Category Archives: Public health

Oct 22 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 22

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EBOLA UPDATE: WHO Plans on Ebola Vaccine Tests in January
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The World Health Organization plans to begin testing two experimental Ebola vaccines in West Africa by January. The vaccines will likely be tested on more than 20,000 frontline health care workers and others in the region. The global health agency also announced that a blood serum treatment could be available for use in Liberia within two weeks. Read more on Ebola.

Study: Automated Tracking Improves Vaccine Compliance in Health Care Workers
Automated tracking of influenza vaccinations increases vaccination compliance in health care personnel while also reducing the workload burden on human resources and occupational health staff, according to a new study in the journal Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. Researchers analyzed data on nearly 7,000 people including in a mandatory vaccination program, finding that “automated reminders and tracking accounted for more than 98 percent of compliance among healthcare personnel.” "Mandatory vaccination programs help protect vulnerable patients, but can be tremendously time and resource dependent," said Susan Huang, MD, MPH, an author of the study, in a release. "By successfully automating a system to track and provide feedback to healthcare personnel who have not received their seasonal flu vaccine, we are providing safer places for care and reducing the administrative burden of our mandatory vaccination program." Read more on vaccines.

Study: Living with a Smoker is as Bad as Living in a Highly Polluted City
Living with a smoker is the same as living in a smoke-free home in a heavily polluted city such as Beijing or London, with the non-smokers exposed to three times the World Health Organization’s officially recommend safe levels of damaging air particles, according to a new study in the journal Tobacco Control. In a collection of four studies, researchers determined that the concentration of fine particulate matter was approximately 10 times higher in smoking homes than it was in non-smoking homes. “Smokers often express the view that outdoor air pollution is just as much a concern as the second-hand smoke in their home,” said Sean Semple, MD, of University of Aberdeen, in a release. “These measurements show that second-hand tobacco smoke can produce very high levels of toxic particles in your home: much higher than anything experienced outside in most towns and cities in the UK. Making your home smoke-free is the most effective way of dramatically reducing the amount of damaging fine particles you inhale.” Read more on air quality.

Oct 21 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 21

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CDC Updates Guidelines on Health Worker Protective Gear when Treating Ebola Patients
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced last night that it is tightening its infection control guidance for health care workers caring for patients with Ebola, with a specific focus on several key steps:

  • All health care workers must undergo rigorous training and become practiced and competent with protective equipment, including taking it on and off in a systemic manner.
  • No skin exposure is allowed when the equipment is worn.
  • All workers must be supervised by a trained monitor who watches each worker taking the equipment on and off.

The CDC is recommending all of the same equipment in its earlier guidance, with the addition of coveralls and single-use, disposable hoods. Single-use face shields are now recommended instead of goggles. Read more on Ebola.

Most People Polled Don’t Know New ACA Enrollment Period Begins in November
A poll just released from the Kaiser Family Foundation finds few people know that open enrollment for 2015 health insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act begins next month. Other findings of the poll:

  • Two-thirds of responders say they know “only a little” or “nothing at all” about the marketplaces where people who don’t get coverage through their employers can shop for insurance.
  • Just over half say they know that financial assistance is available to help low- and moderate-income individuals purchase insurance. 

Signup begins November 15 and runs through February 15, 2015.

Risk Factors for Sexual Assault Need to be Included in Prevention Efforts
Researchers who conducted a Danish study on sexual assault say that certain risk factors for the attacks—including the age of the victim and their prior relationship with the attacker—must be considered when developing strategies to help prevent sexual assaults. The researchers looked at data from more than 250 women who sought help at a Danish center for sexual assault victims between 2001 and 2010. The researchers found that 66 percent of the women were 15-24 years old and 75 percent had met their attacker before the assault. Nearly half of the women reported that the attacker was a current or former boyfriend, a family member or someone they considered a friend. Women who did not know their attacker previously were more likely to report the assault to the police. “We need to raise awareness of the fact that most sexual assaults are perpetrated by someone known to the woman, often in familiar surroundings ... in order to change the general attitudes towards sexual assault, this information should not only target young people, but also the police, health care professionals and the general public,” said Mie-Louise Larsen, of the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault and the University of Copenhagen and a coauthor of the study, which appeared in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Read more on injury prevention.

