Category Archives: Violence

Sep 23 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: September 23

UN: Improved Access to HIV/AIDS Treatment Reduces Number of AIDS-related Deaths
The United Nations’ annual report on HIV infections and AIDS related-deaths around the world concluded that increased access to treatment in poorer and middle-income countries has led to positive health outcomes. “AIDS-related deaths in 2012 fell to 1.6 million, down from 1.7 million in 2011 and a peak of 2.3 million in 2005. And the number of people newly infected with the disease dropped to 2.3 million in 2012 down from 2.5 million in 2011.” The executive director of UNAIDS, Michel Sidibé, said that the international community is well on its way to surpass the 2015 goals of expanding access to treatment. Read more on the public health impact of AIDS.

Racism Leads to Negative Effects on Mental Health of Children and Teens
A new report published in the journal Social Science & Medicine examines the link between the mental health and well-being of youth ages 12-18 and racism. The review shows that being a victim of racial discrimination can lead to low self-esteem, reduced resilience, and increased behavior problems. There was also evidence of increased risk of poorer birth outcomes for children when mother experienced racism while pregnant. These types of detriments to children and teen’s mental health and well-being can lead to larger problems in terms of engagement in education and employment later in life, according to study authors. Read more on health disparities.

Positive Relationships May Help Break the Cycle of Maltreatment
In a special supplement released by the Journal of Adolescent Health, investigations on the effects of safe, stable, nurturing relationships found that these types of relationships could help break the cycle of child maltreatment that is often passed along from parents to children. Findings also showed that supportive and nurturing relationships between adults can help protect children as well. This study can provide helpful prevention strategies for breaking the cycle of maltreatment and promoting improved health in the long term. Read more on violence prevention.

Sep 17 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: September 17

Antibiotic-resistant Infections on the Rise; Threat Called "Urgent"
Antibiotic-resistant infections sicken more than two million Americans each year, killing more than 23,000 in the process, according to a new study from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The report ranked the threats according to seven factors, including health impact, economic impact, how common the infection is and how easily it is spread. It classified carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), drug-resistant gonorrhea, and Clostridium difficile as “urgent." C. difficile alone causes about 250,000 hospitalizations and at least 14,000 deaths each year. Excessive antibiotic use is the number one cause of the increase in antibiotic-resistant infections, with as many as 50 percent of prescriptions either not needed or prescribed inappropriately. “Every time antibiotics are used in any setting, bacteria evolve by developing resistance. This process can happen with alarming speed,” said Steve Solomon, MD, director of CDC’s Office of Antimicrobial Resistance. “These drugs are a precious, limited resource—the more we use antibiotics today, the less likely we are to have effective antibiotics tomorrow.” Antibiotic-resistant infections also add as much as $20 billion in excess direct health care costs and account for as much as $35 billion in lost economic productivity. Read more on prescription drugs.

Survey: Nearly 80 Percent of College Students Oppose Concealed Handguns on Campus
Nearly 80 percent of the students in 15 Midwestern colleges and universities oppose allowing concealed handguns on their campuses, according to a new study in the Journal of American College Health. Ball State University researchers surveyed 1,649 undergraduate students, finding 78 percent were against the handguns and would not apply for a permit if they were legal. “Firearm morbidity and mortality are major public health problems that significantly impact our society,” said study co-author Jagdish Khubchandani, a member of Ball State’s Global Health Institute and a community health education professor in the university's Department of Physiology and Health Science. “The issue of allowing people to carry concealed weapons at universities and colleges around the U.S. has been raised several times in recent years. This is in spite of the fact that almost four of every five students are not in favor of allowing guns on campus.”

The study also found that:

  • About 16 percent of undergraduate students own a firearm and 20 percent witnessed a crime on their campus that involved firearms
  • About 79 percent of students would not feel safe if faculty, students and visitors carried concealed handguns on campus
  • About 66 percent did not feel that carrying a gun would make them less likely to be troubled by others
  • Most students also believed that allowing concealed carry guns would increase the rate of fatal suicides and homicides on campus

Read more on violence.

