Category Archives: Behavior change

Sep 29 2014
Comments

Intimate Partner Violence: What We Tell Our Children Can Make a Difference

A. Monique Clinton-Sherrod, PhD, is a 2008 alumna of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s New Connections program. She is an RTI research psychologist with extensive experience in prevention research associated with a variety of psychosocial issues.

Monique Clinton-Sherrod

Recently while watching ESPN with my two children, we saw nonstop coverage of the Ray Rice incident, including the video of Mr. Rice violently assaulting Janay Palmer, his then-fiancée. I was peppered with questions from my children. 

“Did he get arrested? Why did he do that? What did she do? Is that something they shouldn’t show on television because it’s private?”

The recurring images and my children’s questions were all the more jarring because I recently lost a sorority sister in a murder-suicide by her former husband. These experiences have served as an unfortunate but teachable moment for my daughter and son, and reinforced the importance of my life’s work—both for my children and for society as a whole. 

Read more

Sep 17 2014
Comments

Shifting the Dialogue: Considering Ray Rice and Intimate Partner Abuse

Thema Bryant-Davis, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology at Pepperdine University and an associate editor of the journal Psychological Trauma. Bryant-Davis is a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) New Connections grantee who studies the intersection of trauma and culture. 

Thema Bryant-Davis

The assault perpetrated by Ray Rice, which ended in him dragging his unconscious fiancé, Janay Palmer, off an elevator, has captured wide public attention. Unfortunately, most of the dialogue has focused on blaming and shaming Ms. Palmer and other victims of intimate partner violence for staying in abusive relationships. There has also been an attempt to build sympathy for the perpetrator by questioning whether Rice’s punishment, which went from suspension for two games to permanent dismissal from his team, was fair. The most important questions have received far less attention. Why do abusive partners like Ray Rice abuse their spouses? Why does the public support intimate partner abuse either directly with words and actions or indirectly with their silence? What are the consequences of intimate partner abuse? And how can we stop intimate partner violence?

Partner abuse is an action not caused by the victim’s behavior, substance use, mental illness, or biology (being male).  People choose to abuse their partners emotionally, physically, sexually, verbally and financially to exact control over the person and because they believe they have the right to do so.  

Read more

Jul 11 2014
Comments

How Stress Makes Us Sick

Keely Muscatell, PhD, is a social neuroscientist and psychoneuroimmunologist. She is a post-doctoral scholar in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Health & Society Scholars program at the University of California (UC), San Francisco and UC, Berkeley.

file

Results from the recent NPR/RWJF/Harvard School of Public Health poll suggesting that Americans are living under high levels of stress probably don’t surprise anyone. In a way, I’ve been taking an informal version of this poll for the last six years, since when I tell people I meet on airplanes or at local bars that I study stress and health, I am unfailingly met with knowing glances and stories about stressors people are facing in their lives. Given that stress is pervasive (and problematic) in modern life, lots of current research in psychology and neuroscience is focused on understanding exactly how stress can get “into our brains” and “under our skin” to make us sick.

file

When we think of illness, one of the first things that comes to mind is the immune system, with its lymph nodes, white blood cells, and antibodies hanging around to help us fight off infections and heal our injuries. An especially important component of the immune system involves inflammation. If you’ve ever gotten a paper cut, you’ve probably noticed that the area of skin around the cut tends to turn red and warm up shortly after the injury. This happens because proteins called “pro-inflammatory cytokines” swim through your blood stream to the site of the wound, where they call out to other immune cells to come to the area and help heal the cut. In the short term, this is a good thing; those little cytokines are a key part of healing. But if inflammation becomes widespread throughout the body, cytokines can lead to depression and even physical diseases, like arthritis and heart disease.