Positive Images Improve Function in Older Adults
Older individuals who are subliminally exposed to positive stereotypes about aging showed improved physical functioning that can last for several weeks, according to work done by researchers at the Yale School of Public Health. The study, which will be published in Psychological Science, included 100 older individuals with an average age of 81 years. Some participants saw positive age stereotypes on a computer screen that flashed words such as “spry” and “creative.” Those participants who were exposed to positive messaging displayed both psychological and physical improvements but control participants did not. Read more on aging.

Oct 20 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 20

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EBOLA UPDATE: 43 People Cleared from Ebola Watch Lists in Texas
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
Dozens of people in the United States came off of Ebola watch lists this morning after showing no symptoms for 21 days. A total of forty-three people who came into contact with Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, were cleared by Texas’ state health department. Another 120 people are still being monitored. The news comes as lawmakers continue to debate the feasibility and prudence of enacting a travel ban from West Africa. Read more on Ebola.

 

Healthy Lifestyle Habits Could Reduce Gestational Diabetes Cases by Half

Healthy lifestyle habits such as maintaining a normal weight, not smoking and staying physically active may help prevent as many as half of all gestational diabetes cases, according to a new study in the journal BMJ. Researchers analyzed data on more than 14,000 U.S. women, finding that women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy were at four times the risk of developing gestational diabetes. Women with all three of the identified healthy lifestyle behaviors were 83 percent less likely to develop gestational diabetes than were women who lacked all three. Read more on maternal and infant health.

 

Study: Men with IBS Report Greater Interpersonal Difficulties
Men with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) experience more interpersonal difficulties than do women with the condition, according to a surprising new study presented at the American College of Gastroenterology annual meeting in Philadelphia. IBS symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea and/or constipation; it affects an estimate 25 million to 50 million Americans, but is twice as common among women, meaning less is known about how men experience the disorder. The study determined that men report feeling cold and detached, which leads to difficulties in interpersonal relationships. "Our findings underscore the significance of studying gender-based differences in how people experience the same disease or condition," says Jeffrey Lackner, PsyD, professor of medicine in the UB School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, in a release. "That discrepancy underscores our need to move beyond clinical intuition and anecdote, and systematically study the different ways that each gender experiences disease in general. Patients who have a domineering and distant interpersonal style may need to work more closely with the physicians.” Read more on health disparities.

 

Oct 17 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 17

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EBOLA UPDATE: HHS Accelerates Development of an Ebola Vaccine
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) is working to accelerate the development of a vaccine to prevent Ebola through a one-year, $5.8 million contract with Profectus BioSciences Inc. ASPR’s Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) will also provide subject matter expertise and technical assistance. Plans call for the vaccine to first be tested in animal safety studies. “We are pushing hard to advance the development of multiple products as quickly as possible for clinical evaluation and future use in preventing or treating this deadly disease,” said BARDA Director Robin Robinson, PhD. “Our goal is to close the global gap in vaccines and therapeutics needed to protect the public health from Ebola as highlighted by the epidemic in West Africa.” Read more on Ebola.

High-Fat Meals Could Be More Harmful to Men than to Women
High-fat meals could be more harmful to men than they are to women, according to a new study in the journal Cell Reports. Researchers at the Cedars-Sinai Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute and funded by the National Institutes of Health determined that male mice who received high-fat diets experienced greater health complications than did female mice who received the same. "For the first time, we have identified remarkable differences in the sexes when it comes to how the body responds to high-fat diets," said Deborah Clegg, PhD. "In the study, the mice were given the equivalent of a steady diet of hamburgers and soda. The brains of the male mice became inflamed and their hearts were damaged. But the female mice showed no brain inflammation and had normal hearts during the diet." Richard Bergman, PhD, director of the Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, said the findings suggest that physicians must “reconsider whether the diets and drugs we recommend for managing obesity may need to be sex-specific to be more effective.” Read more on obesity.