‘Bath Salts’ Drugs Led to 23,000 ER Visits in 2011
The use of “bath salts” drugs accounted for almost 23,000 emergency department visits in the United States in 2011, according to a new report from the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The report is the first national study to analyze the link between the street drugs and emergency department visits. "Although bath salts drugs are sometimes claimed to be 'legal highs' or are promoted with labels to mask their real purpose, they can be extremely dangerous when used," said Elinore McCance-Katz, MD, SAMHSA's chief medical officer. The drugs can cause heart problems, high blood pressure, seizures, addiction, suicidal thoughts, psychosis and even death. About two-thirds of the visits also involved at least one other drug, with 15 percent of the visits also being linked to marijuana or synthetic forms of marijuana. There were approximately 2.5 million U.S. emergency department visits linked to drug misuse or abuse in 2011. Read more on substance abuse.

Sep 5 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: September 5

‘Hyper-vigilance’ Over Racial Disparities May Be a Factor in Higher Hypertension Rates for Black Americans
“Hyper-vigilance” related to race consciousness may be a factor in why black Americans have a disproportionately high rate of hypertension, according to a new study in the American Journal of Hypertension from researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. While it’s long been known that blacks have, on average, higher blood pressure, the exact environmental factors that contribute to the higher rates are not fully understood, according to Lisa A. Cooper, MD, MPH, a professor in the Division of General Internal Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the study’s senior author. “Hyper-vigilance [is] a heightened awareness of their stigmatized status in society and a feeling that they need to watch their backs constantly,” she said. “African-Americans have higher blood pressure, and it has been difficult to explain why this is true. It doesn’t appear to be genetic, and while things like diet, exercise and reduced access to health care may contribute, we think that a tense social environment, the sense of being treated differently because of your race, could also possibly explain some of what’s behind the higher rates.” Read more on health disparities.

Survey: Most Women Don’t Know their Personal Breast Cancer Risk
A new survey of more than 9,000 women shows that far too few have an accurate idea of their personal risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetime. Study researcher Jonathan Herman, MD, an obstetrician and gynecologist at Hofstra North Shore-LIJ Medical School in New Hyde Park, N.Y., found that only 9.4 percent knew their risk level, nearly 45 percent underestimated their level and nearly 46 percent overestimated their level. The survey also found that about four in 10 women had never even discussed their personal breast cancer risk with a physician. On average, women have a 12 percent lifetime risk of breast cancer, with that number climbing 20 percent if their mother had breast cancer. The BRCA mutations that increase breast cancer risk push the risk to about 70 percent. Mary Daly, MD, chair of clinical genetics at Fox Chase Cancer Center, in Philadelphia, and director of its risk assessment program, said it is critical that women researcher their family history related to breast cancer in order to determine whether they are following the best possible screening schedule. Read more on cancer.

Harsh Verbal Discipline of Teens Only Makes Behavior Worse
Harsh verbal discipline of teenagers not only isn’t effective at changing bad behaviors, but can in fact make them worse, according to a new study in the journal Child Development. "Most parents who yell at their adolescent children wouldn't dream of physically punishing their teens," said study author Ming-Te Wang, an assistant professor with the department of psychology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Education. "Yet, their use of harsh verbal discipline—defined as shouting, cursing or using insults—is just as detrimental to the long-term well-being of adolescents.” A recent survey indicates that about nine in 10 parents have admitted to such behavior. The study found that the emotional pain and discomfort cause by harsh parental verbal abuse can increase anger while dropping inhibition, which in turn can promote behaviors such as lying, cheating, stealing and fighting. It also found that the concept of “parental warmth”—as in a parent was yelling out of love or for the child’s own good—didn’t make things any better. "Parents who wish to modify their teenage children's behavior would do better by communicating with them on an equal level…and explaining their rationale and worries to them,” said Wang. “Parenting programs are in a good position to offer parents insight into how behaviors they may feel the need to resort to, such as shouting or yelling, are ineffective and or harmful, and to offer alternatives to such behaviors." Read more on pediatrics.