Read more

Apr 8 2014
Comments

Preventing Youth Violence May Cost Less Than You Think…

Adam L. Sharp, MD, MS is an emergency physician and recent University of Michigan Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar (2011-2013). He works for Kaiser Permanente Southern California in the Research and Evaluation Department performing acute care health services and implementation research.

file

Violence is a leading cause of death and injury in adolescents. Recent studies show effective interventions can prevent violent behavior in youth seen in the Emergency Department (ED). Adoption of this type of preventive care has not been broadly implemented in EDs, however, and cost concerns frequently create barriers to utilization of these types of best practices. Understanding the costs associated with preventive services will allow for wise stewardship over limited health care resources. In a recent publication in Pediatrics, "Cost Analysis of Youth Violence Prevention," colleagues and I predict that it costs just $17.06 to prevent an incident of youth violence.

The violence prevention intervention is a computer-assisted program using motivational interviewing techniques delivered by a trained social worker. The intervention takes about 30 minutes to perform and was evaluated within an urban ED for youth who screened positive for past year violence and alcohol abuse. The outcomes assessed were violence consequences (i.e., trouble at school because of fighting, family/friends suggested you stop fighting, arguments with family/friends because of fighting, felt cannot control fighting, trouble getting along with family/friends because of your fighting), peer victimization (i.e., hit or punched by someone, had a knife/gun used against them), and severe peer aggression (i.e., hit or punched someone, used a knife/gun against someone).

Read more

Feb 13 2014
Comments

Human Capital News Roundup: Obesity, suicide prevention, syphilis, co-sleeping with infants, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

The deluge of articles, research, and books on obesity and diabetes are “the noise generated by a dysfunctional research establishment” and are not solving either epidemic, Gary Taubes, MSE, MS, writes in an opinion piece for the New York Times. “Making meaningful inroads ... requires that we know how to treat and prevent it on an individual level. We’re going to have to stop believing we know the answer, and challenge ourselves to come up with trials that do a better job of testing our beliefs.” Taubes received an RWJF Investigator Award in Health Policy Research. Read an interview with him about obesity and diabetes on the RWJF Human Capital Blog.

Finding healthy food, including fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meats, and low-fat dairy products, is more challenging for minorities living in urban areas than for others, according to research by RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumna Carolyn Cannuscio, ScD, ScM. Huffington Post’s Latino Voices features her study, which finds that most residents in urban settings have to bypass nearby corner stores offering little healthy food to find better options elsewhere.

In an opinion piece for the Seattle Times, RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumna Jennifer Stuber, PhD, writes that many health care professionals in the state do not feel prepared to handle suicide prevention and say training should be a requirement for licensure. Her piece was reprinted in Medical Xpress. Stuber’s work also was covered recently by Medical Daily and the New Republic. Read her RWJF Human Capital blog post on the subject.

In the Scientist, RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumna Kristin Harper, PhD, MPH, and colleagues analyze the origins of syphilis and discuss how understanding the history of the disease could help in developing a modern-day strategy to slow its spread.

Read more

Jan 30 2014
Comments

Human Capital News Roundup: HIV treatment for ex-offenders, ‘healthy’ fast food myths, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

Making new medical device technology quickly available is important, but research suggests there is a risk associated with swift Food and Drug Administration approval of implantable heart devices. Aaron Kesselheim, MD, JD, MPH, recipient of an RWJF Investigator Award in Health Policy Research, told USA Today that the medical community should be wary of the expedited review process because it can compromise product safety and effectiveness. The Boston Globe also covered Kesselheim’s research.

Health Canal featured a study co-authored by RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumna Chyvette Williams, PhD, MPH, that examines gender differences in HIV treatment outcomes among recently released prisoners. Williams and colleagues found that women were considerably less likely than men to attain any of the three optimal HIV treatment outcomes six months after release from jail, and thus had significantly more negative health outcomes.

Despite media campaigns promoting healthy eating, customers at fast food restaurants such as Subway do not necessarily make better food choices, according to a Medical Daily article. Citing research from Lenard Lesser, MD, MSHS, an RWJF Clinical Scholar alumnus, the article states that people consume nearly as many calories, and as much sugar, carbohydrates, and sodium from Subway as they would at another fast food restaurant. Lesser’s research was also covered by WNCN. Read more about Lesser’s research.

