Category Archives: Injury Prevention

Jul 21 2014
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Child ‘Vehicular Heatstroke’: Good Samaritan Laws and Other Public Health Solutions

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Earlier this month, following the heatstroke death of a Georgia toddler who was left in a sweltering car for hours, Tennessee became the first state in the nation to pass a law that specifically protects people from liability for forcibly breaking into cars and rescuing kids they think are at risk of heatstroke. The law requires those individuals to call 911 first and follow instructions.

Many states have Good Samaritan laws that may protect people in such instances, but the specifics vary from state to state, according to Cristina M. Meneses, JD, MS, a staff attorney with the Network for Public Health Law’s Eastern Region. A recent Today show poll found that 88 percent of the 44,000 people asked would break into a car to rescue a child they thought was in danger, but specific laws can increase the response—and potentially remove penalties—while raising awareness of the issue. More such laws could soon follow. Janette Fennell, founder and head of KidsAndCars, a nonprofit based in Kansas City, Mo., which advocates for laws that will protect kids from heat in vehicles, said she’s received inquiries from two states about those laws since Tennessee’s law was passed. Another set of laws that KidsAndCars tracks are those that penalize adults for leaving kids in cars. Nineteen states currently have such laws on the books.

“It’s a good deterrent for anyone who might think, ‘Oh, I’ll just leave them in the car for a minute,’” said Fennell, “because it’s often that minute that turns into much longer and results in injury or death.”

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), more than 40 kids—often under age 2—die each year of “vehicular heatstroke.” Seventeen U.S. kids have died after being left or trapped in car since the beginning of 2014. Fennell and other experts say many people just don’t realize how quickly temperatures can climb in a car, even if the window is cracked open a bit—when outside temperatures are in the low 80's, the temperature inside a vehicle can reach deadly levels in only 10 minutes, even with a window rolled down two inches. Children's bodies, in particular, overheat easily; and infants and children under four years old are at the greatest risk for heat-related illness.

NHTSA research shows that heatstroke deaths and injuries often occur after a child gets into an unlocked vehicle to play without a parent or caregiver's knowledge. Other incidents can occur when a parent or caregiver who is not used to transporting a child as part of their daily routine inadvertently forgets a child sleeping in the back.

Last week, KidsAndCars launched a petition drive to encourage NHTSA to require technology in all cars that would remind a driver that there is a child in the back. There are devices parents can install, but a 2012 study by NHTSA found that none that the agency studied were consistently effective.

“You get a warning if you don't buckle your seatbelt, leave a car door open, your gas is low or you leave your headlights on,” said Fennell. “If a child is left behind then you absolutely need a warning.”

Guidelines from NHTSA and other safety experts aimed at never leaving a child unattended in a car include:

  • Make a habit of looking in the vehicle—front and back—before locking the door and walking away
  • Ask childcare providers to call if a child doesn't show up for care as expected
  • Put items in the back seat you’ll have to retrieve such as a purse or briefcase, or put a stuffed animal in sight of the driver to indicate there’s a child in the car.

>>Bonus Links:

Jul 10 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: July 10

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HHS, DOJ Release ‘Roadmap’ to Prevent Elder Abuse
The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) have announced a new Elder Justice Roadmap to enhance elder abuse prevention and prosecution, while also highlighting the issue of elder abuse. An estimated one in 10 Americans over the age of 60 have experienced elder abuse or neglect. The Roadmap includes the DOJ’s development of an interactive, online curriculum to teach legal aid and other civil attorneys to identify and respond to elder abuse, as well as the HHS’ development of a voluntary national adult protective services data system. “Elder abuse is a problem that has gone on too long, but the Roadmap Report released today can change this trajectory by offering comprehensive and concrete action items for all of the stakeholders dedicated to combating the multi-faceted dimensions of elder abuse and financial exploitation,” said Associate Attorney General Tony West, in a release. “While we have taken some important steps in the right direction, we must do more to prevent elder abuse from occurring in the first place and face it head on when it occurs.” Read more on aging.

Study: Health Care Providers Must Do More to Ensure Pregnant Women Receive the Flu Vaccine
A new study finds that health care providers (HCPs) must do more to ensure pregnant women are vaccinated against influenza. After a review of 45 research papers, researchers determined that HCP influenza vaccine recommendations and on-site services would both help increase the current suboptimal vaccination rate. The study pointed to inadequate knowledge of the risks of influenza; doubts about vaccine safety, efficacy and benefits; and fear of adverse reactions for both the pregnant women and their unborn fetuses as barriers to vaccination. Many of the women in the review were also unaware that their pregnancies placed them at higher risk of complications from influenza. Read more on maternal and infant health.