Sep 3 2013
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Recommended Reading for Back to School: APHA Publishes New Book on Bullying Prevention

DoSomething.org, a service and information website aimed at getting teens involved in their communities, has some startling statistics on bullying:

  • About 160,000 teens skip school each year because of bullying
  • More than 3.2 million students are victims of bullying each year
  • 1 in 7 students in grades K-12 are either a bully or a victim of bullying
  • 71 percent of students report incidents of bullying as a problem at their school

Which is why a new book on bullying prevention, "A Public Health Approach to Bullying Prevention" from the American Public Health Association (APHA), is a welcome addition as the school year starts back up. The new book is intended as a resource for both parents and educators to help stem the problem of bullying at school.

“With its public health perspective and approach, this book can lead us steps closer to eliminating the physical and mental anguish that bullying has on our nation’s children and communities,” said Georges Benjamin, MD, executive director of the APHA. “The book’s collection of various perspectives offers a comprehensive tool for parents and professionals to ensure healthy and safe schools.”

The book includes successful bullying prevention efforts implemented in southwestern Pennsylvania schools and essays by professionals working to develop approaches that might implement similar success in other U.S. school communities. Authors include psychologists, educators, social workers and public health program workers—and all have experience addressing bullying in the school environment.

“The goal ultimately, is to enable and empower students, teachers, school administration and parents to take on the work and responsibility of providing a safer and healthier environment for children,” explained Matthew Masiello, MD, MPH, Center for Health Promotion, Disease Prevention Director at the Windber Research Institute in Windber, Pennsylvania and co-editor of the book.

Topics in the book include bullying against students in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender population; cost–benefit analysis; and existing and pending legislation.

“A public health approach to bullying prevention…may be our best approach to providing legitimate and sustainable hope to our children at a time when it is becoming increasingly more difficult to do so,” says Masiello.

The cost of book is $30 for APHA members and $50 for non members. It can be ordered through the APHA bookstore.

Aug 5 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: August 5

Six States to Split $89.2M for Early Learning Programs
Six states will split approximately $89.2 million in federal funding as supplemental awards from the 2013 Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC), which works to expand and improve early learning programs. The six states are California, Colorado, Illinois, New Mexico, Oregon and Wisconsin. Each must now submit detailed budgets, budget narratives, revised performance measures and signed assurances. The funds will go toward developing new programs and strengthening existing programs that help close the “opportunity gap,” according to U.S. Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan. Added U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius: “Kids who attend high-quality early learning and pre-school programs are more likely to do well in school. They're more likely to secure a good job down the road; and they're more likely to maintain successful careers long-term.” Read more on education.

A Single Fight-related Injury Can Reduce Adolescent IQ by Equivalent of One Lost School Year
A single fight-related injury can reduce an adolescent or teen girl’s IQ by about 3.02 points, according to a new study in the Journal of Adolescent Health. For a boy it can mean a loss of 1.62 points. Studies have measured the effect of missing a year of school as about a 2-4 point decrease in IQ. IQ loss is generally associated with poorer school and work performance; mental disorders; behavioral problems; and longevity, according to the researchers from the Florida State University researchers noted. About 4 percent of U.S. high school students suffer from fight-related injuries annually. "We tend to focus on factors that may result in increases in intelligence over time, but examining the factors that result in decreases may be just as important," said study co-author Joseph Schwartz, a doctoral student in the College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, in a release. "The first step in correcting a problem is understanding its underlying causes. By knowing that fighting-related injuries result in a significant decrease in intelligence, we can begin to develop programs and protocols aimed at effective intervention.” Read more on violence.

Study Links Sugary Drinks, Obesity in Preschoolers
Even though the percentage as a calorie source is relatively minor, preschoolers who drink sugar-sweetened soda, sports drinks or juices every day are at greater risk for obesity, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. The findings parallel studies on teens and adults, which show a link between sugary drinks and extra weight. Kids who consumed at least one of the drinks each day were 43 percent more likely to be obese than their counterparts. They were also more likely to have an overweight mother and to watch at least two hours of television daily from ages four to five; researchers adjusted for these factors, as well as socioeconomic status. Potential reasons include the possibility that the sugary drinks were not filling, so did not replace other calories in the children’s diets. The study did not account for other eating habits or physical activity. Read more on nutrition.

