Category Archives: Pediatrics

Sep 15 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: September 15

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EBOLA UPDATE: Obama to Announce New Ebola Plan Tomorrow
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
President Obama is expected to make an announcement tomorrow detailing the United States’ increased involvement in combatting the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The plan would likely involve an increased U.S. military presence; the government has already committed approximately $100 million related to protective equipment for health care workers; food; water; and medical and hygiene equipment. More than 2,400 people have so far died in the outbreak. Read more on Ebola.

HHS: $295M to Expand Health Services for 1.5M New Patients
Late last week, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced $295 million in funds to enable 1,195 health centers across the country to hire approximately 4,750 new staff, stay open later and expand their services to cover areas such as oral health, behavioral health, pharmacy and vision services. The funds are available through the Affordable Care Act. HHS estimates that this will help 1.5 million new patients. “These funds will enable health centers to provide high-quality primary health care to more people including the newly insured, many of whom may be accessing primary care for the first time,” said HHS Secretary Sylvia M. Burwell, in a release. Read more on the Affordable Care Act.

Study: 11 Million Unnecessary Antibiotic Prescriptions for Kids Annually
Physicians prescribe antibiotics for kids approximately twice as often than they are needed, contributing to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers analyzed a selection of studies published between 2000 and 2011, as well as data on children examined at outpatient clinics, finding that an estimated 27 percent of U.S. children with infections of the ear, sinus area, throat or upper respiratory tract had illnesses caused by bacteria, yet antibiotics were prescribed for approximately 57 percent of these visits. They estimate that there are more than 11 million such unnecessary prescriptions for kids each year. Read more on prescription drugs.

Sep 11 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: September 11

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EBOLA UPDATE: Gates Foundation Commits $50M to Fight Ebola Epidemic
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will commit $50 million to combat the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The flexible funds will enable United Nations agencies and international organizations to purchase supplies and scale up their operations; the funds will also go toward the development of Ebola treatments. The foundation has already committed $5 million to the World Health Organization for emergency operations and R&D assessments and $5 million to the U.S. Fund for UNICEF to support public health efforts in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. “We are working urgently with our partners to identify the most effective ways to help them save lives now and stop transmission of this deadly disease,” said Sue Desmond-Hellmann, CEO of the Gates Foundation, in a release. “We also want to accelerate the development of treatments, vaccines and diagnostics that can help end this epidemic and prevent future outbreaks.” Read more on Ebola.

CDC: Millions of U.S. Kids Don’t Receive Proper Preventive Care
Millions of U.S. infants, children and adolescents do not receive key clinical preventive services, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) latest Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Supplement. Preventive services from doctors, dentists, nurses and allied health providers help prevent and detect diseases in their earliest stages, when they are the most treatable. Among the report’s findings:

  • In 2007, parents of 79 percent of children aged 10-47 months reported that they were not asked by health care providers to complete a formal screen for developmental delays in the past year.
  • In 2009, 56 percent of children and adolescents did not visit the dentist in the past year and 86 percent of children and adolescents did not receive a dental sealant or a topical fluoride application in the past year.
  • 47 percent of females aged 13-17 years had not received their recommended first dose of HPV vaccine in 2011.
  • Approximately 31 percent of outpatient clinic visits made by 11-21 year-olds during 2004–2010 had no documentation of tobacco use status; 80 percent of those who screened positive for tobacco use did not receive any cessation assistance.
  • Approximately 24 percent of outpatient clinic visits for preventive care made by 3-17 year olds during 2009-2010 had no documentation of blood pressure measurement.

“We must protect the health of all children and ensure that they receive recommended screenings and services. Together, parents and the public health and healthcare communities can work to ensure that children have health insurance and receive vital preventive services,” said Stuart K. Shapira, MD, PhD, chief medical officer and associate director for science in CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. “Increased use of clinical preventive services could improve the health of infants, children and teens and promote healthy lifestyles that will enable them to achieve their full potential.” Read more on pediatrics.

