Category Archives: Maternal and Infant Health

Oct 20 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 20

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EBOLA UPDATE: 43 People Cleared from Ebola Watch Lists in Texas
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
Dozens of people in the United States came off of Ebola watch lists this morning after showing no symptoms for 21 days. A total of forty-three people who came into contact with Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, were cleared by Texas’ state health department. Another 120 people are still being monitored. The news comes as lawmakers continue to debate the feasibility and prudence of enacting a travel ban from West Africa. Read more on Ebola.

 

Healthy Lifestyle Habits Could Reduce Gestational Diabetes Cases by Half

Healthy lifestyle habits such as maintaining a normal weight, not smoking and staying physically active may help prevent as many as half of all gestational diabetes cases, according to a new study in the journal BMJ. Researchers analyzed data on more than 14,000 U.S. women, finding that women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy were at four times the risk of developing gestational diabetes. Women with all three of the identified healthy lifestyle behaviors were 83 percent less likely to develop gestational diabetes than were women who lacked all three. Read more on maternal and infant health.

 

Study: Men with IBS Report Greater Interpersonal Difficulties
Men with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) experience more interpersonal difficulties than do women with the condition, according to a surprising new study presented at the American College of Gastroenterology annual meeting in Philadelphia. IBS symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea and/or constipation; it affects an estimate 25 million to 50 million Americans, but is twice as common among women, meaning less is known about how men experience the disorder. The study determined that men report feeling cold and detached, which leads to difficulties in interpersonal relationships. "Our findings underscore the significance of studying gender-based differences in how people experience the same disease or condition," says Jeffrey Lackner, PsyD, professor of medicine in the UB School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, in a release. "That discrepancy underscores our need to move beyond clinical intuition and anecdote, and systematically study the different ways that each gender experiences disease in general. Patients who have a domineering and distant interpersonal style may need to work more closely with the physicians.” Read more on health disparities.

 

Oct 10 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 10

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EBOLA UPDATE: One-quarter of Americans View Ebola as a ‘Major Threat’ to the United States
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The percentage of Americans who view Ebola as a “major threat” to the United States stands at 27 percent, up from only 13 percent in mid-September, according to a new Harris Poll/HealthDay survey. While saying that the fear is unwarranted, Mayo Clinic infectious diseases physician and researcher Pritish Tosh, MD, said the rising concern is also understandable. "Ebola is an agent that evokes a lot of fear, and can result in societal disruption," said Tosh, according to HealthDay. "There's a reason why it's considered a possible bioterrorism agent. So any time you have any cases in the United States, there is a heightened amount of anxiety." Read more on Ebola.

In-home Parenting Education Improves Mother’s Health, Behavior
In-home, intensive parenting and health education reduces illegal drug use, depression and behavior problems in pregnant American Indian teens, while also improving the likelihood that their children will reach behavioral and emotional milestones, according to a new study in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health analyzed 322 expectant American Indian teens in four Southwest communities, randomly assigning them to receive optimized care or optimized care plus 63 in-home education sessions, finding that the latter group saw greater improvements in various behaviors. "We found a consistent pattern of success across a number of different outcome measures," says the study's principal investigator John Walkup, MD, an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and a faculty member within the Center for American Indian Health. "These early years are critical ones for children. We teach these mothers not only how to be competent parents, but how to cope with stressors and other risk factors that could impede positive parenting skills." Read more on maternal and infant health.

Study: Hospital Patients Don’t Wash their Hands Nearly Enough
Hospital patients aren’t washing their hands nearly enough, according to new research from McMaster University. Researchers analyzed the hand hygiene behavior of 279 adult patients in three multi-organ transplant units of a Canadian acute care teaching hospital over an eight-month period, finding they washed their hands about 30 percent of the time while in the washroom, 40 percent during meals and only 3 percent when using the kitchens in their rooms. "This is important because getting patients to wash their hands more could potentially reduce their risk of picking up infections in the hospital," said principal investigator Jocelyn Srigley, MD, an assistant professor of medicine at McMaster's Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, in a release. Read more on prevention.