Study: Younger Pro Pitchers at Higher Risk of Needing ‘Tommy John’ Surgery
Stephen Strasburg. Matt Harvey. Kerry Wood. All were or are hard-throwing Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent “Tommy John” surgery early in their careers. Now, a new study from researchers at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine indicates that entering the MLB at a younger age increases the risk of needing Tommy John surgery—which is a reconstruction of the ulnar collateral ligament in the elbow—at some point in a career. In a study of 168 pitchers who had Tommy John surgery and 178 age-matched pitchers who did not, approximately 60 percent of those who needed the surgery had it in the first five years of their career. They also had statistically more Major League experience, indicating that arm stress at a younger age heightens the risk of damage. “Having athletic trainers and team physicians closely look at when players’ pitching performance stats start to decrease may allow for steps to be taken before a surgery is needed. Our study also further highlights the need for kids not to overuse their arms early in their pitching careers,” said lead author Robert Keller, MD, of Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, in a release. Read more on injury prevention.

Jul 8 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: July 8

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HHS: $83.4M to Improve Community Access to Primary Health Care
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is awarding $83.4 million to 60 Teaching Health Centers as part of the Affordable Care Act. The funds will go toward training more than 550 residents during the 2014-15 academic year, with the goal of strengthening primary care and improving access to health care in U.S. communities. Areas covered will include family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, gynecology, psychiatry, geriatrics and general dentistry. “This program not only provides training to primary care medical and dental residents, but also galvanizes communities,” said Health Resources and Services Administration Administrator Mary K. Wakefield, PhD, RN. “It brings hospitals, academic centers, health centers, and community organizations together to provide top-notch medical education and services in areas of the country that need them most.” Read more on access to care.

Community Preventive Services Task Force Recommends Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws
Universal motorcycle helmet laws can prevent injuries and save lives while also saving communities the high health care costs associated with collisions, according to a new review of 69 studies and a separate economic review of 22 studies by the Community Preventive Services Task Force. Based on the conclusions, the task force—an independent, nonfederal, unpaid panel of public health and prevention experts—recommends all U.S. communities adopt universal helmet laws, with are more effective than no law or partial helmet laws at preventing severe injuries. The study found that the United States and other high-income communities saw substantial decreases in motorcycle-related deaths and injuries after enacting universal helmet laws, but the inverse when universal laws were repealed or replaced with other laws. Read more on injury prevention.

Study: Fungus Behind 2013 Yogurt Recall a Larger Threat than Previously Believed
The fungus behind an outbreak that led to the September 2013 recall of Chobani brand Greek yogurt is more dangerous than first believed, according to a new study in mBio, the online journal of the American Society for Microbiology. Initially the company believed that the Murcor circinelloides fungus was only a potential danger to people with compromised immune systems. However, as additional gastrointestinal were reported researchers continued their study, concluding that the “harmless” fungus was actually a strain with the ability to cause disease. “When people think about food-borne pathogens, normally they list bacteria, viruses, and maybe parasites. Fungal pathogens are not considered as food-borne pathogens. However, this incidence indicates that we need to pay more attention to fungi. Fungal pathogens can threaten our health systems as food-borne pathogens” said Soo Chan Lee of Duke University, an author on the study. Read more on food safety.

May 28 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: May 28

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OECD: Economic Crisis Contributed to Global Obesity Crisis
More people than not in the member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are obese, with the economic crisis that began in 2008 contributing even more to the overall increase in body weight and obesity, according to a new OECD report. The analysis found that many of the people and families in the countries hit hardest by the economic crisis were forced to turn to less expensive—but also less healthy—food. For example, from 2008-2009 households in the United Kingdom decreased their food expenditure by 8.5 percent in real terms, while also increasing the average calorie density of purchased foods by 4.8 percent.

Among the other findings:

  • One in 5 OECD children are overweight or obese
  • The obesity epidemic has spread further in the past five years, but rates have been increasing at a slower pace than before
  • People with less education and lower socio-economic status are more likely to be obese, and the gap is generally larger in women
  • A growing number of countries have adopted policies to prevent obesity from spreading further

Read more on obesity.

