the study “Unsafe from the Start: Critical Misuse of Car Safety Seats for Newborns at Initial Hospital Discharge.”

AAP released its first media policy urging parents to limit screen time for kids in 1999. That recommendation was solely about television, and since then AAP policies have proliferated. Dimitri Christakis, MD, MPH, and Donald Shifrin, MD, both members of the AAP Council on Communication and Media, debated touchscreen use by toddlers.

“Touchscreens are merely a platform. If a toddler watches a movie on an iPad, it’s no different than watching a movie on a DVD player,” said Christakis. “However, tablets also can be used to read books to children, and high-quality apps are similar to toys. Therefore, the AAP needs to consider how these devices are used instead of discouraging their use across the board.”

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Oct 15 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 15

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EBOLA UPDATE: Second Dallas Health Care Work Tests Positive for Ebola
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The Texas hospital that treated a man who has since died from Ebola has reported that a second health care worker has tested positive for the disease. The patient has been isolated at Texas Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas; the health care worker is being monitored for fever and symptoms while confirmation testing is performed at the Texas Department of State Health Services’ laboratory. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has interviewed the patient about any contacts or potential exposures. Read more on Ebola.

CDC is Utilizing New, Faster Lab Test for Enterovirus D68
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed and is now using a new laboratory test that will enable it to more quickly test remaining specimens for the presence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). EV-D68 has been identified as the most common type of enterovirus this year; enteroviruses and rhinoviruses lead to millions of respiratory illnesses in children annually, and can be especially harmful to kids with asthma. “CDC has received substantially more specimens for enterovirus lab testing than usual this year, due to the large outbreak of EV-D68 and related hospitalizations,” said Anne Schuchat, MD, assistant surgeon general and director of CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “When rare or uncommon viruses suddenly begin causing severe illness, CDC works quickly to develop diagnostic tests to enhance our response and investigations. This new lab test will reduce what would normally take several weeks to get results to a few days.” Read more on pediatrics.

Study: Health Disparities at the Root of Post-Cancer Surgery Deaths
Approximately 5 percent of more than 1 million cancer patients who had surgery died within one month of their operation, according to a new study by Harvard researchers. Study lead author Brandon Mahal, a research fellow at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, cited disparities such as access to quality care, biological or genetic factors, social support and treatment differences as the most likely reasons for the death rate. The study determined that married patients had a 20 percent lower risk of dying within the month after surgery; insured patients had a 12 percent lower risk; wealthier patients had a 5 percent lower risk; and more-educated patients had a 2 percent lower risk. "Efforts to reduce deaths and eliminate disparities have the potential to significantly improve survival among patients with cancer," Mahal said. Read more on health disparities.

Oct 14 2014
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Better Oral Health for Kids in Just Two Hundred and Forty Seconds a Day

Oral health received some recent attention with the passage of a law in California that allows dental hygienists to perform some procedures under the supervision of a remote dentist checking in via video screen. The goal is to improve the oral health of kids in that state. Other states are watching the rollout in the hopes of implementing similar programs.

With that same goal in mind, the Ad Council and dozens of partners have just launched a new series of quirky public service announcements (PSAs) aimed at getting kids to brush their teeth twice a day, two minutes each time. The PSAs highlight how teaching kids to brush their teeth is far easier than other lessons parents impart, including cooking, manners and getting dressed.

The PSAs will appear as television, radio, print, outdoor and digital ads, and can also be found online. Campaign partners include the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Ad Council spokeswoman Ellyn Fisher said the campaign is timed to coincide with Halloween—“as kids get ready to dig into their candy bags.”

A recent Ad Council survey found that three quarters of parents said their kids often forget to brush their teeth. The survey also found that while it’s estimated that children miss more than 51 million school hours each year due to dental-related illnesses, parents rank their children’s dental health as a low priority relative to other health issues, such as nutrition or cold and flu season.

The new PSAs are available in both English and Spanish and direct viewers to the campaign’s website, where parents and children can watch the videos—all 2 minutes in length, or the exact amount of time they should spend brushing their teeth. More than 1.7 million people have visited the website since its launch in 2012. A 2013 Ad Council survey showed that in one year, English-speaking parents reported that their children were significantly more likely to brush twice a day (55 percent in 2013, up from 48 percent in 2012) and significantly more likely to brush for two minutes each time (64 percent in 2013, up from 60 percent in 2012). Spanish-speaking parents also saw significant increases in brushing twice a day, from 63 percent in 2012 to 66 percent in 2013; 77 percent reported kids brushed for the recommended two minutes 2013, up from 69 percent in 2012.

“We’ve had some extraordinary success with this campaign so far,” said Fisher, “But we have a long way to go to make brushing for 2 minutes, twice a day a social norm.”