Oct 2 2014
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Special Delivery: March of Dimes Honors Arizona State Health Director for Work on Improving Turnaround Times on Newborn Screening

An inaugural honor awarded by the March of Dimes last month—the Newborn Screening Quality Award—is the first in a series of awards to state health directors who have made changes to vastly improve newborn screening programs that help prevent death and disability for new babies.

The inaugural award was presented to Will Humble, MPH, director of the Arizona Department of Health Services. He established a policy of full transparency for the length of time it takes Arizona hospitals to send newborn blood samples to the lab for analysis, with a target of having 95 percent of samples screened within 72 hours.

“When hospitals hold onto blood samples for a few days, or a lab is closed on the weekend, this can lead to deadly delays for newborns,” said Edward McCabe, MD, the March of Dimes chief medical officer. “But under Will Humble’s leadership, Arizona has put in place a process that is a model for other states to follow.”

McCabe says the award—named for Robert Guthrie, MD, who developed the first mass screening test for babies in 1963—recognizes leadership in establishing a culture of safety as a way to avoid deadly delays in states’ newborn screening processes.

All states were put on notice about hazardous newborn screening test shipping practices by a Milwaukee Journal Sentinel investigative series, Deadly Delays, published in 2013. She series found that many hospitals delayed sending tests to labs for a variety of reasons, including staff vacations or shortages, or batched the tests in order to save money on shipping, causing diagnosis delays that resulted in babies’ deaths or disabilities.

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Sep 25 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: September 25

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EBOLA UPDATE: Public Health Experts Worried About a ‘New Normal’ For Ebola
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
With the World Health Organization announcing that the death toll from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has now surpassed 2,900 people, public health experts are increasingly resigning themselves to the very real possibility that the outbreak will go on for a very long time. Previous human outbreaks were either stopped quickly or in no more than a few months. However, this outbreak is taking hold in urban areas—previous outbreaks were found in rural areas with smaller, more spread out populations—making it unlike any of the others. “What’s always worked before—contact tracing, isolation and quarantine—is not going to work, and it’s not working now,” said Daniel Lucey, a professor of Microbiology and Immunology at Georgetown University Medical Center, according to The Washington Post. Read more on Ebola.

Common Painkillers Linked to Increased Risk of Blood Clots
Common painkillers including aspirin, naproxen and ibuprofen may be linked to an increased risk of developing dangerous blog clots known as venous thromboembolisms (VTE), according to a new study in the journal Rheumatology. The painkillers are all types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Researchers analyzed the results of six studies that included 21,401 VTE events, finding that patients who used NSAIDs were almost twice as likely to develop the clots. "Our results show a statistically significant increased VTE risk among NSAIDs users. Why NSAIDs may increase the risk of VTE is unclear,” said study lead author Patompong Ungprasert, in a release. “It is possibly related to COX-2 inhibition leading to thromboxane-prostacyclin imbalance. Physicians should be aware of this association and NSAIDs should be prescribed with caution, especially in patients already at a higher risk of VTE." Read more on heart and vascular health.

U.S. Lags Behind Much of Europe in Infant Mortality Rates
The United States continues to lag behind much of Europe and several other developed nations when it comes to infant mortality rates, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Approximately 6.1 U.S. infants died per every 1,000 live births in 2010. While that was down from the rate of 6.87 in 2005, it was still double the rates of Finland, Japan, Portugal, Sweden, the Czech Republic and Norway. "I think we've known for a long time that the U.S. has a higher preterm birth rate, but this higher infant mortality rate for full-term, big babies who should have really good survival prospects is not what we expected," said lead author Marian MacDorman, a senior statistician and researcher in the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics, according to HealthDay. Reasons for the United States’ high rate include prenatal care that leads to the birth of more at-risk preemies, as well as disparities in prenatal care. Read more on maternal and infant health.