GAO: More Data Needed to Help Veterans Readjust to Civilian Life
More information is needed in order to best provide services to military veterans readjusting to civilian life, according to a new review by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). The review found that while many veterans readjust with little difficulty, others experience financial, employment, relationship, legal, housing and substance abuse difficulties. While the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs is working to improve veteran wellness and economic security, “there is limited and incomplete data to assess the extent to which veterans experience readjustment difficulties,” according to the GAO. Read more on the military.

Aug 29 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 29

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WHO: 20,000 Could Be Infected Before Ebola is Under Control
The World Health Organization (WHO) now estimates that the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa could infect as many as 20,000 people before public health officials are able to get it under control. The latest numbers on the disease place the number of infected at 3,069, with 1,552 deaths. Also yesterday, an article in the journal Science reported that the virus has mutated repeatedly during the outbreak, making it even more difficult to manage. Five of the report’s 50 co-authors have died of Ebola. Read more on Ebola.

CDC: Majority of Parents Have their Children Vaccinated
The majority of parents have their children receive routinely recommended vaccinations, according to the latest Morbidity and Mortality Report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The report found that in 2013:

  • More than 90 percent of babies were vaccinated against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); poliovirus; hepatitis B; and varicella
  • 73 percent were vaccinated against rotavirus
  • 83 percent were vaccinated against Hepatitis A
  • 74 percent were vaccinated against Hepatitis B
  • Less than 1 percent of children received no vaccines

“I want to personally recognize the hard work of doctors and nurses coping with many challenges in the course of clinical work, and commend parents who, despite competing responsibilities, continue to prioritize immunization to keep their children healthy and safe,” said Anne Schuchat, MD, director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “These people are central in keeping young children healthy by ensuring they receive the recommended vaccines on schedule.” Read more on vaccines.

Study: Conflict Between Parents Also Causes Conflict with Children
Conflict between parents in a marriage also has a negative impact on parents’ relationships with their children, according to a new study in the Journal of Family Psychology. Researchers had parents in more than 200 families write daily diary entries for 15 days, then had each parent rate the quality of both their marriage and their relationships with their kids. They found that days with conflict between parents also had increased cases of problems between the parents and their children. "We see from the findings that the marriage is a hub relationship for the family. The quality of that relationship spills over into each parent's interactions with the child. So if mom and dad are fighting, it will show up initially—and in some cases on the second day—in a poorer quality relationship with their kids,” said study author Chrystyna Kouros, an assistant professor in the psychology department at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, in a university news release. Read more on pediatrics.

Aug 28 2014
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Reducing Environmental Risks for Kids in Schools

Most parents send their children off to school expecting they’ll have their minds enriched and expanded—they don’t expect that their kids’ health to be jeopardized.

But the reality is that the environmental conditions in aging or deteriorating school facilities can harm kids’ health and compromise their ability to learn. This is partly because children may be exposed to a variety of environmental hazards—such as lead, asbestos, molds, radon and volatile organic compounds—as well as toxic chemicals and pesticides at school. Half of U.S. schools have problems with indoor air quality, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and research suggests that the poorest children in the poorest neighborhoods have schools that are in the worst condition.

Sixty percent of kids suffer health and learning problems that stem from the conditions of their schools, according to the Coalition for Healthier Schools’ Towards Healthy Schools 2015 report. Children are especially vulnerable because they’re smaller; their organs are still developing; they spend more time on the ground; and they breathe more air and drink more water per pound of body weight than do adults, according to the EPA. They also may not be able to identify obvious hazards and move away from them.

Reducing environmental risks in schools offers significant payoffs in multiple domains. Improving indoor air quality can reduce asthma attacks by nearly 40 percent and upper respiratory infections by more than 50 percent, according to the 2006 report Greening America’s Schools: Costs and Benefits. What’s more, a study weighing the costs and benefits of developing green schools for Washington State estimated a 15 percent reduction in absenteeism and a 5 percent increase in test scores, according to the Towards Healthy Schools 2015 report.

