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Teen Take Heart

Nov 5, 2014, 11:00 AM, Posted by Steven Palazzo

Steven J. Palazzo, PhD, MN, RN, CNE, is an assistant professor in the College of Nursing at Seattle University, and a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Nurse Faculty Scholar (2013 – 2016. ) His research focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of the Teen Take Heart program in mitigating cardiovascular risk factors in at-risk high school students.

Steven Palazzo

Difficult problems demand innovative solutions. Teen Take Heart (TTH) is a program I’ve worked to develop, in partnership with The Hope Heart Institute and with support from the RWJF Nurse Faulty Scholars Program, to address locally a problem we face nationally: an alarming increase in obesity and other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among teenagers. The problem is substantial and costly in both economic and human terms. We developed TTH as a solution that could, if it proves effective in trials that begin this fall in my native Washington state, be translated to communities across the country.

The State of Obesity: Better Policies for a Healthier America, released recently by the Trust for America’s Health and RWJF, makes it clear that as a nation we are not winning the battle on obesity. The report reveals that a staggering 31.8 percent of children in the United States are overweight or obese and only 25 percent get the recommended 60 minutes of daily physical activity. The report also finds that only 5 percent of school districts nationwide have a wellness program that meets the physical education time requirement.

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In New Book, RWJF Scholar Explores Effects of Genetics on Environmental Science

Nov 4, 2014, 9:00 AM

Sara Shostak, PhD, MPH, is an associate professor of sociology at Brandeis University and author of Exposed Science: Genes, the Environment, and the Politics of Population Health. She is an alumna of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Health & Society Scholars program (2004-2006). 

Sara Shostak Sara Shostak, PhD, MPH

Human Capital Blog: Your book, Exposed Science, won two awards from the American Sociological Association: the Eliot Freidson Outstanding Publication Award from the Medical Sociology Section and the Robert K. Merton Book Award from the section on Science, Knowledge, and Technology (SKAT). Congratulations! What do these awards mean for you and your work?

Sara Shostak: Thank you! I am deeply honored that Exposed Science won those awards. This kind of recognition from one’s colleagues is tremendously meaningful on a personal level, especially as there are many scholars in these sections whose work has inspired me for years.  

More broadly, the dual awards signal something important about the connection between these two domains of inquiry—medical sociology and the sociology of science. That is, science and the politics of science are important foci of analysis for sociologists concerned with population health. The conditions under which scientists do their research—the political economy of knowledge production—is a critical context for what we do and do not know about human health and illness.  

Population health researchers often observe that in the United States, health disparities research tends to focus on differences between racial and ethnic groups, while in the United Kingdom the focus tends to be on variations by social class (or what U.S. researchers more often call socioeconomic status). Scholars of science, knowledge, and technology can help us understand how and why these differences emerged, and with what consequences. My book raises questions also about how any of these determinants get operationalized in laboratory-based research. All of these aspects of how science is done have direct implications for public policy, as well.

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Preventing Elder Falls Before they Happen

Nov 3, 2014, 1:55 PM

Deaths and injuries from falls in people older than age 65 have doubled in the last decade. Last year, 24,000 older people died after a fall and more than two million sustained severe injuries—which can often lead to permanent disability. To find ways to prevent those falls and the injuries, deaths and costs that come with them, earlier this year the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) joined forces on the Falls Injuries Prevention Partnership, which will fund clinical trials at ten U.S. centers over the next five years.

The trials include some implementation of proven fall prevention strategies at the ten research sites. NIH researchers say a key goal is to help change physician behavior about fall prevention, because recent education efforts through conventional medical education channels and other methods have not been very effective.

“With this trial, we will be able to evaluate interventions on a comprehensive and very large scale,” said Richard J. Hodes, MD, director of the National Institute on Aging, which is a division of NIH. “This study will focus on people at increased risk for injuries from falls, the specific care plans that should be implemented—including interventions tailored to individual patients—and how physicians and others in health care and in the community can be involved.”

Each person in the trial will be assessed for their risk of falling, and receive either the current standard of care—information about preventing falls—or individualized care plans first shared with the trial participant’s primary care physician for review, modification and approval. They will include proven fall risk reduction interventions that can be implemented by the research team, physicians and other health care providers, caregivers and community-based organizations.

The trial directors hope to enroll 6,000 adults age 75 and older who have one or more risk factors for falls. The first year of the study is a pilot phase; if the go-ahead is given by NIH and PCORI to proceed with the study after that, enrollment for the full trial will start in June 2015, with participants followed for up to three years. The main goals of the trial are reductions in serious injuries from falls.

“With active input from patients and other stakeholders from the very beginning of this study, we think we can have a major impact, changing practice to make a real difference in the lives of older people,” says PCORI Executive Director Joe Selby, MD, MPH.

The ten trial sites and regions they serve are:

  • Essentia Health, Duluth, Minnesota (Midwest)
  • HealthCare Partners, Torrance, California (Southern California)
  • Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore (Mid-Atlantic)
  • Mount Sinai Health System, New York City (Northeast)
  • Partners HealthCare, Waltham, Massachusetts (Northeast)
  • Reliant Medical Group, Worcester, Massachusetts (Northeast)
  • University of Iowa Health Alliance, Iowa City (Midwest)
  • University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (Mid-Atlantic)
  • University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston Health (Southwest)
  • University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Midwest)

Data management and analysis will be coordinated by the Yale School of Public Health.