Aug 2 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: August 2

Nine-state Study Shows Statewide Smoking Bans Would Not Hurt Restaurant, Bar Business
Despite the concerns of many proprietors, statewide smoke-free laws would not hurt business at restaurants and bars, according to a new study in the journal Preventing Chronic Disease. Bans on workplace and public area smoking reduce exposure to secondhand smoke, encourage smokers to quit, improve the health employees and reduce the risk for heart attack hospitalizations. The findings of the CDC Foundation study—the largest such analysis, with nine states—line up with previous research. The participating states were chosen because they do not have statewide smoking bans, but do have a good deal of local laws. “Smoke-free laws make good business sense—they improve health, save lives, increase productivity, and reduce health care costs,” said U.S. Centers for Disease and Control Prevention Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. Communities throughout the United States have made great strides in protecting workers and the public from secondhand smoke in the past decade, but too many Americans continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke on the job and in public places.”

Below is a related smoke-free video for the state of Texas. Watch all the videos here.

Read more on tobacco.

FDA Sets New Standards for ‘Gluten-free’ Food Labeling
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a new standard to define “gluten-free” for voluntary food labeling. People with the autoimmune digestive condition of celiac disease—about 3 million Americans—can manage the condition by eating a diet free of gluten, which is found in naturally in wheat, rye, barley and cross-bred hybrids of these grains. Under the new rules, “gluten-free” labeling is restricted to products that meet all of the FDA requirements, including that the food contains less than 20 parts per million of gluten. The standards also apply to products that claim “no gluten,” “free of gluten” and “without gluten.” FDA is giving food manufacturers one year to come in line with the new standard. “Adherence to a gluten-free diet is the key to treating celiac disease, which can be very disruptive to everyday life,” said FDA Commissioner Margaret A. Hamburg, MD. “The FDA’s new ‘gluten-free’ definition will help people with this condition make food choices with confidence and allow them to better manage their health.” Read more on food safety.

CDC: Murders from Guns Down, But Suicide Rate is Up
The latest Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has both good and bad news on gun violence—and both stress the need for further measures to reduce gun violence, especially early prevention. According to the CDC, gun-murder rate is down, but the suicide rate is up. The murder rate dropped around 15 percent from 2006-07 to 2009-10 in the majority of the fifty largest U.S. cities, but the suicide rate climbed as much as 15 percent in about 75 percent of the cities. In 2009-10 there were approximately 22,500 murders and 38,000 suicides involving a gun. "If there is any question that gun control is a big problem, here's a good example of why," said Victor Fornari, MD, chief of child and adolescent psychiatry at Zucker Hillside Hospital in Glen Oaks, N.Y. "Access to firearms is a serious public health problem. Limiting access to firearms would reduce homicide as well as suicide. As long as guns are available there are going to be these violent outcomes." Read more on violence.

Aug 1 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: August 1

One-third of U.S. Teens, Young Adults Victims of Dating Violence
About one-third of U.S. teens and young adults have been the victims of dating violence and about one-third have been the perpetrators, according to a new study from the Center for Innovative Public Health Research in San Clemente, Calif. Approximately one in four report being both. Overall, the public health issue is not improving, according to Emily Rothman, an associate professor at Boston University School of Public Health. "It is sorely disappointing that we have not seen improvements in the prevalence of dating violence in the past 12 years, but there is a clear reason for it," she said. "We spend virtually no money on dating violence prevention or education in schools and communities. Problems don't change unless you try to fix them." Dating violence is a serious issue that must be addressed, according to Yolanda Evans, MD, an assistant professor at Seattle Children's Hospital. "Intimate partner violence is associated with poor school performance, poor self-esteem, depression and thoughts of suicide. We should communicate with our teens that it is never OK to act violently against a partner or to force them to do something they do not feel comfortable doing. We also need to teach our teens that it is unacceptable for someone to act violently towards us in a relationship." Read more on violence.