Sep 5 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: September 5

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EBOLA UPDATE: Third U.S. Aid Workers Arrives for Treatment
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
A third U.S. medical missionary has arrived at the Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha for treatment for Ebola. Rick Sacra, MD, is a SIM USA missionary, as were Kent Brantly, MD, and Nancy Writebol, who were both treated successfully for Ebola at Emory Hospital. Approximately 1,900 people have died and 3,500 have been sickened in the ongoing outbreak. Approximately 400 deaths came in the past week alone. Read more on Ebola.

CDC Report Explores the Extent and Impact of Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released a new report examining the extent and impact of intimate partner and sexual violence. According to the report, almost 20 people per minute are victims of physical violence by an intimate partner; almost 2 million women are raped each year; and more than 7 million women and men are victims of stalking each year. The report determined that since a “substantial portion” of this violence and stalking comes at a young age, primary prevention must also focus on people at young ages, accounting for the differences in victims, addressing risk factors and emphasizing health relationships. Read more on violence.

Study Links Breastfeeding, Lower Weight for Mothers
Mothers who were obese before pregnancy and who then go on to breastfeed may have an easier time losing their pregnancy weight and then keeping it off, according to a new study in journal Pediatrics. Researchers determined that previously obese mothers who breastfed weighed almost 18 pounds less than those who didn’t. "Breast-feeding not only burns extra calories but it also changes the metabolism through a series of hormonal effects required to lactate," said Lori Feldman-Winter, MD, a pediatrician and a professor of pediatrics at Children's Regional Hospital at Cooper University Health Care in Camden, N.J. "The full understanding of how breast-feeding leads to improvements in metabolism for both mother and her baby is incomplete, but there are multiple epidemiological studies showing the association." She also said that the healthier eating habits many mothers who breastfeed take up may also contribute to the lower weights. Read more on maternal and infant health.

Aug 20 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 20

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Workers with Access to Natural Light Sleep Longer and Better
Natural light in the workplace improves overall health, according to a new study in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. Researchers from Northwestern Medicine and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign found that employees with windows received 173 percent more white light exposure during an average work day and slept an average of 46 minutes more per night. They also engaged in more physical activity and reported a better overall quality of life. “There is increasing evidence that exposure to light, during the day—particularly in the morning—is beneficial to your health via its effects on mood, alertness and metabolism,” said senior study author Phyllis Zee, MD, PhD, a Northwestern Medicine neurologist and sleep specialist, in a release. “Workers are a group at risk because they are typically indoors often without access to natural or even artificial bright light for the entire day. The study results confirm that light during the natural daylight hours has powerful effects on health.” Read more on environment.

Public Transportation to Work Linked to Healthier Weights
Public transportation should potentially be added to what we think of as “active commuting” modes because of its related health benefits, according to a new study on TheBMJ.com. People who go to work on public transportation tend to be thinner than people who drive their own cars, according to researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and University College London. The findings are based on data from 7,424 people in the United Kingdom on how much body fat they had and from 7,534 people on their body mass index. “It seems to suggest switching your commute mode—where you can build in just a bit of incidental physical activity—you may be able to cut down on your chance of being overweight and achieve a healthier body composition as well,” said study leader Ellen Flint, according to Reuters. Read more on physical activity.

ACOG: All Pregnant Women Should Receive a Flu Shot
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is now recommending that all pregnant women, no matter how far along they are in the pregnancy, should be vaccinated against influenza. During the 2009-2010 flu season the immunization rate for pregnant women was 50 percent; prior to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic it was only 15 percent. According to the college, flu prevention is “an essential element of preconception, prenatal, and postpartum care” because of immune system changes during the pregnancy and the added need to protect the fetus. “The flu virus is highly infectious and can be particularly dangerous to pregnant women, as it can cause pneumonia, premature labor, and other complications, “ said Laura Riley, MD, chair of the College’s Immunization Expert Work Group, which developed the Committee Opinion in conjunction with the College’s Committee on Obstetric Practice. “Vaccination every year, early in the season and regardless of the stage of pregnancy, is the best line of defense.” Read more on maternal and infant health.