>>Bonus Links: Follow the campaign’s social media communities on Facebook and Twitter (@brush2min2x).

Sep 29 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: September 29

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EBOLA UPDATE: NIH Admits Ebola-Exposed U.S. Physician for Treatment
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) yesterday admitted an Ebola-exposed U.S. physician for treatment at the NIH’s Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md. The unidentified physician became exposed to the virus while volunteering in Sierra Leone; the NIH declined to comment on whether the physician had been infected. "When someone is exposed, you want to put them into the best possible situation so if something happens you can take care of them," said NIH infectious disease chief Anthony Fauci, MD, according to the Associated Press. Read more on Ebola.

Electronic Devices Can Keep Kids Up at Night, Should Be Out of Bedrooms
Almost three out of four U.S. children ages 6 to 17 sleep in a bedroom with at least one electronic device—and such children sleep an average of one fewer hour per night, according to Jill Creighton, MD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Stony Brook Children’s Hospital. According to Creighton, backlit electronic devices such as tablets, smartphones and video games can interrupt sleep and keep people awake, making it important for parents to get their kids in electronics-free bedtime routines. “The hour before bed should be a no-electronics zone,” she said in a release. “The burst of light from a phone (even if it’s just to check the time) can break a sleep cycle. A regular alarm clock is best.” Read more on pediatrics.

Study: Kids as Young as 6 Can Already See Academic and Social Issues Due to ADHD
Children as young as 6 to 8 years old can experience academic problems and difficulty with social skills due to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is exacerbated by the fact that approximately 80 percent of kids with ADHD symptoms have not been diagnosed with the disorder, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers tested approximately 400 kids at 43 Australian schools, finding 179 with ADHD and 212 without; by following their academic careers, the researchers determined that by the second grade the kids with ADHD were more likely to be below-average in reading and mathematics, and to experience more difficulty connecting with their peers, indicating the need to identify and treat ADHD earlier. "Already at this stage, which is relatively young, it's very clear the children have important functional problems in every domain we registered," said study lead author Daryl Efron, MD, a developmental-behavioral pediatrician with the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, according to HealthDay. "On every measure, we found the kids with ADHD were performing far poorer than the control children." Read more on mental health.

Sep 15 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: September 15

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EBOLA UPDATE: Obama to Announce New Ebola Plan Tomorrow
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
President Obama is expected to make an announcement tomorrow detailing the United States’ increased involvement in combatting the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The plan would likely involve an increased U.S. military presence; the government has already committed approximately $100 million related to protective equipment for health care workers; food; water; and medical and hygiene equipment. More than 2,400 people have so far died in the outbreak. Read more on Ebola.

HHS: $295M to Expand Health Services for 1.5M New Patients
Late last week, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced $295 million in funds to enable 1,195 health centers across the country to hire approximately 4,750 new staff, stay open later and expand their services to cover areas such as oral health, behavioral health, pharmacy and vision services. The funds are available through the Affordable Care Act. HHS estimates that this will help 1.5 million new patients. “These funds will enable health centers to provide high-quality primary health care to more people including the newly insured, many of whom may be accessing primary care for the first time,” said HHS Secretary Sylvia M. Burwell, in a release. Read more on the Affordable Care Act.

Study: 11 Million Unnecessary Antibiotic Prescriptions for Kids Annually
Physicians prescribe antibiotics for kids approximately twice as often than they are needed, contributing to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers analyzed a selection of studies published between 2000 and 2011, as well as data on children examined at outpatient clinics, finding that an estimated 27 percent of U.S. children with infections of the ear, sinus area, throat or upper respiratory tract had illnesses caused by bacteria, yet antibiotics were prescribed for approximately 57 percent of these visits. They estimate that there are more than 11 million such unnecessary prescriptions for kids each year. Read more on prescription drugs.

Sep 11 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: September 11

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EBOLA UPDATE: Gates Foundation Commits $50M to Fight Ebola Epidemic
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will commit $50 million to combat the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The flexible funds will enable United Nations agencies and international organizations to purchase supplies and scale up their operations; the funds will also go toward the development of Ebola treatments. The foundation has already committed $5 million to the World Health Organization for emergency operations and R&D assessments and $5 million to the U.S. Fund for UNICEF to support public health efforts in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. “We are working urgently with our partners to identify the most effective ways to help them save lives now and stop transmission of this deadly disease,” said Sue Desmond-Hellmann, CEO of the Gates Foundation, in a release. “We also want to accelerate the development of treatments, vaccines and diagnostics that can help end this epidemic and prevent future outbreaks.” Read more on Ebola.

