RWJF Scholar examines neighborhood-based death rates from opiate-based painkiller overdoses, compared with heroin overdose deaths.
Health & Society Scholars
Andrew Papachristos, PhD, (’10) published a study in the American Sociological Review (May 1, 2013) titled “The Corner and the Crew: The Influence of Geography and Social Networks on Gang Violence.” The study analyzed how both geography and social networks influence gang violence. Using detailed data on fatal and nonfatal shootings, Papachristos and colleagues examined effects of geographic proximity, organizational memory, and additional group processes (e.g., reciprocity, transitivity, status seeking) on gang violence in Chicago and Boston. They found that these spatial and network processes mediate racial effects, suggesting the primacy of place and the group in generating gang violence.
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RWJF/U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Scholar Jonathan Bergman, MD, (’11) published a study in JAMA Surgery, “A Call to Action: Improving Value by Emphasizing Patient-Centered Care at the End of Life,” which found that patients who are able to tell their doctors about what they want for end-of-life care have less discomfort and use fewer health care dollars. His research was also covered in the Los Angeles Times.
Clinical Scholar Tammy Chang, MD, MPH, (’11) along with program staff and alumni Caroline Richardson, MD, (’99) and Matthew Davis, MD, MAPP, (’98) examined whether teen pregnancy contributes to obesity later in life. Their study (PDF – 199 KB), “Implications of Teen Birth for Overweight and Obesity in Adulthood,” was published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and was reported by HealthDay News.
According to the University of Michigan C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health, more than 40 percent of American parents give over-the-counter cough and cold medicines to children under age 4, even though they are too young for the medicine. The survey, which was directed by program alum and Michigan program site Co-Director, Matthew Davis, MD, MAPP, (’98) received media attention from ABC News, Detroit News, and the Wall Street Journal, among other outlets.
RWJF/U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Scholar Nathaniel DeNicola, MD, (’11) presented findings from his recent study at the annual clinical meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The study found that “nearly two-thirds of all U.S. hospitals that handle nonemergency births have instituted policies to eliminate nonmedically indicated deliveries prior to 39 weeks’ gestation.”
As lead author in a recent study published in the Annals of Emergency Medicine, RWJF/U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Scholar Kelly Doran, MD, (’11) discovered that extreme life-altering circumstances affect emergency room visits more than traditional access to care issues. The study, “What Drives Frequent Emergency Department Use in an Integrated Health System? National Data From the Veterans Health Administration,” was published in April 2013.
Clinical Scholars alumnus Lenard Lesser, MD, MSHS, (’09) published in the Journal of Adolescent Health his research on how advertising for fast food restaurants such as McDonald’s and Subway affects young people’s food choices. His study, “Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald’s and Subway” was covered by Southern California Public Radio (89.3, KPCC).
On April 18, alumni Sonali Kulkarni, MD, MPH, (’08) and Anish Mahajan, MD, (’06) published a paper in the American Journal of Public Health titled, “Clinical Uncertainties, Health Service Challenges, and Ethical Complexities of HIV ‘Test-and-Treat’: A Systematic Review.”
In a study published in a recent Annals of Internal Medicine, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Scholar Jeffrey Kullgren, MS, MD, MPH, (’09) and colleagues determined that group-competitive weight-loss strategies, where participants compete for monetary awards as a group, result in patients losing more weight than similar programs where individual awards are given out. Media attention for the study included Glamour.
Clinical Scholar Alan Teo, MD, (’11) discovered that individuals are more likely to develop depression if the quality of their direct relationships is poor, specifically those with unsupportive spouses, in a recent study titled, “Social Relationships and Depression: Ten-Year Follow-Up From a Nationally Representative Study.” The study was published online in PLOS ONE in May, and was covered by Health News and the Big News Network.
Scholars in Health Policy Research alumnus (’94) and 2011 awardee of the Investigator Awards in Health Policy Research Harold Pollack, PhD, MPP, published a study in the May 2013 issue of the ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. His study, “Can Drug Courts Help to Reduce Prison and Jail Populations?” recognizes four factors that are preventing drug courts from substantially lowering the flow into prisons and jails, and reveals that drug courts will only be able to help decrease those populations if substantial changes are made in eligibility and sentencing rules. Pollack discussed the research findings in an April 26 article on the Washington Post’s Wonkblog.