Study: 1 in 5 Medicare Patients Experience Medical Injuries
Approximately 20 percent of Medicare patients experience medical injuries, which are often not linked to any underlying disease or condition, according to a new study in the journal Injury Prevention. Typical injuries include being given the wrong medication, having an allergic reaction to a medication, or receiving any treatment that led to more complications of an existing medical problem. Using data on more than 12,500 Medicare patients who made claims between 1998 and 2005, researchers found that 19 percent experienced at least one adverse medical event and 62 percent of the injuries took place during outpatient care. The highest risks were scene in older people, men and those from lower-income backgrounds. "These injuries are caused by the medical care or management rather than any underlying disease," said lead researcher Mary Carter, director of the Gerontology Program at Towson University in Maryland. "To really improve our ability to prevent these types of adverse events, we have to focus at least as much on outpatient care as we do on inpatient care." Read more on injury prevention.

Salmonella Outbreak Causes an Additional 50 Cases; Total Now at 574
With an additional 50 cases, the salmonella outbreak linked to Foster Farms chicken that began in March 2013 now has sickened a total of 574 people, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC estimates there have been an average of eight new cases per week since an April report on the drug-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg. Thirty-seven percent of the cases have led to hospitalization and about 13 percent have developed blood infections, which is three times higher than what’s seen with typical salmonella infections. Read more on food safety.

May 20 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: May 20

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New NCHH, APHA Standards to Improve U.S. Housing Health
A new report from the National Center for Healthy Housing (NCHH) and the American Public Health Association (APHA) establishes new standards to help improve housing for all Americans. The new National Healthy Housing Standard outlines a health-focused property maintenance policy for the nation’s 100 million existing homes—single family, multifamily, rental and owner occupied. Approximately 40 percent of metropolitan homes have one or more health and safety hazards, according to the NCHH, while the American Housing Survey determined that approximately 6.3 million housing units are considered to be substandard. “While we have made great strides in improving the quality of housing nationwide, too many Americans are left making the false choice between affordable or quality housing. Families deserve access to quality and affordable housing that allows them to put down roots in a community, build wealth, put kids through college and start businesses,” said U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun Donovan, in a release. Read more on housing.

Red Cross Campaign Will Work to Cut Drowning in Half in 50 U.S. Cities
As part of its celebration of 100 years of swimming safety education, the Red Cross is launching a new national campaign to reduce the drowning rate by 50 percent in 50 U.S. cities. The 3-5 year campaign will target 50,000 people across 19 states. A new survey from the organization’s drowning prevention campaign found that while 80 percent of Americans said they could swim, only about 56 percent of those people exhibited “water competency”—meaning that they could perform these five critical water safety skills:

  • Step or jump into the water over your head
  • Return to the surface and float or tread water for one minute
  • Turn around in a full circle and find an exit
  • Swim 25 yards to the exit
  • Exit from the water

“We're asking every family to make sure that both adults and children can swim and that parents make water safety a priority this summer,” said Connie Harvey, director of the Red Cross Centennial Initiative. Read more on injury prevention.

CDC Releases Vaccine Schedule App for Clinicians, Health Care Professionals
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched a new app that provides clinicians and other health care professionals access to the CDC’s latest recommended immunization schedules. The CDC Vaccine Schedules app replicates the appearance of the printed schedules that are reviewed and published each year, and includes information such as the correct vaccine and dosage. The schedules include:

  • Child and adolescent schedules with immunization recommendations from birth through age 18
  • Catch-up schedule for children 4 months through 18 years
  • Adult schedule, including recommended vaccines for adults by age group and by medical condition
  • Contraindications and precautions table, with all footnotes that apply to schedules

The app is available in the iTunes App Store and will be released for Android devices in a few months. Read more on vaccines.

May 16 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: May 16

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FDA Requires Lunesta Manufacturer to Lower Recommended Dosage
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is requiring the manufacturer of Lunesta to lower the current recommended starting dose. The current recommended dose of the sleep drug, also known as eszopiclone, may be high enough to impair activities that require alertness the following morning, even if the user feels fully awake, according to the agency. Any patient currently taking the 2 mg or 3 mg doses should contact their physician for instructions. “To help ensure patient safety, health care professionals should prescribe, and patients should take, the lowest dose of a sleep medicine that effectively treats their insomnia,” said Ellis Unger, MD, director, Office of Drug Evaluation I in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Read more on prescription drugs.