CDC: Millions of U.S. Kids Don’t Receive Proper Preventive Care
Millions of U.S. infants, children and adolescents do not receive key clinical preventive services, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) latest Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Supplement. Preventive services from doctors, dentists, nurses and allied health providers help prevent and detect diseases in their earliest stages, when they are the most treatable. Among the report’s findings:

  • In 2007, parents of 79 percent of children aged 10-47 months reported that they were not asked by health care providers to complete a formal screen for developmental delays in the past year.
  • In 2009, 56 percent of children and adolescents did not visit the dentist in the past year and 86 percent of children and adolescents did not receive a dental sealant or a topical fluoride application in the past year.
  • 47 percent of females aged 13-17 years had not received their recommended first dose of HPV vaccine in 2011.
  • Approximately 31 percent of outpatient clinic visits made by 11-21 year-olds during 2004–2010 had no documentation of tobacco use status; 80 percent of those who screened positive for tobacco use did not receive any cessation assistance.
  • Approximately 24 percent of outpatient clinic visits for preventive care made by 3-17 year olds during 2009-2010 had no documentation of blood pressure measurement.

“We must protect the health of all children and ensure that they receive recommended screenings and services. Together, parents and the public health and healthcare communities can work to ensure that children have health insurance and receive vital preventive services,” said Stuart K. Shapira, MD, PhD, chief medical officer and associate director for science in CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. “Increased use of clinical preventive services could improve the health of infants, children and teens and promote healthy lifestyles that will enable them to achieve their full potential.” Read more on pediatrics.

GAO: More Data Needed to Help Veterans Readjust to Civilian Life
More information is needed in order to best provide services to military veterans readjusting to civilian life, according to a new review by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). The review found that while many veterans readjust with little difficulty, others experience financial, employment, relationship, legal, housing and substance abuse difficulties. While the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs is working to improve veteran wellness and economic security, “there is limited and incomplete data to assess the extent to which veterans experience readjustment difficulties,” according to the GAO. Read more on the military.

Aug 29 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 29

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WHO: 20,000 Could Be Infected Before Ebola is Under Control
The World Health Organization (WHO) now estimates that the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa could infect as many as 20,000 people before public health officials are able to get it under control. The latest numbers on the disease place the number of infected at 3,069, with 1,552 deaths. Also yesterday, an article in the journal Science reported that the virus has mutated repeatedly during the outbreak, making it even more difficult to manage. Five of the report’s 50 co-authors have died of Ebola. Read more on Ebola.

CDC: Majority of Parents Have their Children Vaccinated
The majority of parents have their children receive routinely recommended vaccinations, according to the latest Morbidity and Mortality Report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The report found that in 2013:

  • More than 90 percent of babies were vaccinated against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); poliovirus; hepatitis B; and varicella
  • 73 percent were vaccinated against rotavirus
  • 83 percent were vaccinated against Hepatitis A
  • 74 percent were vaccinated against Hepatitis B
  • Less than 1 percent of children received no vaccines

“I want to personally recognize the hard work of doctors and nurses coping with many challenges in the course of clinical work, and commend parents who, despite competing responsibilities, continue to prioritize immunization to keep their children healthy and safe,” said Anne Schuchat, MD, director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “These people are central in keeping young children healthy by ensuring they receive the recommended vaccines on schedule.” Read more on vaccines.

Study: Conflict Between Parents Also Causes Conflict with Children
Conflict between parents in a marriage also has a negative impact on parents’ relationships with their children, according to a new study in the Journal of Family Psychology. Researchers had parents in more than 200 families write daily diary entries for 15 days, then had each parent rate the quality of both their marriage and their relationships with their kids. They found that days with conflict between parents also had increased cases of problems between the parents and their children. "We see from the findings that the marriage is a hub relationship for the family. The quality of that relationship spills over into each parent's interactions with the child. So if mom and dad are fighting, it will show up initially—and in some cases on the second day—in a poorer quality relationship with their kids,” said study author Chrystyna Kouros, an assistant professor in the psychology department at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, in a university news release. Read more on pediatrics.

Aug 28 2014
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Reducing Environmental Risks for Kids in Schools

Most parents send their children off to school expecting they’ll have their minds enriched and expanded—they don’t expect that their kids’ health to be jeopardized.

But the reality is that the environmental conditions in aging or deteriorating school facilities can harm kids’ health and compromise their ability to learn. This is partly because children may be exposed to a variety of environmental hazards—such as lead, asbestos, molds, radon and volatile organic compounds—as well as toxic chemicals and pesticides at school. Half of U.S. schools have problems with indoor air quality, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and research suggests that the poorest children in the poorest neighborhoods have schools that are in the worst condition.

Sixty percent of kids suffer health and learning problems that stem from the conditions of their schools, according to the Coalition for Healthier Schools’ Towards Healthy Schools 2015 report. Children are especially vulnerable because they’re smaller; their organs are still developing; they spend more time on the ground; and they breathe more air and drink more water per pound of body weight than do adults, according to the EPA. They also may not be able to identify obvious hazards and move away from them.