>>Bonus Links:

This commentary originally appeared on the RWJF New Public Health blog.

Why Are So Many People Still Bypassing the Flu Shot?

Oct 30, 2014, 11:52 AM

Flu season in the United States typically runs from November through March, with the peak coming in January and February. But people can catch the flu both earlier than the usual start time and after the usual end of the season. In addition, the severity of the flu season can vary with from 3,000 to 49,000 U.S. deaths in a given year, an average of more than 200,000 hospitalizations and millions of illnesses, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Flu shot season has a shorter time table, so many pharmacies and doctors’ office that are well stocked at the moment can run out before Christmas, making it difficult for people who put off their vaccinations to find a vaccine location and protect themselves.

And despite a yearly campaign to get people to roll their arms up, less fewer than half of adults and less than 60 percent of kids received a flu shot last year. NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Carolyn Bridges, MD, the CDC’s associate director for adult immunizations about what keeps people from getting the flu shot and how more people can be encouraged to get the vaccine.

NewPublicHealth: What is it that keeps people from getting the shot?

Carolyn Bridges: I think there are a number of things. Certainly, we have pretty good awareness about the recommendations for the influenza vaccine, although some people may just not realize that they are potentially at risk. The current recommendations call for all persons six months of age and older to get an annual flu vaccine, with rare exceptions. But the vaccine recommendations have changed over time and in the last few years have been broadened to include [just about] everyone. For some people the message hasn’t gotten to them that in fact they are now included in the group recommended for a yearly flu vaccine

NPH: What common misconceptions do people still have about the flu vaccine?

Bridges: In terms of the safety, some people question or are worried about getting the flu from the flu vaccine. That’s still a common comment that we receive. Sometimes people will certainly have body aches or some tenderness in the arm where they get their flu vaccine, but that’s certainly not the same as getting influenza, and those symptoms generally are very self-limited and go away within two to three days. But the flu vaccine cannot cause the flu. 

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Health Care Workers Primed to Lead Global Response to Ebola

Oct 28, 2014, 10:00 AM

Timothy Landers, PhD, CNP, and Jason Farley, PhD, MPH, CRNP, are Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Nurse Faculty Scholars. In his work, Landers focuses on the epidemiology and prevention of antibiotic-resistant infections, including the use of hand hygiene as a means of prevention. Farley evaluates treatment outcomes in multi-drug resistant infections including tuberculosis (TB) and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients with HIV, with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa.

Timothy Landers Timothy Landers

The recent outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa is a stark reminder that we live in a globally connected world and that outbreaks can occur without warning. As infection prevention specialists, we are acutely aware of the risks health care workers face in caring for the public, both now and in times of relatively less chaos.

The good news is that despite media reports, nurses, physicians, infection prevention specialists and other health care workers are in an ideal position to lead the global response to this disease.

Our experience with measures to address hospital-acquired infections—isolation precautions, hand hygiene, contact tracing and public health measures—are also the same methods necessary to contain the spread of Ebola.  

Jason Farley (smaller) Jason Farley

Building on experience addressing these infections, along with recognition of the differences in Ebola virus transmission, the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) regularly updates the guidelines and is currently recommending enhanced versions of isolation precautions, including enhanced standard precautions, contact precautions, and droplet precautions. 

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The Progress on Ebola: Q&A with Tarik Jasarevic, the World Health Organization

Oct 21, 2014, 12:19 PM

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Crusader Against Cancer

Oct 14, 2014, 9:00 AM

For the 25th anniversary of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Summer Medical and Dental Education Program (SMDEP), the Human Capital Blog is publishing scholar profiles, some reprinted from the program’s website. SMDEP is a six-week academic enrichment program that has created a pathway for more than 22,000 participants, opening the doors to life-changing opportunities. Following is a profile of Jacqueline Barrientos, MD, a member of the 1994 class.

Jacqueline Barrientos Jacqueline Barrientos, MD

As far back as Ancient Egypt, cancer has frustrated medical practice. Papyri written around 1600 BC describe various cases, with one concluding that “there is no treatment.”

But there’s hope for patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)—a cancer that attacks the blood and bone marrow—thanks to Jacqueline Barrientos, MD, who isn’t intimidated by the history surrounding the disease.

She’s busy helping to rewrite it.

Barrientos is part of a team researching new CLL therapies at the North Shore-LIJ Cancer Institute’s CLL Research and Treatment Center on Long Island. In clinical trials, the pioneering drug treatments produced unprecedented results—considerably better than those achieved with chemotherapy, and minus the brutal side effects.

“We’ve never seen response rates like this before,” says Barrientos. “It’s astonishing.” When the FDA approved the use of the new treatments earlier this year, she and her team were elated. “We’re giving life to patients who once had no hope of surviving because the cancer was so aggressive.”

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PBS Series ‘Frontline’ Examines Antibiotic Resistance

Oct 13, 2014, 1:47 PM

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More Training On the Way—and Needed—for U.S. Health Care Workers Expected to Treat Ebola Patients

Oct 13, 2014, 12:48 PM

This commentary originally appeared on the RWJF New Public Health blog.

TEDMED Great Challenges: Public Health’s Work on Infectious Diseases

Oct 9, 2014, 4:11 PM

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