“A healthy school has a building that promotes health and learning—it will be clean, dry, and quiet. It will have good control of dust and particulate matter. It will provide good ventilation and good air quality,” said Claire Barnett, founder and executive director of the Healthy Schools Network Inc., a non-profit organization dedicated to children’s environmental health and safety in schools. “This also assumes there’s no lead in the pipes, no PCBs in lighting or other old building materials, and no routine spraying of pesticides indoors or out. It shouldn’t be hard to have a building that meets these standards but it is. Parents shouldn’t take it for granted that a school facility is healthy.”

Read more

Aug 28 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 28

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EBOLA UPDATE: Death Toll Passes 1,500 as Outbreak Accelerates
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The West African Ebola outbreak continues to accelerate, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), which today announced there have so far been 3,069 probable and confirmed cases; 1,552 people have died. While most cases remain concentrated in only a few localities, WHO estimates that more than 40 percent of the total cases have occurred within the past 21 days.

In other Ebola news:

  • Earlier this week, IDV Solutions released an infographic showing how this Ebola outbreak—the largest in history—compares to previous outbreaks of the disease.
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, will begin initial human testing of an Ebola investigational vaccine next week.

Read more on Ebola.

Teens Who Don’t Get Enough Sleep Are at Increased Risk of Obesity
Teenagers who don’t get enough sleep are at increased risk of being obese by age 21, according to a new study in Journal of Pediatrics. Researchers at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health analyzed health information on more than 10,000 teens and young adults at the ages of 16 and 21, finding that the 16-year-olds who reported less than six hours of sleep per night were 20 percent more likely to be obese by age 21. Potential reasons for the link include appetite changes and cravings due to daytime sleepiness and fatigue. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends nine to ten hours of sleep per night for teenagers. Read more on pediatrics.

Study: ‘Rules of Thumb’ on Pouring Help Reduce Excessive Drinking
Curbing a person’s excessive drinking may be as simple as thinking about how much is poured into each glass, according to a new study in the International Journal of Drug Policy. Researchers from Iowa State University and Cornell University had 74 college students pour red or white wine in a variety of settings, finding that those students who use a “rule of thumb” to dictate their pours—such as only filling half the glass or leaving space equivalent to two fingers at the top—poured less, regardless of their BMI or gender. “About 70 percent of the people in the sample used the half-glass rule, and they poured significantly less by about 20 percent,” said Laura Smarandescu, lead author and an assistant professor of marketing at Iowa State, in a release. “It’s a big difference. We would suggest using a rule of thumb with pouring because it makes a big difference in how much people pour and prevents them from overdrinking.” Read more on alcohol.

Aug 27 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 27

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EBOLA UPDATE: Roundup of the Latest News Out of West Africa
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
As the death toll continues to rise, here’s a look at some of the latest news on the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa.

Read more on Ebola.

Study: Significant Time Spent Playing Violent Video Games Increases the Risk for Depression in Kids
Significant time spent playing violent video games is linked to a greater risk for depression in preadolescent youth, according to a new study in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. Researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) examined 5,147 fifth grade students in three major cities and found that kids who play such games for more than two hours per day showed significantly more depression symptoms, including lack of pleasure, lack of interest in activities, concentration difficulties, low energy, low self-worth and suicidal ideation over the past year. “Previous studies have observed how aggression relates to video games, but this is the first to examine the relationship between daily violent video game exposure and depression,” said Susan Tortolero, PhD, principal investigator and director of the Prevention Research Center at the UTHealth School of Public Health, in a release. Read more on mental health.

WHO Calls for Stronger Regulation of E-Cigarettes
The World Health Organization (WHO) has joined the American Heart Association and other organizations in calling for stronger regulation of e-cigarettes, which are a $3 billion worldwide industry. WHO is now recommending that their indoor use be banned until they are proven harmless to bystanders; the international health organization is also calling for its 194 member states to ban the sale of e-cigarettes to minors, as well as to ban or minimize their advertising. According to the agency, regulation "is a necessary precondition for establishing a scientific basis on which to judge the effects of their use, and for ensuring that adequate research is conducted and the public health is protected and people made aware of the potential risks and benefits." Read more on tobacco.