Reducing environmental risks in schools offers significant payoffs in multiple domains. Improving indoor air quality can reduce asthma attacks by nearly 40 percent and upper respiratory infections by more than 50 percent, according to the 2006 report Greening America’s Schools: Costs and Benefits. What’s more, a study weighing the costs and benefits of developing green schools for Washington State estimated a 15 percent reduction in absenteeism and a 5 percent increase in test scores, according to the Towards Healthy Schools 2015 report.

“A healthy school has a building that promotes health and learning—it will be clean, dry, and quiet. It will have good control of dust and particulate matter. It will provide good ventilation and good air quality,” said Claire Barnett, founder and executive director of the Healthy Schools Network Inc., a non-profit organization dedicated to children’s environmental health and safety in schools. “This also assumes there’s no lead in the pipes, no PCBs in lighting or other old building materials, and no routine spraying of pesticides indoors or out. It shouldn’t be hard to have a building that meets these standards but it is. Parents shouldn’t take it for granted that a school facility is healthy.”

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Aug 28 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 28

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EBOLA UPDATE: Death Toll Passes 1,500 as Outbreak Accelerates
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The West African Ebola outbreak continues to accelerate, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), which today announced there have so far been 3,069 probable and confirmed cases; 1,552 people have died. While most cases remain concentrated in only a few localities, WHO estimates that more than 40 percent of the total cases have occurred within the past 21 days.

In other Ebola news:

  • Earlier this week, IDV Solutions released an infographic showing how this Ebola outbreak—the largest in history—compares to previous outbreaks of the disease.
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, will begin initial human testing of an Ebola investigational vaccine next week.

Read more on Ebola.

Teens Who Don’t Get Enough Sleep Are at Increased Risk of Obesity
Teenagers who don’t get enough sleep are at increased risk of being obese by age 21, according to a new study in Journal of Pediatrics. Researchers at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health analyzed health information on more than 10,000 teens and young adults at the ages of 16 and 21, finding that the 16-year-olds who reported less than six hours of sleep per night were 20 percent more likely to be obese by age 21. Potential reasons for the link include appetite changes and cravings due to daytime sleepiness and fatigue. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends nine to ten hours of sleep per night for teenagers. Read more on pediatrics.

Study: ‘Rules of Thumb’ on Pouring Help Reduce Excessive Drinking
Curbing a person’s excessive drinking may be as simple as thinking about how much is poured into each glass, according to a new study in the International Journal of Drug Policy. Researchers from Iowa State University and Cornell University had 74 college students pour red or white wine in a variety of settings, finding that those students who use a “rule of thumb” to dictate their pours—such as only filling half the glass or leaving space equivalent to two fingers at the top—poured less, regardless of their BMI or gender. “About 70 percent of the people in the sample used the half-glass rule, and they poured significantly less by about 20 percent,” said Laura Smarandescu, lead author and an assistant professor of marketing at Iowa State, in a release. “It’s a big difference. We would suggest using a rule of thumb with pouring because it makes a big difference in how much people pour and prevents them from overdrinking.” Read more on alcohol.

Aug 27 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 27

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EBOLA UPDATE: Roundup of the Latest News Out of West Africa
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
As the death toll continues to rise, here’s a look at some of the latest news on the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa.

Read more on Ebola.

Study: Significant Time Spent Playing Violent Video Games Increases the Risk for Depression in Kids
Significant time spent playing violent video games is linked to a greater risk for depression in preadolescent youth, according to a new study in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. Researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) examined 5,147 fifth grade students in three major cities and found that kids who play such games for more than two hours per day showed significantly more depression symptoms, including lack of pleasure, lack of interest in activities, concentration difficulties, low energy, low self-worth and suicidal ideation over the past year. “Previous studies have observed how aggression relates to video games, but this is the first to examine the relationship between daily violent video game exposure and depression,” said Susan Tortolero, PhD, principal investigator and director of the Prevention Research Center at the UTHealth School of Public Health, in a release. Read more on mental health.

WHO Calls for Stronger Regulation of E-Cigarettes
The World Health Organization (WHO) has joined the American Heart Association and other organizations in calling for stronger regulation of e-cigarettes, which are a $3 billion worldwide industry. WHO is now recommending that their indoor use be banned until they are proven harmless to bystanders; the international health organization is also calling for its 194 member states to ban the sale of e-cigarettes to minors, as well as to ban or minimize their advertising. According to the agency, regulation "is a necessary precondition for establishing a scientific basis on which to judge the effects of their use, and for ensuring that adequate research is conducted and the public health is protected and people made aware of the potential risks and benefits." Read more on tobacco.