Aug 18 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 18

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EBOLA UPDATE: Looted Quarantine Center Raises Fears of Ebola’s Spread
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The raid by residents of an Ebola quarantine center in Liberia this weekend sent potentially infected patients fleeing and has raised very serious concerns over spreading the outbreak throughout West Point, Monrovia. Looters—apparently angry that patients were brought to the holding center from other parts of Monrovia—were seen taking items that were visibly stained with blood, vomit and excrement, all of which can spread the Ebola virus. The Washington Post reports that there have been talks about quarantining the entire township if needed. Read more on Ebola.

Study: Mothers in Poorer Health Less Likely to Breastfeed
Mothers who are in poorer health are also less likely to breastfeed their infant children, according to a new study in the journal PLOS ONE. Researchers from the School of Public Health at the University of Minnesota determined that women who are obese, have diabetes or have hypertension were 30 percent less likely to intend to breastfeed than were mothers without health complications. “Statistically we’re seeing an increase in breastfeeding in the U.S., which is great news. Unfortunately, at the same time, rates of obesity and other health problems are increasing. More than a million women each year enter pregnancy with a health problem, and our study shows that these mothers were less likely to plan to breastfeed,” said Katy Kozhimannil, PhD, lead author of the study and assistant professor at the university, in a release. “This is troubling because the families with social and medical risk factors are often those who stand to gain the most benefits from breastfeeding.” Read more on maternal and infant health.

Study: HPV Vaccine Still Effective After Eight Years
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to remain effective at protecting against the sexually transmitted virus for at least eight years, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers randomly assigned 1,781 sexually inactive boys and girls ages 9-15 to either the HPV vaccine or placebo shots, finding that those who received the vaccine still had antibodies against HPV after eight years. “The body's response against HPV by making antibodies looks very good at eight years, and it seems like no booster doses will be necessary," said lead researcher Daron Ferris, MD, director of the HPV epidemiology and prevention program at Georgia Regents University in Atlanta, according to HealthDay. "These are all indications that the vaccine is safe, and it looks like it's effective in preventing genital warts and other diseases caused by HPV.” Read more on vaccines.

Aug 11 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 11

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EBOLA UPDATE: Spanish Priest Receives Experimental U.S. Drug
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
As the World Health Organization (WHO) and other public health agencies continue to debate the ethics and intricacies of using experimental treatments in response to the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa, Spain has imported the U.S.-made ZMapp drug to treat a 75-year-old Spanish missionary priest who was evacuated from Liberia last week. The experimental drug, produced by Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc. of San Diego, Calif., was previously used on two American health workers who are now being treated at an Atlanta, Ga., hospital. More than 1,000 people have been killed so far in the outbreak which began last March. Read more on Ebola.

Study: Concussions Similar No Matter their Locations
One concussion should be treated just as seriously as any other concussion no matter where on the head it occurs, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers determined that no matter the location, the symptoms and time away from the field were similar for high-school football players who received a concussion. Approximately 44.7 percent of concussions from player-to-player collisions occurred from front-of-the-head impacts and 22.3 percent were from side-of-the-head impacts. The researchers recommended improved education on safer “head up” tackling techniques in order to reduce student athlete concussions. Read more on injury prevention.

Pregnant Women, Fetuses Exposed to Unnecessary Antibacterial Compounds
Children of pregnant women who are exposed to certain antibacterial compounds may experience developmental and reproductive issues, according to new data presented this weekend at the American Chemical Society annual meeting in San Francisco, Calif. Researchers looked at triclosan and triclocarbon levels in the urine of 184 pregnant women, finding that all tested positive for the former and 85 percent tested positive for the latter. Triclosan was also found in more than half of the samples of umbilical cord blood. The two chemicals are found in more than 2,000 everyday consumer products, including toothpastes, soaps, detergents, carpets, paints, school supplies and toys. Researchers also found butyl paraben in more than half of the urine and cord samples; the chemical has been linked to shorter length in newborns. All three can and should be removed from household goods, according to Andrea Gore, a spokeswoman for The Endocrine Society and a professor of pharmacology and toxicology at the University of Texas at Austin. "The efficacy of these products as being helpful to human health has not been proven, but companies are adding them to products anyway," she said, according to HealthDay. "There's no downside to removing chemicals that have no proven benefit." Read more on maternal and infant health.