Aug 26 2014
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The Walking School Bus: A Safe and Active Way to Get Kids to School

With research indicating that fewer children are walking or biking to school than in decades past—and with the childhood obesity epidemic in full swing—health experts have been brainstorming solutions that would address both issues. In recent years, a simple but effective concept has been gaining traction at the grass-roots level: Why not organize a “Walking School Bus”—a group of kids who walk to school with one or more adults, so that kids can get exercise on their way to and from school?

A Walking School Bus is “just like a regular school bus, but without the walls and seats, and instead of wheels, we use our feet,” explained LeeAnne Fergason, education director for the Bicycle Transportation Alliance in Portland, Ore., which has a thriving Walking School Bus program. Other communities around the country that have well-established Walking School Bus programs include Chapel Hill, N.C.; Sacramento, Calif.; Burlington, Vt.; Columbia, Mo.; and Duluth, Ga. In the Fall of 2014, many more schools—including Grand View Elementary in Manhattan Beach, Calif.; Greenacres Elementary in Scarsdale, N.Y.; Madison Elementary in Redondo Beach, Calif.; and several elementary schools in Spokane, Wash.—will be joining the trend.

Created by the National Center for Safe Routes to School, these programs help kids sneak some extra physical activity into their day while also addressing parents’ concerns about getting their kids to school safely. It can be as simple as a few neighborhood families taking turns walking their kids to school. Or it can be more elaborate, with prearranged routes, timetables and stops along the way to pick up more “passengers”; with this model, there’s usually an adult “driver” at the front and an adult “conductor” bringing up the rear. A variation on this theme, the bicycle train, in which two or more adults accompany and supervise kids as they ride their bikes to school, has also become popular.

Viewed as a way to fight childhood obesity, improve school attendance rates and ensure that kids get to school safely, the Walking School Bus concept is garnering positive reviews from public health experts. In July 2013, Michelle Obama voiced her support of these programs in her remarks to mayors gathered at the White House.

“I've heard more and more of this kind of walking school bus happening all over the country—so that kids can get exercise on the way to school, kind of like we did when we were growing up," she said. “It’s about people all across this country coming together to take action to support the health of our kids.”

Besides providing an opportunity for movement, the Walking School Bus also allows kids to socialize with their peers, gain a bit of independence and learn important road safety skills. All of these benefits are also important for children’s health and wellbeing.

Aug 25 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 25

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EBOLA UPDATE: Japan Willing to Provide Experimental Treatment Without WHO Approval
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
Japan would be open to providing access to an experimental Ebola treatment before the World Health Organization (WHO) rules on whether to approve the drug, known as T-705 or favipiravir. "I am informed that medical professionals could make a request for T-705 in an emergency even before a decision (on approval) by the WHO. In that case, we would like to respond under certain criteria," said Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga at a news conference. The death toll for the West African outbreak climbed to more than 1,400 over the weekend. Read more on Ebola.

AAP Calls on Later School Opening Times for Students Ages 10 and Older
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is calling for all U.S. schools with students aged 10 to 18 to open no earlier than 8:30 a.m. in order to help kids better manage changes to their body clocks during puberty. Currently only 15 percent of such schools start after that time. “Chronic sleep loss in children and adolescents is one of the most common—and easily fixable—public health issues in the U.S. today,” said pediatrician Judith Owens, MD, FAAP, lead author of the policy statement, “School Start Times for Adolescents,” in a release. “The research is clear that adolescents who get enough sleep have a reduced risk of being overweight or suffering depression, are less likely to be involved in automobile accidents, and have better grades, higher standardized test scores and an overall better quality of life.” Read more on pediatrics.

AHA: E-Cigarettes Should Be Regulated Like Tobacco Products
E-cigarettes should be regulated the same as any tobacco product, according to the American Heart Association’s first policy statement on the products. The statement said that e-cigarettes target young people, can keep people hooked on nicotine and threaten to “re-normalize” tobacco use. “Over the last 50 years, 20 million Americans died because of tobacco. We are fiercely committed to preventing the tobacco industry from addicting another generation of smokers,” said Nancy Brown, CEO of the American Heart Association, in a release. “Recent studies raise concerns that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional tobacco products for the nation’s youth, and could renormalize smoking in our society.” Read more on tobacco.

