New Study Finds Teen Dating Violence Behaviors and Risk Factors Common Among 7th-Grade Students

Experts Believe Prevention in Middle School Matters

    • March 29, 2012

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Blue Shield of California Foundation and Futures Without Violence join forces to Promote Healthy Relationships among 11-to 14-year-olds

A new study of 1,430 7th-grade students released today reveals that many 7th-graders are dating and experiencing physical, psychological and electronic dating violence. More than one in three (37%) students surveyed report being a victim of psychological dating violence and nearly one in six (15%) report being a victim of physical dating violence. The study also found that while some attitudes and behaviors associated with increased risk for teen dating violence are pervasive, nearly three-quarters of students surveyed report talking to their parents about dating and teen dating violence. Parent-child communication is considered a protective factor that reduces the risk for teen dating violence.

The study was conducted by RTI International (RTI) on behalf of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Blue Shield of California Foundation as part of an independent evaluation of their Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships (Start Strong) initiative. The data released today is the baseline for this larger evaluation to assess the overall impact of the program. Start Strong is one of the largest initiatives ever funded that targets 11- to 14-year-olds to promote healthy relationships in order to prevent teen dating violence and abuse.

The Start Strong evaluation is one of the few studies, and one of the largest, to look in-depth at the dating relationships of middle school students. Although it is not nationally representative, the study sample included 1,430 7th-grade students from diverse geographical locations. The study collected data on teen dating violence behaviors, as well as risk and protective factors linked to dating violence, such as gender stereotypes, sexual harassment, the acceptance of teen dating violence and parent-child communication.

“There is limited information on 7th-graders and these data provide important insights into teen dating violence behaviors and risk factors among middle school students,” said Shari Miller, Ph.D., lead researcher from RTI. “From this study, we are learning that many 7th-graders are already dating and teen dating violence is not happening behind closed doors with so many students in this study witnessing dating violence among their peers. While we need to do much more to understand this young age group, our data point to the need for teen dating violence prevention programs in middle school.”

Among the key findings:

  • 75% of students surveyed report ever having a boyfriend or girlfriend.
  • More than 1 in 3 (37%) students surveyed report being a victim of psychological dating violence in the last 6 months.
  • Nearly 1 in 6 (15%) students surveyed report being a victim of physical dating violence in the last 6 months.
  • Nearly 1 in 3 (31%) students surveyed report being a victim of electronic dating aggression in the last 6 months.
  • More than 1 in 3 (37%) of students surveyed report having witnessed boys or girls being physically violent to persons they were dating in the last 6 months.
  • Nearly 2 out of 3 students surveyed (63%) strongly agree with a harmful gender stereotype, such as “girls are always trying to get boys to do what they want them to do,” or “with boyfriends and girlfriends, the boy should be smarter than the girl.”
  • Nearly half of students surveyed (49%) report having been a victim of sexual harassment in the past 6 months, such as being “touched, grabbed, or pinched in a sexual way,” or that someone ”made sexual jokes” about them.
  • Nearly three-quarters of 7th-grade students surveyed report that, in the last 6 months, they “sometimes or often” talk with their parents about dating topics such as, “how to tell if someone might like you as a boyfriend or girlfriend.”

The study findings were announced during a pre-conference institute on teen dating violence prevention in middle school at the 6th National Conference on Health and Domestic Violence at the San Francisco Marriot Marquis, organized by Futures Without Violence. The conference participants include medical practitioners, social workers, domestic violence experts, researchers, advocates, and educators from around the world who are committed to understanding the impact that violence has on the health of children, adolescents, adults and communities.

Prevention in Middle School Matters

“Dating violence is a pressing public health challenge and these new data are important and powerful. We know that middle school provides this critical window of opportunity to teach young adolescents about healthy relationships and prevent teen dating violence,” said James Marks, M.D., M.P.H., senior vice president and director, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Group. “Through Start Strong, we are identifying and spreading effective ways for parents, teachers and communities to help young people develop healthy relationships throughout their life.”

The Start Strong program utilizes a multi-faceted approach to rally entire communities to promote healthy relationship behaviors among middle school students. The Start Strong model utilizes innovative program components to: i) educate and engage youth in schools and out of school settings; ii) educate and engage teen influencers, such as parents, older teens, teachers and other mentors; iii) change policy and environmental factors in schools and communities; and iv) implement effective communications/ social marketing strategies to change social norms. “By combining the findings of this new study with the lessons learned in Start Strong communities, we are developing the essential tools needed to promote healthier relationships for young people,” said Peter Long, Ph.D., president and CEO of Blue Shield of California Foundation.

Parent engagement is a key component of Start Strong. As the study shows, many 7th-graders are talking to their parents about dating topics, including teen dating violence. This highlights the important role parents can play in prevention efforts. Start Strong educates parents of middle school students about these issues so they can help their children navigate new relationships (both online and offline), including teaching parents the warning signs of abuse and how to start conversations about healthy relationships at an early age.

For more information and the full study, visit: www.rwjf.org/goto/middleschoolmatters

About Methodology
The data were collected through paper-and-pencil questionnaires in one class period in fall 2010. The sample source consisted of all 7th-grade students (except those in self-contained classrooms) in 4 Start Strong intervention schools and 4 comparison schools. Efforts were made to identify comparable schools based on race/ethnicity, gender and percentage of free or reduced lunch students. Study recruitment of 7th-grade students took place at each participating school. Parental consent and student assent was attained. The student participation rate for this study was 57%. The sample for this evaluation study is not nationally representative. This sample size was 1,430 students. The mean age was 12 and 50% of participants were female. The demographics of the sample were 30% African American, 24% White, 34% Hispanic and 12% other.

About RTI International
RTI International is one of the world's leading research institutes, dedicated to improving the human condition by turning knowledge into practice. Our staff of more than 2,800 provides research and technical services to governments and businesses in more than 40 countries in the areas of health and pharmaceuticals, education and training, surveys and statistics, advanced technology, international development, economic and social policy, energy and the environment, and laboratory testing and chemical analysis. For more information, visit www.rti.org.

About Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation focuses on the pressing health and health care issues facing our country. As the nation's largest philanthropy devoted exclusively to health and health care, the Foundation works with a diverse group of organizations and individuals to identify solutions and achieve comprehensive, measureable and timely change. For nearly 40 years the Foundation has brought experience, commitment, and a rigorous, balanced approach to the problems that affect the health and health care of those it serves. When it comes to helping Americans lead healthier lives and get the care they need, the Foundation expects to make a difference in your lifetime.

About Blue Shield of California Foundation
Blue Shield of California Foundation, one of the largest healthcare grantmaking organizations in California, has committed over $46 million since 2002 to ending domestic violence in the state. For more information, please visit the Web site at www.blueshieldcafoundation.org. The Foundation was formed by Blue Shield of California, a not-for-profit corporation with more than 3.4 million members, 4800 employees and more than 20 offices throughout California. For more information about the company, please visit www.blueshieldca.com.

About Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships
Start Strong is a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in collaboration with Futures Without Violence (formerly Family Violence Prevention Fund). Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Blue Shield of California Foundation are investing $18 million in 11 communities across the country to identify and evaluate the most promising pathways to stop dating violence and abuse before it starts. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is funding ten sites around the country and Blue Shield of California Foundation is funding one site in California. For more information, please visit www.startstrongteens.org.