Study Links Metal-Contaminated Well Water to Birth Defects, Other Detrimental Health Outcomes
Increased levels of metals in private well water may be linked to birth defects and other detrimental health outcomes, according to a new study in the journal BiodMed Central Public Health. Researchers at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health utilized well water data from between 11,000 and 47,000 wells provided by the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. They determined that metals such as cadmium, arsenic, lead and manganese in drinking water can lead to spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight and impaired neural development in infants. Read more on water and air quality.

Oct 16 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 16

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EBOLA UPDATE: CDC May Add Some Health Care Workers to Federal No-Fly List
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
In response to the news that a Dallas nurse who tested positive for Ebola flew on a commercial airliner between when she was exposed to the disease and when she was diagnosed, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is considering adding the names of health care workers being monitored for Ebola to the government’s no-fly list, according to Fox News. Seventy workers who helped treat Ebola patient Thomas Edward Duncan at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital are being monitored by the CDC. Read more on Ebola.

HUD: $38.3 Million to Enforce Fair Housing Practices
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has awarded $38.3 million to help enforce the Fair Housing Act through investigations of alleged discriminatory practices, as well as to educate housing providers, local governments and potential victims of housing discrimination about the Fair Housing Act. More than 100 fair housing organizations and other non-profit agencies in 43 states and the District of Columbia will share the funding, which is available through HUD’s Fair Housing Initiatives Program. “Ending housing discrimination is at the core of HUD’s mission and it takes dedicated people on the ground to address it,” said HUD Secretary Julián Castro, in a release. “These funds support community-based organizations that do great work every day on the front lines in the fight for fairness and equality in our nation’s housing market.” Read more on housing.

Study: Adults Who Are Comfortable With Aging More Likely to Seek Preventive Health Care
Older adults who are comfortable with aging are also more likely to be proactive in getting preventive health care services, according to a new study in the journal Preventive Medicine. One of the obstacles that keeps some older adults from seeking out preventive care is the belief that all their physical and mental declines are typical of old age. Researchers at the University of Michigan examined data on 6,177 participants age 50 and older. Among their findings for individuals who reported higher satisfaction with aging:

  • They were more likely to obtain a cholesterol test and colonoscopy over time
  • Women received a mammogram/X-ray or pap smear with greater frequency
  • Men made medical appointments more often to get a prostate exam

Read more on aging.

Oct 15 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 15

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EBOLA UPDATE: Second Dallas Health Care Work Tests Positive for Ebola
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The Texas hospital that treated a man who has since died from Ebola has reported that a second health care worker has tested positive for the disease. The patient has been isolated at Texas Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas; the health care worker is being monitored for fever and symptoms while confirmation testing is performed at the Texas Department of State Health Services’ laboratory. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has interviewed the patient about any contacts or potential exposures. Read more on Ebola.

CDC is Utilizing New, Faster Lab Test for Enterovirus D68
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed and is now using a new laboratory test that will enable it to more quickly test remaining specimens for the presence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). EV-D68 has been identified as the most common type of enterovirus this year; enteroviruses and rhinoviruses lead to millions of respiratory illnesses in children annually, and can be especially harmful to kids with asthma. “CDC has received substantially more specimens for enterovirus lab testing than usual this year, due to the large outbreak of EV-D68 and related hospitalizations,” said Anne Schuchat, MD, assistant surgeon general and director of CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “When rare or uncommon viruses suddenly begin causing severe illness, CDC works quickly to develop diagnostic tests to enhance our response and investigations. This new lab test will reduce what would normally take several weeks to get results to a few days.” Read more on pediatrics.