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Scholar Gordon Sun, MD, (’11) and Physician Faculty Scholars alumna Reshma Jagsi, MD, DPhil, (’09) published a study, “Prospective Head and Neck Cancer Research: A Four-Decade Bibliometric Perspective,” in Oncologist on May 1. The study examined whether changes in study sponsorship have affected the proportion of prospective research on surgery, radiotherapy, and pharmacotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma being published over time.
Executive Nurse Fellows
Margaret Grey, DrPH, RN, FAAN, (’99) and colleagues published “Internet Psycho-Education Programs Improve Outcomes for Youth With Type 1 Diabetes” in the April 2013 issue of the American Diabetes Association’s publication Diabetes Care. Grey was also part of the team that published “Using Information Technology and Social Networking for Recruitment of Research Participants: Experience From an Exploratory Study of Pediatric Klinefelter Syndrome” in the March 2013 issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research.
Health & Society Scholars
Laura Gottlieb, MD, MPH, (’09) published a study in JAMA Internal Medicine (April 29, 2013), “Collecting and Applying Data on Social Determinants of Health in Health Care Settings.” Despite strong evidence linking patients’ social circumstances to their health, little guidance exists for health care practitioners and institutions on addressing social needs in clinical settings. This article proposes a framework for how social determinants interventions in the health care system can be construed across three tiers—patient, institution, and broader population—and describes ways to collect data and target interventions at these levels.
Mark Hatzenbuehler, PhD, (’12) published a study, “Stigma as a Fundamental Cause of Population Health Inequalities,” in the American Journal of Public Health (March 14, 2013). This study provides evidence on the health consequences of stigma and presents a conceptual framework describing the psychological and structural pathways through which stigma influences health. Because of its pervasiveness, its disruption of multiple life domains (e.g., resources, social relationships, coping behaviors), and its corrosive impact on the health of populations, stigma should be considered alongside other major organizing concepts for research on social determinants of population health.
A study by Jason Houle, PhD, (’11) “Depressive Symptoms and All-Cause Mortality in a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study With Time-Varying Covariates,” was published in the March 26, 2013, issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. Research has shown that depressive symptoms increase mortality risk, but results have been inconclusive regarding the role of physical health conditions in the relationship. The authors aimed to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in a longitudinal study with a nationally representative sample.
A study by Vida Maralani, PhD, MA, (’06) “Educational Inequalities in Smoking: The Role of Initiation Versus Quitting,” appeared in the May 2013 issue of Social Science and Medicine. The existing literature on educational inequalities in adult smoking has focused extensively on differences in current smoking and quitting, rather than on differences in never smoking regularly (initiation) by education in the adult population. Knowing the relative contribution of initiation versus quitting is critical for understanding the mechanisms that produce educational gradients in smoking, because initiation and quitting occur at different points in the life course. Maralani and colleagues found that educational gaps in never smoking explain the bulk of the educational inequality in adult smoking.
Tamar Mendelson, PhD, MA, (’04) published a study in the March 2, 2013, issue of Archives of Women’s Health: “Impact of a Preventive Intervention for Perinatal Depression on Mood Regulation, Social Support, and Coping.” Perinatal depression prevention trials have rarely examined proximal outcomes that may be relevant for understanding long-term risk for depression. This study examined intervention impact on three proximal outcomes that are theoretically linked with the intervention’s model of change, and have been empirically linked with risk for depression: mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping. The authors concluded that the Mothers and Babies Course enhances mood regulation, which may facilitate prevention of depression over time. The Mothers and Babies Course is a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention intervention, which has been shown to prevent depressive symptoms among at-risk perinatal women of color.
Mahasin Mujahid, PhD, (’07) published a study in the March 21, 2013, issue of Obesity titled “Neighborhood Health-Promoting Resources and Obesity Risk (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).” The study hypothesized that environmental resources that support walking and a healthy diet are associated with reduced obesity incidence. The authors found that altering the residential environment so that healthier behaviors and lifestyles can be chosen more easily may be a precondition both for sustaining existing healthy behaviors and for adopting new ones.
Aric Prather, PhD, (’10) published a study, “Impact of Sleep Quality on Amygdala Reactivity, Negative Affect, and Perceived Stress,” in Psychosomatic Medicine (April 16, 2013). Prather and colleagues investigated the influence of self-reported sleep quality on associations between threat-related amygdala reactivity and measures of negative affect and perceived stress. The study provides novel evidence that self-reported sleep quality moderates the relationships among amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress, particularly among men.
