Category Archives: Public health schools
Allison Larr, 25, graduated from Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health a few weeks ago as a member of the 2014 Master’s in Public Health class and will soon start working at Citigroup in New York City as an analyst in the bank’s public finance division, which finances infrastructure projects.
“Infrastructure is central to maintaining a healthy population,” according to Larr. “If you don’t have a sewer system, public transportation and roads, you won’t have a healthy population.”
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Larr about the path she took to her new career.
NewPublicHealth: How did you end up at Citigroup?
Allison Larr: As an undergraduate I studied neuroscience, and I was considering pursuing a career in academia or medicine. After my college graduation, I worked for a psychiatric research organization where I realized that I didn’t want to perform the traditional academic roles of creating and distributing knowledge or devote my life to being a physician, but I still wanted to work in a field related to health. By that time, I had developed quite an interest in the environment and in climate change, and so I thought why not connect these two by studying environmental health sciences and figuring out some sort of way that I could work in that field on large-scale problems related to health from upstream processes.
When I started my Master’s in Public Health at Mailman, I didn’t really have a clear vision of exactly what I wanted to do after graduation. I did know that I wanted to work on some bigger-picture environmental issues related to health, so I chose environmental health policy. I worked on a funding opportunity for electric vehicle infrastructure, and that was really the first time that I considered anything related to finance as related to health, because electric vehicle infrastructure would certainly increase electric vehicle uptake, which would have a positive impact on public health through reduced emissions. And in order to make that happen, you need to be able to pay for it.
That’s when the seed was planted that finance could be health related. Following that I worked at the New York City Department of Environmental Protection in the energy office, and when we were evaluating potential projects, part of my role was to evaluate how much greenhouse gas savings the projects would produce, as well as the payback period—investigating really whether it was a worthwhile investment from a financial point of view.
Future of Public Health: Q&A with Stephanie Lucas, MPH Candidate at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health
Future of Public Health is an ongoing series focused on the emerging faces in the world of public health. We spoke with Stephanie Lucas, a Masters of Public Health candidate in epidemiology and global health at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Lucas spoke about what helped lead her to the field of public health; her work in migrant health and reproductive health in the Philippines; and where she hopes to go from here.
NewPublicHealth: What encouraged you to pursue a degree and a career in public health?
Stephanie Lucas: I came from a wide variety of backgrounds. I taught English for a while and I did lab work because I was a biology major in my undergraduate studies. I also came from a small college that was really oriented in social justice and there were a number of study and volunteer abroad programs. One year, I decided to go to Belize for spring break and help teach a class. I also went abroad to South Africa and worked with an NGO there that helped street children. I think that’s where my interest in public health began because it was so blatant to see what needed to be done. When I was teaching English and doing lab work, I didn’t feel like I was connected to that enough. I felt like public health allowed me to take all of my background information—like biology and education—and intertwine them in a way that I can put them to good use to improve population health.
NPH: Is there a field within public health that’s of primary interest to you?
Lucas: I actually want to take on a broad range of public health topics. When I went to the Philippines, I did two practica there; one in the field of reproductive health and another in the field of migrant health. I didn’t know anything about migrant health, but that was OK because I just wanted to learn about the spectrum of the different issues in an effort to understand that all of those issues are interrelated.
Future of Public Health: Q&A with Chinedum Ojinnaka, Doctoral Candidate at the Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Public Health
Future of Public Health is an ongoing series focused on the emerging faces in the world of public health. We spoke with Chinedum Ojinnaka, a Doctoral Candidate at the Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Public Health and graduate research assistant at the Southwest Rural Health Research Center. Ojinnaka spoke about what helped lead her to the field of public health; her work with the Texas Colon Cancer Screening, Training and Education Program; and where she hopes to go from here.
NewPublicHealth: What encouraged you to pursue a degree and a career in public health?
Chinedum Ojinnaka: I actually trained as a physician in Nigeria and had the opportunity to practice in a rural health center. During my year at the rural health center, I was astounded by some of the problems that could be solved if health professionals knew how to get across to people culturally and to better organize the health system to improve patient navigation.
As a medical student, I had been intrigued by public health and the fact that it was prevention-based. During medical school, it was sad to see patients having to wait for a long time before they could see a doctor. By the time they were examined, the diseases were at a late stage. The frustration was that had the patients been seen earlier, associated complications might have been prevented. This led me to start considering a career path in preventive medicine. After my experience working at the rural health center, I became even more convinced that public health was the path for me.
NPH: Within the field of public health what are your primary interests? It seems like you’re doing a lot of work in rural health and preventative measures, but is there something specifically within those fields that really interests you in your field of study?
Ojinnaka: My particular interest is health disparities, especially with regards to cancer care and women’s health. That’s currently what I’m working on. I’ve been privileged to work as a research assistant on a colorectal cancer prevention program, and we recently received a women’s health grant for a breast and cervical cancer prevention program. My interest is in ensuring that underserved women or women who don’t have adequate access to health care are not left behind in the fight against cancer.