Read more

Jan 29 2014
Comments

Serious Illnesses Changed Our Perspectives for 2014 and Beyond

Taura Barr, PhD, RN, is an assistant professor at the West Virginia University School of Nursing. Timothy Landers, PhD, RN, CNP, is an assistant professor at The Ohio State University College of Nursing. Both are Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars. This post is part of the “Health Care in 2014” series.

Taura Barr Taura Barr and her family.
Timothy Landers Timothy Landers and his family.

This is the time of year when people consider how they are doing with their new year’s resolutions. The three most common resolutions are lose weight, improve finances, and exercise more. Two out of three of those resolutions involve health.

Sadly, most of these resolutions will fail.

While we rate our physical, emotional, and spiritual health as a top priority, in practice we often fall short. This seems to be especially true for us as health care providers and our health care system.

Read more

Jan 14 2014
Comments

Healthy Caregivers Are Important to Your Health Care

Karen A. Daley, PhD, RN, FAAN, is president of the American Nurses Association. This post kicks off the “Health Care in 2014” series, in which health leaders, as well as Robert Wood Johnson Foundation scholars, grantees, and alumni share their New Year’s resolutions for our health care system and their priorities for action this year.

Karen Daley

With so much attention focused these days on our health care system, it may not have occurred to you that the health of your own caregivers could also help determine the quality and safety of the care you receive.

Paying attention to things like getting enough rest, managing fatigue and work/life stress, living tobacco-free, taking advantage of preventive immunizations and exams, eating nutritionally and maintaining an active lifestyle and healthy weight are important for everyone. Unfortunately, nurses are often so busy caring for others that they fail to care for themselves. It is for this reason the American Nurses Association, which represents the interests of the nation's 3.1 million registered nurses (RNs), recently launched a Healthy Nurse™ program to promote healthier lifestyles and behaviors among nurses.

Read more

Dec 16 2013
Comments

Explaining the Link between Income, Race, and Susceptibility to Kidney Disease

Deidra Crews, MD, ScM, an alumna of the Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program (2009-2013), was named the 2013-2015 Gilbert S. Omenn Anniversary Fellow at the prestigious Institute of Medicine. Among her current research is a study examining the association between unhealthy diet and kidney disease among low-income individuals.

file

Human Capital Blog: Congratulations on your fellowship! What are your priorities for the coming year?

Deidra Crews: Over the next two years, I'll be participating in different activities of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). I'll be working with IOM committees and participating in roundtables and workshops. That's the main function of the fellowship. The great thing about it is I'll get to experience firsthand the activities of IOM and hopefully contribute to one or more of the reports that will come out of the IOM over the next couple of years. Because of my interest in disparities in chronic kidney disease, I will be working with the committee on social and behavioral domains for electronic health records, which falls under the IOM board of population health and public health practice. We will be making recommendations on which social and behavioral factors should be tracked in patients' electronic health records.

Read more

Dec 12 2013
Comments

Human Capital News Roundup: TV coverage of terrorism, alcohol laws, electronic health records, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

MedPage Today reports that Medicare could save up to $560 million per year if the program reimbursed ambulances for transporting patients to places other than hospital emergency departments. Roughly 35 percent of Medicare patients taken to a hospital could be treated at other places, according to an analysis by Gregg Margolis, PhD, director of health care systems and health policy at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Margolis is an alumnus of the RWJF Health Policy Fellows program.

Six or more daily hours of exposure to media coverage of the Boston Marathon bombings in the week following the tragedy was linked to more acute stress than having been at, or near, the marathon, reports KMBZ, an ABC affiliate in Boston. “We were very surprised at the degree to which repeated media exposure was so strongly associated with acute stress symptoms,” said E. Alison Holman, PhD, FNP, the study’s lead author and an RWJF Nurse Faculty Scholar. The study was also covered in Medical Xpress.

The herpes virus that produces cold sores has been linked to cognitive impairment throughout life, BioScience Tech reports. A study led by RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumna Allison Aiello, PhD, MS, documents that the virus’ effects on children ages 12 to 16 include lower reading and spatial reasoning test scores. The study is also covered in Medical Xpress.

Read more