Study: Health Disparities at the Root of Post-Cancer Surgery Deaths
Approximately 5 percent of more than 1 million cancer patients who had surgery died within one month of their operation, according to a new study by Harvard researchers. Study lead author Brandon Mahal, a research fellow at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, cited disparities such as access to quality care, biological or genetic factors, social support and treatment differences as the most likely reasons for the death rate. The study determined that married patients had a 20 percent lower risk of dying within the month after surgery; insured patients had a 12 percent lower risk; wealthier patients had a 5 percent lower risk; and more-educated patients had a 2 percent lower risk. "Efforts to reduce deaths and eliminate disparities have the potential to significantly improve survival among patients with cancer," Mahal said. Read more on health disparities.

Oct 14 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 14

EBOLA UPDATE: Death Rate Now Stands at 70 Percent; 4,447 Dead
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The World Health Organization (WHO) now puts the Ebola outbreak death rate at 70 percent, up from a previous estimate of 50 percent. WHO assistant director- general Bruce Aylward, MD, who announced the figure at a news conference, said this classifies Ebola as a “high mortality disease.” The global health agency also predicts there could be as many as 10,000 new cases per week within two months. The official toll so far is 4,447 deaths in 8,914 cases. Read more on Ebola.

DOD Adds Climate Change Threats to its Defense Mandate
Citing its effect on issues such as infectious disease, hunger and poverty, the U.S. Department of Defense has announced its intention to integrate climate change threats into all of its “plans, operations, and training.” The assessment came in the Pentagon’s 20-page Climate Change Adaptation Roadmap. "Rising global temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, climbing sea levels, and more extreme weather events will intensify the challenges of global instability, hunger, poverty, and conflict. They will likely lead to food and water shortages, pandemic disease, disputes over refugees and resources, and destruction by natural disasters in regions across the globe," wrote Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in the report. Read more on the environment.

Study: Smoking Linked to 14 Million Major Medical Conditions
Cigarette smoking harms nearly every bodily organ and is linked to an estimated 14 million major medical conditions in U.S. adults, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema and is the illness most closely linked to smoking. The study was published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine. “The disease burden of cigarette smoking in the United States remains immense, and updated estimates indicate that COPD may be substantially underreported in health survey data,” wrote the study authors. The study also linked smoking to 2.3 million cases of heart attack 1.3 million cases of cancer, 1.2 million cases of stroke and 1.8 million cases of diabetes. Read more on tobacco.

Oct 13 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 13

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CDC Confirms Texas Hospital Nurse Who Cared for Infected Patient Has Ebola
On Sunday, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed test results that found that a healthcare worker at Texas Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas is positive for Ebola. The health care worker provided care for a Dallas patient who contracted Ebola in Liberia and died last week. The nurse is being cared for in an isolation unit.  In a statement released on Sunday, the CDC said “this development is understandably disturbing news for the patient, the patient’s family and colleagues and the greater Dallas community. The CDC and the Texas Department of State Health Services remain confident that wider spread in the community can be prevented with proper public health measures, including ongoing contact tracing, health monitoring among those known to have been in contact with the index [first]patient, and immediate isolations if symptoms develop.” Read more on Ebola.

Medicare Part B Premiums and Deductibles Will Remain the Same for 2015 as Rates of the Past Two Years
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has announced that the standard Medicare Part B monthly premium and deductible for 2015 will remain the same as the last two years. Medicare Part B covers physicians’ services, outpatient hospital services, certain home health services, durable medical equipment, and other items.  About 50 million Americans are enrolled in Medicare Part B and their monthly premiums and annual deductibles will be $104.90 and $147, respectively. Read more on Access to Health Care.

Monitoring Illness at Preschools Could Offer Early Avert for Some Disease Outbreaks
A web-based system that allows preschools and child care centers to report illnesses to local public health departments could improve the detection of community disease outbreaks and allow resources to be mobilized faster according to a study presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics meeting in San Diego. The researchers created a computerized system and tested it at four early learning centers in Michigan. Staff was trained to use the system daily and send illness updates to local health department weekly, or more frequently if spikes in illnesses were seen. Among their findings: the four preschools reported a gastroenteritis outbreak three weeks earlier than other area schools. Read more on infectious disease.