CDC: Nearly 5,000 Preventable Injuries Related to Pool Chemicals in 2012
There were nearly 5,000 emergency department visits related to preventable injuries from pool chemicals in 2012, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Almost half of the injuries were to children and teenagers; the injuries were most common during the summer swim season, from Memorial Day to Labor Day.  The CDC provided these tips to help pool owners and operators prevent pool chemical injuries:

  • Read and follow directions on product labels.
  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles and masks, as directed, when handling pool chemicals.
  • Secure pool chemicals to protect people and animals.
  • Keep young children away when handling chemicals.
  • NEVER mix different pool chemicals with each other, especially chlorine products with acid.
  • Pre-dissolve pool chemicals ONLY when directed by product label.
  • Add pool chemical to water, NEVER water to pool chemicals.

“Chemicals are added to the water in pools to stop germs from spreading. But they need to be handled and stored safely to avoid serious injuries,” said Michele Hlavsa, chief of CDC’s Healthy Swimming Program. Read more on injury prevention.

Study: Hookahs Not a Safe Alternative to Smoking
Hookahs produce significant amounts of nicotine and compounds that can cause cancer, heart disease and other health problems, according to a new study in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. "Water pipe smoking is generally perceived to be a safe alternative to cigarette smoking, even for children and youths. Our study shows that water pipe use, particularly chronic use, is not risk-free," said study author Gideon St. Helen, a postdoctoral fellow in the division of clinical pharmacology and the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco, according to HealthDay. In the study, researchers examined the urine of 55 men and women, who were regular hookah smokers, once after they avoided all smoking for a week and then again after an evening of smoking hookahs. After that single evening the found that the urine samples had: 73 times higher nicotine levels; four times higher levels of cotinine; two times higher levels of NNAL, a breakdown product of a tobacco-specific chemical called NNK; and 14 percent to 91 percent higher levels of breakdown products of volatile organic compounds such as benzene and acrolein. Read more on tobacco.

May 14 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: May 14

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CDC: Half of Americans Reported Prescription Drug Use in the Past Month
A new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics takes a comprehensive look at the use of prescriptions drugs in the United States from 2007 to 2010. Prepared for the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the report compiled health data from state health agencies, federal health agencies and the private sector. Among the findings:

  • About half of all Americans in 2007-2010 reported taking one or more prescription drugs in the past 30 days
  • Cardiovascular agents (used to treat high blood pressure, heart disease or kidney disease) and cholesterol-lowering drugs were two of the most commonly used classes of prescription drugs among adults aged 18-64 years and 65 and over in 2007-2010.
  • The use of antidepressants among adults aged 18 and over increased more than four-fold, from 2.4 percent to 10.8 percent between 1988-1994 and 2007-2010.
  • Drug poisoning deaths involving opioid analgesics among those aged 15 and over more than tripled in the past decade, from 1.9 deaths per 100,000 population in 1999-2000 to 6.6 in 2009-2010.
  • The annual growth in spending on retail prescription drugs slowed from 14.7 percent in 2001 to 2.9 percent in 2011.

Read more on prescription drugs.

Study: Emergency Department Visits for TBIs Jumped Nearly 30 Percent from 2006 to 2010
Emergency department visits for traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) jumped nearly 30 percent from 2006 to 2010, with researchers pointing to increased awareness as a potential explanation for the increase, according to a new study in JAMA. The past few years has seen growing awareness about the dangers and realities of TBIs, including public campaigns and legislation to help prevent injuries. Researchers used data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database, finding that in 2010 there were approximately 2.4 million emergency department visits for TBIs, up 29 percent from 2006, with children younger than three and adults over the age of 60 seeing the highest increases. Researchers noted that this disparity may indicate that current TBI awareness and prevention efforts do not benefit the very young and the old. Read more on injury prevention.

WHO: MERS-CoV Not Yet a Public Health Emergency of International Concern
While saying that its concerns have greatly increased, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) does not yet constitute a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, according to a statement released today by a World Health Organization’s emergency committee. According to the statement, their concerns center on the “recent sharp rise in cases; systemic weaknesses in infection prevention and control, as well as gaps in critical information; and possible exportation of cases to especially vulnerable countries.” Thirteen countries have reported cases since December 2013: Egypt, Greece, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United States of America and Yemen. The United States has so far reported two cases—both this month. Read more on global health.