Future of Public Health is an ongoing series focused on the emerging faces in the world of public health. We spoke with Margo Klar, MPH, a PhD candidate in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Florida’s College of Public Health & Health Professions, about what helped lead her to the field, her Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-funded work in maternal health, and where she hopes to go from here.
NewPublicHealth: What encouraged you to pursue a degree and career in public health?
Margo Klar: As an undergraduate at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) I majored in Chemical Engineering and worked in an environmental engineering lab. My undergraduate research focused on the effects of urban runoff on water quality, which we tracked from inland California to the ocean. During my last quarter at UCI, I took a biomedical engineering course. As a part of the class, we were asked to invent a new sleep apnea device. I really enjoyed that creative process and it opened my eyes to the fields of biomedical engineering and medicine.
After graduating, I began looking at applying to medical schools. I went back to school and took anatomy and biology prerequisites. My anatomy teacher once said, “In the United States we worry about problems with our feet, in other countries people don't have feet.” This really resonated with me. While researching medical school programs, I learned about Master of Public Health programs. I decided the MPH would be a great stepping-stone and improve my application to medical school. I was accepted into the Yale School of Public Health in the department of Environmental Health Science. Not only did I receive the training necessary to evaluate health and look for ways to improve global health, I was also able to direct my own thesis research project. I wrote my master’s thesis on an indoor cookstove improvement project for Proyecto Mirador, LLC in rural Honduras. I collected health data and examined indoor air quality improvement and reduction of firewood use as a result of cookstove replacement. This was a terrific learning experience.
NPH: You’ve received a Grand Challenges Explorations grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to develop ceramic umbilical cord scissors. What drove you to pursue maternal and child health coming from an environmental background?
Klar: My mentor at Yale, Catherine Weikart Yeckel, PhD thought I should take a look at the Grand Challenges Explorations grant through the Gates Foundation. Essentially this funding mechanism releases a set of topics every six months to which they fund somewhere between 80 to 100 grants to the amount of $100,000 for two years of work. After the first proof of concept phase is complete, a second phase application can be submitted for up to $1 million.
Dr. Yeckel encouraged me to take a look at the maternal and child health topic. Essentially, I Googled top reasons for neonatal mortality in developing countries- neonatal tetanus and infection as a result of poor birthing hygiene and the way the umbilical cord is cut, was among the top causes. I really did not, at the time, have a strong interest in maternal and child health. I had an interest in problem solving, mainly because it’s been something, which has been a personal strength throughout my education. Thanks to my engineering background, I can look at a problem and come up with a solution to try to mitigate it. So, essentially I just applied my problem solving skills to the maternal and child health topic.
Future of Public Health is an ongoing series focused on the emerging faces in the world of public health. We spoke with Patrick Ten Eyck, MS, a PhD candidate in the Department of Biostatistics at the University of Iowa’s College of Public Health, about what helped lead him to the field, his work in biostatistics to determine the impact of anti-bullying policies and where he hopes to go from here.
NewPublicHealth: What encouraged you to pursue a degree and career in public health?
Patrick Ten Eyck: I received my undergraduate degree in math because it’s been an interest of mine and then I got my Master’s in statistics because I found it to be the most interesting. I wasn’t really interested so much in the theory of statistics as much as the application. So, when I decided to pursue my PhD I thought biostatistics would be the perfect route because it applied my knowledge of statistics to really practical applications in the real world, especially public health. It’s convenient that the Biostatistics Department is in the College of Public Health at the University of Iowa. I have the opportunity to collaborate with other departments and help share our knowledge of statistics. Together, we can make sense of large data sets and hopefully get some very useful results out of it.
NPH: Do you have primary interests on the public health side of biostatistics?
Ten Eyck: Actually, when I started at the program I really didn’t have any particular area that I was that interested in researching. Obviously, one of the big areas that the Biostatistics Department pursues is medical data, but we also work with more broad areas than just medical data. We help out with occupational, environmental, community and behavioral health topics, too. These topics opened many more doors as far as piquing my interest in different areas. So, I still don’t have a particular area that I’m focused on, but I like to get involved in a lot of different areas because it’s really interesting to see what’s going on in the different fields.
NPH: Tell us more about the work you’ve done to analyze the bullying data in the Iowa Youth Survey?
Ten Eyck: Obviously, bullying has been quite a large focus, especially in the media lately with many stories of students being bullied in schools. So, the Iowa Youth Survey looks at data from 2005, 2008 and 2010 and now we just got the data set for 2012. There was an anti-bullying law passed in 2007 in the state of Iowa that outlines what bullying is and helps teachers to recognize bullying and intervene to prevent it as best as possible. A survey was given to sixth-, eighth- and eleventh-grade students throughout the state of Iowa and more than 250,000 students filled out the survey and gave information.