New Connections: Increasing Diversity of RWJF Programming
New Connections grantee Antwan Jones, PhD, (’11) and New Connections – Healthy Eating Research alumna Diana Grigsby-Toussaint, PhD, (’09) co-authored an article, “Black-White Residential Segregation and Diabetes Status: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System,” in a 2013 (Vol. 3, No. 2) issue of the Open Journal of Preventative Medicine. Jones also published the article, “Segregation and Cardiovascular Illness: The Role of Individual and Metropolitan Socioeconomic Status,” in a 2013 (Vol. 22) issue of Health & Place.
Alumnus Raphael Travis, PhD, (’08) and current grantee Amanda Sullivan, PhD, (’11) presented in separate sessions at the American Education Research Association 2013 Conference. In a Roundtable Session, Travis presented on his paper, “Hip-Hop and Pedagogy: What Do We Expect, What Will We Measure?” Sullivan presented in a poster session on her paper, “Is There Evidence to Support the Use of Social Skills Interventions for Students With Emotional Disabilities?” She also presented a Poster Session on her papers, “Asian American Students With Disabilities: Expanding the Discourse of Minority Disproportionality in Special Education” and “Underidentified and Underserved? Prevalence of and Racial Disproportionality in School-Based Autism Identification.”
Nurse Faculty Scholars
Matthew D. McHugh, PhD, JD, MPH, RN, CRNP, FAAN, (’11) of the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, published a new study, “Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals,” in the May issue of Medical Care. The report found that mortality rates were 14 percent lower at Magnet hospitals than at hospitals that did not have Magnet certification.
Scholars in Health Policy Research
Alumnus Bhaven Sampat, PhD, (’03) published a study in the March 2013 issue of the Milbank Quarterly. The study, “New Evidence on the Allocation of NIH Funds Across Diseases,” found a strong and statistically significant relationship between NIH funding and deaths and hospitalizations associated with a disease.
Harvard Program Director Katherine Swartz, PhD, published “Health Insurance Exchanges in Switzerland and the Netherlands Offer Five Key Lessons for the Operations of U.S. Exchanges” in the April 2013 issue of Health Affairs. Her study examines health reforms that have taken place in Switzerland and the Netherlands, and offers specific lessons for the United States insurance exchanges.
Michael Geruso, PhD, (’12) published a paper that indicates that prior to implementation of dependent verification programs, a fraction of dependents were ineligibly enrolled in employer health plans. His working paper, “Fraud in the Workplace? Evidence From a Dependent Verification Program,” was published by the National Bureau of Economic Research in April 2013.
Kathleen Mullen, PhD, (’05) recently published “Monetary Costs of Dementia in the United States” in the New England Journal of Medicine. The study reveals that dementia represents a substantial financial burden on society, one that is similar to the financial burden of heart disease and cancer. The estimated prevalence of dementia among persons older than age 70 in the United States in 2010 was 14.7 percent. The yearly monetary cost per person that was attributable to dementia was either $56,290 (95% confidence interval [CI], $42,746 to $69,834) or $41,689 (95% CI, $31,017 to $52,362), depending on the method used to value informal care.
RWJF Scholar examines neighborhood-based death rates from opiate-based painkiller overdoses, compared with heroin overdose deaths.
Unengaged patients can incur costs of up to 21% higher than patients who are highly engaged in care. This suite of materials from RWJF's AF4...
This month the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health published a special issue of its magazine devoted to food.
The LEAP project identified 30 primary care practices that use health professionals and other staff in ways that maximize access to their se...
Learn how The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is dedicated to building a culture of health in Risa Lavizzo-Mourey's 2014 annual message.
A national conversation highlighting efforts to improve care transitions, reduce avoidable hospital readmissions, and lift overall quality o...
Adverse working conditions contribute substantially to the risk of depression for working-age adults, according to new research from a team ...
Majority of Youth C. Difficile Infections Linked to Doctor Visits - Study: Even Slightly Elevated Blood Pressure Can Do Cardiovascular Damag...
The Health and Medical Care Archives at the University of Michigan's Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research is the of...
Hilary Levey Friedman, author of Playing to Win: Raising Children in a Competitive Culture, writes about youth sports.
List of most current annual reports.
RWJF Nurse Faculty Scholar Jennifer Bellot writes about losing her grandmother to complications from a medical error.