Aug 20 2014
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Is Your Child In the Right Car Seat?

This week, NewPublicHealth will run a series on new and creative public health campaigns that aim to improve the health of communities across the country through the use of public service announcements, infographics and more. Stay tuned to learn more about a new campaign each day.

Each day in 2010 approximately two children ages 12 and younger were killed in car crashes and another 325 were injured. If the correct child safety seats were used and installed properly, that death rate could be cut by more than 50 percent. Proper use of car seats reduces the risk of death by 71 percent in infants and by 54 percent among toddlers ages one to four, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of booster seats decreases the risk of serious injury by 45 percent among kids ages four to eight, compared to just using seatbelts in this age group.

The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) and the Ad Council’s Child Passenger Safety campaign urges parents and caregivers of children under age 12 to secure their kids in the best possible car restraint system for their age and size.

Through a series of television, radio, print, outdoor and digital PSAs, the campaign aims to raise awareness of the importance of using the correct restraints for children, whether it’s a rear-facing car seat (for babies up to age one), a forward-facing car seat (for kids up to age five), a booster seat (for ages five to 12) or a seatbelt for older kids. The PSAs direct viewers to the Parents Central website, where they can find out whether their children are in age- and size-appropriate car seats and learn how to install the car seats properly.

Child Passenger Safety Week, from September 14-20, will also feature free car seat inspection events throughout the country to help people learn how to install and use them properly.

>>Bonus Links: Read previous NewPublicHealth coverage on child car seat safety:

Aug 18 2014
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A Public Effort to Help Kids Breathe Easier

This week, NewPublicHealth will run a series on new and creative public health campaigns that aim to improve the health of communities across the country through the use of public service announcements, infographics and more. Stay tuned to learn more about a new campaign each day.

In an effort to reduce missed school days, theEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA), in partnership with the Ad Council, has launched a campaign to teach parents how to prevent asthma attacks in kids by identifying common asthma triggers. The “No Attacks” campaign urges parents to learn how to control factors that make a child’s asthma worse, use asthma medicines effectively and recognize when to call the doctor.

Asthma affects nearly 9 million U.S. children, with poor and minority children suffering a greater burden from the disease. Asthma can be especially serious in kids because of their small airways.

Through a series of Public Service Advertisements (PSAs) featuring a rock band of puppet characters called the “Breathe Easies,” the campaign includes online videos, radio spots and online banners (available in English and Spanish) with songs about asthma triggers at home, at school and outside. These entertaining messages inform viewers about how to prevent asthma attacks by cleaning up mold, vacuuming regularly and eliminating smoking at home; making sure their child’s school has a plan for controlling cockroaches and other pests, banning furry class pets and minimizing the use of chemical irritants in cleaning products, air fresheners and pesticides; and postponing outdoor sports and other high-energy activities to avoid exposure to high air pollution levels.

“Too many Americans, particularly children, minorities and people living in poverty, suffer from asthma, spending their time at doctor visits and hospitals instead of at school, work and play,” said Janet McCabe, acting assistant administrator for the EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation. By working with the Ad Council and other partners in communities across the country, we can make a real difference in the lives of millions of Americans dealing with asthma.”

Asthma causes U.S. children to miss 14 million school days each year, which is especially worrisome because more frequent school absences are consistently linked with worse academic performance. The good news: “School absences due to asthma can be avoided by appropriate asthma management, including appropriate use of medications and reduced exposure to triggers,” noted a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since there’s no cure for asthma, preventing attacks—by reducing exposure to environmental triggers and using medications appropriately—is the primary focus of treatment.

The new PSAs stem from The Childhood Asthma Campaign, which was first launched by the EPA and the Ad Council in 2001. Since the debut of that campaign, the percentage of parents who feel they can make “a lot of difference” in preventing asthma attacks has risen from 49 percent to 67 percent, according to the Ad Council’s tracking surveys. The hope is that the new PSAs will improve that percentage even more.