Last month The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. announced three gifts totaling $80 million for the university’s School of Public Health and public health initiatives from the Milken Institute, the Sumner M. Redstone Charitable Foundation and the Milken Family Foundation. The public health graduate school is now called the Milken Institute School of Public Health and the university has also established the Sumner M. Redstone Global Center for Prevention and Wellness. Redstone is the executive chairman of Viacom and CBS Corp., while Michael Milken is an entrepreneur.
The gifts include:
- $40 million from the Milken Institute to support new and ongoing research and scholarships
- $30 million from the Sumner M. Redstone Charitable Foundation to develop and advance innovative strategies to expand wellness and the prevention of disease
- $10 million from the Milken Family Foundation to support the Milken Institute School dean’s office, including a newly created public health scholarship program
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Lynn Goldman, MD, MS, MPH, and dean of the School of Public Health, about the impact of the gifts for the school and the public’s health both globally and in the United States.
NewPublicHealth: What changes will the recent gifts bring to the school?
Lynn Goldman: It’s no exaggeration to say the gift is transformational for our school. We have the opportunity to recruit the best talent in the country to work with our school, whether that might be students through the increase that we’ve received in scholarship funding or faculty members, and we have the opportunity to support our current faculty to be able to take their work to the next level.
It also allows us to establish the Sumner M. Redstone Global Center for Prevention and Wellness, which is a very exciting enterprise. We recently announced that William Dietz, MD, MPH, formerly the director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), will be the first director of the Redstone Center. The initial focus of the Center will be childhood obesity. That is so exciting because Dietz was doing research on childhood obesity well before that became the flavor of the month. It has been his lifelong mission to prevent childhood obesity, and what we are charged to do with this center is to very directly engage in efforts that will result in reducing the rates of obesity in the United States and globally. The way we are going to be doing that is by bringing together the evidence that people are generating about efforts that are working and also efforts that are not working, and be able to sift through that research. I think Bill is the perfect person to be the leader of an effort such as this because he is very collaborative, and we want to do this in a collaborative fashion.
Future of Public Health is an ongoing series focused on the emerging faces in the world of public health. We spoke with Erin Yastrow, a Bachelor of Science in Public Health candidate at the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, about what helped lead her to the field, her work as a leader in Tulane’s undergraduate student government and where she hopes to go from here.
NewPublicHealth: What encouraged you to pursue a degree and career in public health?
Erin Yastrow: I’ve always been interested in the field of health. I was actually thinking about going into nutrition when I first started looking at undergraduate schools and I had a family friend at one school who had worked in nutrition, but then ended up working at the School of Public Health. When I met with her, she encouraged me to pursue public health with an emphasis on nutrition because it would give me more opportunities. From there, I started my exploration into what public health was and I realized how interesting and fascinating it was and how it was applicable to so many more areas besides just nutrition.
In the meantime, I had also applied to Tulane. I wasn’t really considering it that much because I didn’t know that much about it. My mom was looking through their brochure and told me that they have a great public health program. So, I started looking and I realized how established the Bachelor’s and graduate programs were. They also had an option where you could pursue a combined degree and it was really appealing to me.
NPH: Are you pursuing a Master’s as well?
Yastrow: Not currently, but I’m actually attending Johns Hopkins next year for a Master’s in Public Health. Tulane does have a really great program where you can do a combined degree with your Bachelor’s and Master’s. Part of my undergraduate core, which has now changed, included taking five graduate classes, so I took some classes at that School of Public Health here.
NPH: Within the field of public health, what are your primary interests and why?
Yastrow: That has also sort of shifted as I’ve learned more about public health. As I mentioned, I started out really interested in nutrition and obesity prevention. As I took more electives and did some internships, I became more interested in the similar patterns of risk factors that exist in obesity and other epidemics that aren’t always considered to be health problems, such as violence. That has developed into an interest about addressing inequalities in health and the social determinants, such as socioeconomic status, education and race and how those, to me, are unjust reasons that people are more likely to develop further health conditions.
Louis W. Sullivan, MD, former U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services under President George H.W. Bush, recently wrote a memoir, Breaking Ground: My Life in Medicine, that offers a wide view of Sullivan’s experiences as a medical student in Boston, the founding dean of the Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta and as the country’s chief health officer. NewPublicHealth recently sat down with Sullivan to discuss the book and his thoughts on the history and future of improving the nation’s health.
NewPublicHealth: Looking back, what can you share about the highlights of your career in medicine and health promotion?
Louis Sullivan: Highlights would certainly include my time at the Boston University School of Medicine. That had many significant points. It was my first time living in an integrated environment because up until that time I spent all of my life in the South. Working in an environment without concerns about discrimination and bias, that was a great experience; my classmates and the faculty at Boston University were all welcoming.