Oct 10 2014
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Faces of Public Health: Margo DeMont, Memorial Hospital of South Bend

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During a recent webinar held by Stakeholder Health, a learning collaborative of health leaders aimed at improving population health, Margo DeMont, PhD, head of community health enhancement at Memorial Hospital of South Bend, Ind., shared about the hospital’s recent efforts to build a trauma-informed community through several innovative therapeutic programs.

For example, using eye motion desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a trained practitioner takes a person through their traumatic experience, and then follows with a series of hand movements, asking the patient to follow the movements with their eyes. After the sequence of movements, the patients are asked to review the intensity of their feelings about the trauma, with the goal of reducing the heightened emotions. The goal is to reprocess the information from the incident in their brain from the right hemisphere, where emotional experiences can be locked up, to the left hemisphere, which is the more cognitive area of the brain. While EMDR is still quite new and studies are still needed, some use of the technique has been suggested by both the U.S. Department of Defense and the American Psychiatric Association.

The goal of the behavioral interventions is to reach people who have suffered through adverse childhood experiences (ACE). Studies have shown that without help dealing with those childhood experiences, people are more likely to face long-term health problems such as substance abuse, cardiopulmonary disease, diabetes and obesity. Memorial Hospital assessed the impact of childhood trauma on adults in the community through a community health assessment.

NewPublicHealth recently spoke with DeMont about the initiatives.

NewPublicHealth: When was the community health assessment done that indicated that there was a great deal of trauma in the community related to adverse events in childhood?

Margo DeMont: That was done in 2012 as part of the community benefit requirement for non-profit hospitals under the Affordable Care Act. And we saw that in terms of health issues perceived by the community, violence was rated pretty high, it was one of the priorities, and it came out as both street violence and relationship violence. I was familiar with the work done by Kaiser Permanente on childhood trauma, and we included eight questions from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey that dealt with adverse childhood experiences in random phone surveys completed by 599 adults

Read more

Oct 10 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 10

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EBOLA UPDATE: One-quarter of Americans View Ebola as a ‘Major Threat’ to the United States
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The percentage of Americans who view Ebola as a “major threat” to the United States stands at 27 percent, up from only 13 percent in mid-September, according to a new Harris Poll/HealthDay survey. While saying that the fear is unwarranted, Mayo Clinic infectious diseases physician and researcher Pritish Tosh, MD, said the rising concern is also understandable. "Ebola is an agent that evokes a lot of fear, and can result in societal disruption," said Tosh, according to HealthDay. "There's a reason why it's considered a possible bioterrorism agent. So any time you have any cases in the United States, there is a heightened amount of anxiety." Read more on Ebola.

In-home Parenting Education Improves Mother’s Health, Behavior
In-home, intensive parenting and health education reduces illegal drug use, depression and behavior problems in pregnant American Indian teens, while also improving the likelihood that their children will reach behavioral and emotional milestones, according to a new study in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health analyzed 322 expectant American Indian teens in four Southwest communities, randomly assigning them to receive optimized care or optimized care plus 63 in-home education sessions, finding that the latter group saw greater improvements in various behaviors. "We found a consistent pattern of success across a number of different outcome measures," says the study's principal investigator John Walkup, MD, an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and a faculty member within the Center for American Indian Health. "These early years are critical ones for children. We teach these mothers not only how to be competent parents, but how to cope with stressors and other risk factors that could impede positive parenting skills." Read more on maternal and infant health.

Study: Hospital Patients Don’t Wash their Hands Nearly Enough
Hospital patients aren’t washing their hands nearly enough, according to new research from McMaster University. Researchers analyzed the hand hygiene behavior of 279 adult patients in three multi-organ transplant units of a Canadian acute care teaching hospital over an eight-month period, finding they washed their hands about 30 percent of the time while in the washroom, 40 percent during meals and only 3 percent when using the kitchens in their rooms. "This is important because getting patients to wash their hands more could potentially reduce their risk of picking up infections in the hospital," said principal investigator Jocelyn Srigley, MD, an assistant professor of medicine at McMaster's Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, in a release. Read more on prevention.