Aug 5 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 5

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Crowdsourcing Apps as Effective at Experts in Providing Healthy Food Information
Crowdsourcing healthy food information and feedback via smartphone apps can be as effective as working with trained experts, according to a new study in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. Researchers used 450 photos of food/drink uploaded onto the Eatery app by 333 unique users in Europe and the United States, comparing the “healthiness” ratings from the app’s users to those from three public health students training in dietary assessment. The results were similar and both were in line with national dietary guidance. "Crowdsourcing has potential as a way to improve adherence to dietary self-monitoring over a longer period of time," wrote the researchers. "The results of this study found that when basic feedback on diet quality by peer raters is crowdsourced, it is comparable to feedback from expert raters, and that peers can rate both healthy and unhealthy foods in the expected direction.” Read more on nutrition.

HUD: $106M to Improve Home Visiting Programs for Pregnant Women, Parents of Young Children
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has awarded nearly $106 million to expand voluntary, evidence-based home visiting services for pregnant women and the parents of young children. Forty-six states, the District of Columbia and five jurisdictions will share the funding from the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program; home visits have been shown to prevent child abuse and neglect, while promoting childhood health and development. “These awards allow states to reach more parents and families in an effort to improve children’s health while at the same time building essential supports within their communities,” said Mary Wakefield, PhD, RN, administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration, in a release. Read more on maternal and infant health.

Study: Hepatitis C Could Be ‘Rare’ In the U.S. By 2036
A new computer model indicates that improved medicine and screening regimens could make hepatitis C a “rare” disease in the United States within the next two decades, according to a new study in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Currently approximately one in every 100 people in the United States are infected with the virus, which is a liver infection that can cause fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and other symptoms, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The researchers determined that this incidence rate could drop to approximately one in every 1,500 people by 2036 based on current and continuing improvements in treatment, and recommend a greater emphasis on identifying at-risk and infected patients. Read more on infectious disease.

Jul 31 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: July 31

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Study: Families With Preschoolers Purchasing Fewer High-Calorie Drinks
Recent progress in stalling and perhaps even reversing the childhood obesity epidemic may be linked to fewer families with preschool-aged children purchasing high-calorie drinks, according to a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Researchers used Nielsen Homescan data from approximately 43,000 U.S. households with young children from 2000 to 2011, identifying the top 20 foods and beverages purchased. “Decreases in purchases of fluid milks, soft drinks, juice and juice drinks, and grain-based desserts were the primary drivers of this change,” said lead author Christopher Ford, MPH, doctoral candidate in nutrition at the University of North Carolina’s Gillings School of Global Public Health. “These data suggest that these households may have purchased fewer calories from solid fats and added sugars.” Previous research shows that approximately 70 to 80 percent of a preschooler’s diet comes from food purchased at stores. Read more on nutrition.

Peace Corps Withdraws from Three West African Countries Due to Ebola Crisis
The Peace Corps announced yesterday that it was removing all 340 of its volunteers from Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea in reaction to the increasing spread of the Ebola virus in West Africa. The organization said it has been working closely with experts from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of State to monitor the health crisis and determine how it should respond. “The Peace Corps has enjoyed long partnerships with the government and people of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea and is committed to continuing volunteers’ work there,” according to a Peace Corps release. “A determination on when volunteers can return will be made at a later date.” Read more on global health.

Study: Women Who Live Near Green Spaces Give Birth to Healthier Babies
Pregnant women who live near green spaces—such as parks, community gardens and even cemeteries—give birth to healthier babies with significantly higher birth weights, according to a new study in the journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Researchers analyzed data on approximately 40,000 single live births in Tel Aviv, Israel. "We found that overall, an increase of surrounding greenery near the home was associated with a significant increase of birth weight and decreased risk for low birth weight," said Michael Friger, PhD, of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev's Department of Public Health. "This was the first study outside of the United States and Europe demonstrating associations between greenery and birth weight, as well as the first to report the association with low birth weight." Read more on maternal and infant health.