Another highlight was later when I was a research fellow in hematology in the Harvard unit at Boston City Hospital. I had a paper accepted for presentation at a major research conference in Atlantic City. It was a paper showing that heavy drinking suppressed the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow.
And of course a tremendous highlight was going back to Morehouse College, my alma mater, to start the Morehouse School of Medicine. I was returning home in a sense. I had gained experience as a faculty member at Boston University, had been steeped in medicine and now I was in the process of establishing a new institution to train young people for the future.
NewPublicHealth: What changes have you created and supported to improve population health.
Sullivan: Well, certainly becoming Secretary of Health and Human Services was indeed an honor and a great opportunity for me, and it was also a very challenging experience.
In the late ‘80s, when I became Secretary, AIDS was a new disease. There were many demonstrations by various advocacy groups, groups that didn’t trust the government, and we had to work to develop a relationship with them. I convinced President Bush to put $1.6 billion in his budget to be used for research on this new disease, to develop mechanisms for treating the disease and to educate the public. And as a result of that initial investment and ones that followed, this disease has been transformed from a virtual death sentence to a chronic disease which is controlled by medication. And people, rather than living a few months, which was the case once the diagnosis was made in 1989, are now living for decades with the virus suppressed on medication, raising their families, working, earning wages, paying taxes. So that has been really a very satisfying outcome from that experience. And we hopefully are close to finding a cure for this disease as well.
Several weeks ago, the Harvard School of Public Health celebrated its Centennial with fanfare, fundraising and a panel discussion featuring world health leaders who are graduates of the school. Following the centennial, NewPublicHealth spoke with the School’s Dean, Julio Frenk, MD, MPH, PHD, who has a joint appointment at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. He is also a former health minister of Mexico and a former senior fellow in the global health program of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
NewPublicHealth: What do you think have been the key changes in public health efforts since the Harvard School of Public Health was founded 100 years ago?
Julio Frenk: The 100 years that have passed since the School of Public Health was founded are not just any 100 years—they’re the 100 years with the most intense transformations in health in human history. We have seen a more than doubling of life expectancy since the school was founded. Around 1900, the global average for life expectancy was 30 years. At the end of the century, the global average was about 65 years. It more than doubled in the 20th century, and that increase has continued with some setbacks, most notably the AIDS epidemic in Saharan Africa. And we have had a qualitative shift not just in the level of mortality, but in the causes of death. So we went from a preponderance of acute infections to now a predominance of mostly chronic non-communicable diseases, and that’s an incredible transition.
A critical change is that the experience of illness became very different starting from the beginning of the 20th century. Before then, illness was mostly a succession of acute episodes, from which one either recovered or died. If you recovered, you went on to get your next acute illness. Now, illness is more a condition of living. People live with cancer. People live with AIDS. So that’s a big transformation of the patterns of health, disease and death.
Another big change is the emergence of complex health systems, and that’s—again—a process that started at the beginning of the 20th century. Before the 20th century, the social function of the sick was mostly trusted to undifferentiated institutions, such as the family or religious institutions, and it’s not until the 20th century when you see this incredible explosion of specialized institutions and specialized human resources, doctors, nurses and other health professionals. In the 20th century, healthcare is 10 percent of the global economy and employs millions of people, including eight million doctors. These are all profound transformations.
NPH: How has the training of students of public health changed in the last 100 years?
Frenk: There has been profound change. What happened at the beginning of the 20th century was the emergence of public health as a field of action. The practices of engineering emerged in Europe, especially with the rapid urbanization there starting around the 17th century, but then greatly expanded in the 18th century. Engineering allowed for access to clean water and taking care of waste, which resulted in some diseases coming under control. In the 19th century the discovery of microbiology gave rise to the abolishment of the germs as causes of illness. That is the junction that gives birth to public health, along with the idea of social policy, of social activism that actually changed social conditions. It’s in that mix that public health gets shaped.
The Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH), like the American Public Health Association, held its annual meeting in Boston last week. NewPublicHealth spoke with Harrison Spencer, MD, MPH, executive director of the ASPPH, from Boston about the meeting and what’s ahead for students of public health.
NewPublicHealth: How was the meeting and what were some of the key sessions?
Harrison Spencer: Our meeting this year was the first one held since we formed our new organization, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, on August 1. The new organization is now comprised of all accredited public health academic institutions, both schools and programs. We’ve got 93 members now, an increase from 57 members before, so this was a wonderful and exciting and dynamic annual meeting with lots of energy and lots of promise.
Among the highlights were Harvey Fineberg, MD, PhD, president of the Institute of Medicine, who gave us an inspirational talk about public health leadership, and Laura Liswood, Secretary General of the Council of Women World Leaders, who led a discussion on diversity as a way to make organizations and institutes stronger.