CDC: Breastfeeding Rates Up Over Past Decade
In part due to longer hospital stays that work to keep moms and newborns together, breastfeeding rates have climbed significantly over the past decade, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2010 about 49 percent of babies were breastfeeding at six months, up from 35 percent in 2000. And about 27 percent were breastfeeding at 12 months in 2010, up from 16 percent in 2000. At the same time, “room-in” and “skin-to-skin” maternity ward procedures that keep mother and child close and emphasize physical contact have also increased, which helps to start and continue the breastfeeding process, according to Janet L. Collins, PhD, director of CDC’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. “This is great news for the health of our nation because babies who are breastfed have lower risks of ear and gastrointestinal infections, diabetes and obesity, and mothers who breastfeed have lower risks of breast and ovarian cancers,” said CDC Director, Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Also, breastfeeding lowers health care costs. Researchers have calculated that $2.2 billion in yearly medical costs could be saved if breastfeeding recommendations were met.” Read more on maternal and infant health.

HUD: $52M in Grants to Improve Housing, Services for American’s Homeless
As part of its “Continuum of Care Program,” the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has announced $52 million in funding to go toward 200 homeless housing/service programs and about 200 grants to assist with local strategic planning activities. The round of grants follows $1.5 billion in two rounds of funding earlier this year. The Continuum of Care grants fund programs such as street outreach and assessment, as well as transitional and permanent housing for homeless persons and families. “As we continue to see a decline in homelessness, investing in programs that are moving homeless families and individuals to permanent housing is as critical as ever because it’s not only the right thing to do, but it’s smart government and fiscally prudent,” said HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan. There were approximately 633,782 homeless persons on a single night in January of 2012, according to “point in time” estimates. Read more on housing.

Jul 15 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: July 15

Gulf States Partner with East, Midwest States to Share Health Records After Disasters
Four Gulf Coast states have partnered with six East and Midwest states to help ensure that patients and providers have access to health records in the event of hurricanes or other major disasters, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In concert with the Department of Health and Human Services Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT, health information exchange (HIE) programs in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Michigan, Wisconsin and West Virginia will share information on residents forced to move from their homes because of a disaster. “Through disasters like Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Sandy and large tornadoes in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri, in 2011 and more recently in Moore, Oklahoma, we have learned the importance of protecting patients’ health records through electronic tools like health information exchanges,” said Farzad Mostashari, MD, national coordinator for health IT. “Patients are better off when states and health information exchange organizations work together to ensure that health information can follow patients when they need it the most.” Read more on preparedness.

Physical Punishment of Kids Tied to Obesity, Other Adult Health Problems
Obesity and other health problems are more likely in children who are punished through violence such as pushing, shoving and slapping, according to a study in the journal Pediatrics. Previous studies have also connected violent discipline with negative mental health outcomes. Researchers found that people who were punished physically “sometimes”—without more extreme physical or emotional abuse—were 25 percent more likely to have arthritis and 28 percent more likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease. About 31 percent of those punished physically were obese; about 26 who were not punished physically were obese. "Changes in sleep, risk-taking behaviors, immune functioning and regulation of stress hormones that result from chronic or intense stress may be important factors," said Michele Knox, a psychiatrist who studies family and youth violence at the University of Toledo College of Medicine, who was not involved in the study. "If we want what's best for our children, we need to choose discipline that does not come with these risks.” Read more on violence.

Putting Off Retirement May Also Help Put Off Alzheimer’s
Staying longer in the workforce may help decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, according to new research looking at more than 429,000 workers in France. It found a 3 percent reduction in risk for each extra year at the age of retirement. The study is to be presented today at an Alzheimer's Association conference in Boston. About 5.2 million U.S. adults live with Alzheimer’s and it is the country’s sixth-leading cause of death. "There's increasing evidence that lifestyle factors such as exercise, mental activities, social engagement, positive outlook and a heart-healthy diet may reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia," said James Galvin, MD, director of the Pearl Barlow Center for Memory Evaluation and Treatment at the NYU Langone School of Medicine, who was not involved with the research. "Now we can add staying in the workforce to this list of potential protective factors." About one-third of U.S. adults earning less than $100,000 annually said they would need to work until the age of 80 to retire comfortably, according to a 2012 Wells Fargo survey of 1,000 Americans. Read more on aging.