May 7 2014
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Could States’ Efforts to Reduce College Campus Drinking Backfire?

This week Maryland became one of more than a dozen states to ban sales of grain alcohol, also known as extreme-strength alcohol. The drink, which includes the brand name Everclear, is 95 percent pure alcohol. It has no color, taste or smell and so easily mixes—without detection—into juices, soda and punch, making it an effective date rape tool, according to college health officials. And it’s cheap.  A whole bottle can cost $15, which is a price easily shared among college or younger students.

Banning extreme-strength alcohol is among several initiatives a growing number of states are taking to try to reduce college student deaths, injuries and assaults linked to campus alcohol use. A report published in September by The Maryland Collaborative to Reduce College Drinking and Related Problems, which was formed in 2013 to address problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption on ten college campuses across the state, found that alcohol use of any kind on campuses across the country each year results in 1,800 deaths; 600,000 injuries; 700,000 assaults by someone under the influence; and nearly 1 million rapes and sexual assaults.

Many states, including Maryland, have declared college campus drinking to be a public health emergency that goes well beyond the campus because of the noise, vandalism, car crashes and community injuries and deaths linked to campus drinking each year. Banning grain alcohol was the Maryland Collaborative’s first initiative because college students who are binge drinkers—a serious and dangerous issue on campuses, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—are 36 times more likely to drink grain alcohol than are non-binge drinkers, according to David H. Jernigan, the director of the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth at Johns Hopkins' Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Md.

But some research shows that banning extreme strength alcohol can actually exacerbate the problem by raising awareness of the drink to students who may not have been aware of it before. This can push students in search of grain alcohol to find other high-octane sources, such as privately made moonshine, which can be even more highly concentrated than commercially available grain alcohol and can contain other contaminants, said Laura Forbes, an associate professor of health education at the University of Alabama/Birmingham and chair of the American College Health Association’s Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs Coalition.

According to Forbes, what is desperately needed is a campus culture change on alcohol just like the culture change that has reduced smoking on campus; many campuses bans tobacco use outright. Forbes said reaching that goal requires collaborations—such as the one in Maryland—that bring together campus administrators, businesses, student leaders, law enforcement, public health and the community.

“The way to change the culture,” she said, “is to start to have a conversation that with students about why they’re drinking and to include administrations, faculty, alumni and others in the talks.”

Forbes said the culture change won’t be a suddenly dry campus. “It will be incremental over time, but each campus has to start the change to where they want to move.”

>>Bonus Links:

  • The Maryland Collaborative has released a best practices guide for reducing campus drinking that includes both individual and campus-wide interventions.
  • The CDC recently updated its Alcohol and Public Health website, which now includes new infographics and links to videos, webinars, e-cards and podcasts, as well as a fact sheet on preventing excessive alcohol use, which highlights evidence-based strategies such as those recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force.
May 1 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: May 1

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RWJF Issue Brief Explores Links Between Education and Health
Why is education such a major factor in shaping health? The links are tied closely to income and to the opportunities that people have to lead healthy lives, according to a new issue brief from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Factors such as social networks, early childhood experiences and the type of neighborhood you live in all play a role in connecting education levels to health outcomes. The issue brief and video explore these connections and highlight their impacts through the perspectives of residents of a disadvantaged urban community in Richmond, Va. This is the second brief in a four-part series by the Virginia Commonwealth University Center on Society and Health’s Education and Health Initiative. Read more on education.

Parents with Kids in Car Often Engage in Distracted Driving
Parents with kids in tow are just as likely to engage in distracted driving practices as are drivers in the general population, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Michigan and published in Academic Pediatrics. The study, conducted in two hospital emergency rooms, found that 90 percent of parent drivers said they engaged in at least one of ten distractions examined in the study while their child was a passenger and the vehicle was moving. Distractions included talking on a cell phone, texting, giving a child food and picking up a toy that fell. Each year more than 130,000 children younger than 13 are treated in U.S. emergency departments after motor-vehicle collision-related injuries. The researchers also found that parents with higher education and who were non-Hispanic whites were more likely to report cellular phone and directions-related distractions such as use of navigation systems.

"If this finding is a result of greater access to technology among more highly educated and non-Hispanic white parents, we can expect the problem of technology-based distractions to expand because national rates of cell phone ownership in the U.S. have climbed above 90 percent," said Michelle L. Macy, MD, MS, an emergency medicine physician at the University of Michigan's C.S. Mott Children's Hospital. "Efforts to improve child passenger safety have often focused on increased and proper use of restraining seats. But this study shows that reducing distractions and discouraging unsafe behaviors could prevent crashes.” Read more on injury prevention.

SAMHSA Launches First Spanish-language Web Pages for National Prevention Week
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) recently launched a series of new Web pages in Spanish to engage the Hispanic/Latino community in SAMHSA’s third annual National Prevention Week. The observance focuses on increasing public awareness of and action around substance abuse and mental health issues. New resources include instructions for participating in SAMHSA’s “Yo elijo” (“I Choose”) Project, Web badges and a 15-second promotional video in Spanish about the observance. Read more on substance abuse.

OSHA Urges Post-Storm Vigilance for Clean Up Workers and the Public
As much of the country begins the cleanup following massive storms since the weekend, the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is urging workers and the public to be aware of the hazards they can encounter and take necessary steps to stay safe. Storm and tornado cleanup work can involve hazards related to restoring electricity, communications, water and sewer services. Other hazards relate to demolition activities; cleaning up debris; tree trimming; structural, roadway and bridge repair; hazardous waste operations; and emergency response activities. Information on safe cleanup is available on OSHA’s website. Read more on preparedness.

Apr 30 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: April 30

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Severe Weather Wreaking Havoc Across the U.S. Today
At least 35 people have been killed during severe weather in the past week in the South and Southwest. Severe weather, including significant flooding is expected to continue through much of the country today. Click here for today’s weather alerts for the entire United States from the National Weather Service.

AAP Recommends Precautions to Prevent High Rate of ACL Injuries in children
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a report yesterday on preventing and treating knee injuries in kids. According to the AAP, pediatricians have been seeing an increase in the last twenty years in tears to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) which provides stability for the knee as more kids—in particular girls—play sports. According to the AAP, research shows that specific types of physical training can reduce the risk of ACL injury by as much as 72 percent and the Academy now recommends strengthening exercises to reduce athletes’ risks of being injured, and encourages coaches and school sports programs to learn about the programs. The AAP is also advising that surgeries be done by trained surgeons using less-invasive surgery techniques that protect the developing growth plates in kids and teenagers.

According to the AAP, the effects of an ACL tear can be long-lasting and impactful beyond an end to playing a sport. Injured athletes who leave a sport and its social network can experience depression, and time away from school for treatments can impact academic performance. And research shows that athletes with ACL injuries are up to 10 times more likely to develop early-onset degenerative knee osteoarthritis and chronic pain. Read more on injury prevention.

NHTSA Awards Grants to Reduce Pedestrian Deaths
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) today announced that Louisville, Philadelphia and New York City will receive grants totaling over $1 million for public education and enforcement initiatives to improve pedestrian safety. The new grants are part of the Department’s Everyone Is a Pedestrian campaign to help communities reduce the rising number of pedestrian deaths and injuries that occurred from 2009 through 2012.

According to NHTSA, the three winners are among the cities with some of the highest rates of pedestrian fatalities nationwide:

  • Louisville was awarded $307,000 and will use the funds to create a pedestrian education program for school-aged children and create safe walking routes for senior citizens. In addition, the funds will be used to conduct law enforcement training and crosswalk enforcement activities. In Louisville, a total of six pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes during 2012, representing 10 percent of the city’s total traffic fatalities.
  • Philadelphia was awarded $525,000 and will use the funds to address pedestrian safety in downtown areas by increasing police visibility and ticketing during high risk hours in 20 high-crash locations. The grant will also be used for marketing to reach pedestrians in these areas and to train officers on pedestrian safety. In Philadelphia, a total of 31 pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes during 2012, representing 29 percent of the city’s total traffic fatalities.
  • New York City was awarded $805,801 and will use the funds to address speeding drivers and drivers who do not yield to pedestrians in crosswalks. The city will work on reaching the demographic most likely to be in pedestrian crashes—young men—through social media and enforcement activities in high-crash areas. In New York City, a total of 127 pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes during 2012, representing 47 percent of the city’s total traffic fatalities.

Read more on transportation.