Jul 12 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: July 12

CDC: Youth Homicide Rate at a 30-Year Low
The youth homicide rate reached a 30-year low in 2010, though a slowing of the decline since 2000 indicates the increased need for youth violence prevention strategies, according to a new data in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). The 2010 rate was 7.5 per 100,000 U.S. youth, ages 10 to 24. Higher-risk youth, including males and non-Hispanic black youth, have seen slower declines in the homicide rate. “We are encouraged to see a decline in the homicide rate among our youth but unfortunately, homicide continues to rank in the top three leading causes of death for our young people,” said Linda C. Degutis, DrPH, MSN, director, CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. “Our youth represent our future and one homicide is one too many.  Comprehensive approaches that include evidence-based prevention strategies are essential to eliminate homicide as a leading cause of death of young people.” Read more on violence.

FDA Proposes Arsenic Limit for Apple Juice
The U.S. Food and Drug administration has proposed a limit of 10 parts per billion of inorganic arsenic in apple juice, which is about the same levels permitted in drinking water. Inorganic arsenic, which is both naturally occurring in the environment and a product of arsenic-containing pesticides, is a known carcinogen linked to skin lesions, developmental effects, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and diabetes. The non-profit Consumer Reports called the proposal a "reasonable first step in protecting consumers from unnecessary exposure to arsenic." Now that the FDA has released its proposed guidance, we look forward to analyzing the agency's risk assessment, submitting comments, and continuing the dialogue on this important public health issue," said Urvashi Rangan, Director of Consumer Safety and Sustainability at the organization. Read more on food safety.

Study: Air Pollution Kills 2.1 Million People Each Year
As many as 2.1 million people die every year because of global air pollution, according to a new study in the journal Environmental Research Letters. About 470,000 of those are linked to human-caused increases in ozone, although climate change is only a small factor. Fine particulate matter air pollution can get into the lungs, causing cancer and other respiratory illnesses. "Our estimates make outdoor air pollution among the most important environmental risk factors for health," study co-author Jason West, of the University of North Carolina, said in a release. "Many of these deaths are estimated to occur in East Asia and South Asia, where population is high and air pollution is severe." Read more on environment.

Jul 8 2013
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Public Health News Roundup: July 8

Adults with Mobility Issues Have Higher Rates of Obesity, Chronic Illness
Adults with a disability that causes mobility issues are more likely to be obese or suffer from a chronic illness, according to a new study in the American Journal of Preventative Medicine. The chronic illnesses include those commonly linked to overall health and exercise, such as diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol. They are also twice as likely to take medication for hypertension and lipid-lowering medicine. Researchers say the findings demonstrate the need for health care providers to emphasize lifestyle changes and exercise over just medication. “Health care providers face a challenge when it comes to helping their patients with a disability manage their weight when exercise and physical activity play such an important role in weight management,” said Katherine Froehlich-Grobe, PhD, lead author of the paper and associate professor of health promotion and behavioral science at The UT School of Public Health Dallas Regional Campus. “People with disabilities are underserved by national efforts aiming at reducing and preventing obesity. We must focus on managing and reducing weight for individuals with a disability.” About 54 million Americans have a disability. Read more on obesity.

Study: One in Four Injured Youth in ER Visits Had a Gun
In a study of emergency room treatments for assault injuries in teenagers and young adults in Michigan, approximately one in four of the injured reported owning or carrying a gun. The study appeared in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers found that most were obtained illegally, and while “well-off young men” were most likely to have a gun, the rate did not vary by race. According to a 2003 study, the rate of gun homicides for Americans 15 to 24 years old were about 40 times higher than the rates in comparable nations. While it recommends against guns in the home, the American Academy of Pediatrics says gun-owning families with children should keep guns locked and separate from ammunition. Lead researcher Patrick Carter, MD, from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, said more programs need to be developed to prevent future gun violence, but in the mean time communities with high rates of violence need to place more emphasis on safety and responsibility when it comes to discussing guns with youth and young adults. "I would say to parents, talk to your kids about firearms and the dangers associated with firearms and try to look at ways to prevent kids from getting involved in both substance use and violence," he said. Read more on violence.

Even With Same Care, Black Blood Cancer Patients Have Worse Outcomes than White Patients
Even when they receive the same type and level of care, black Americans with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) do not live as long as white Americans with the same blood cancer, according to a new study in the journal Cancer. While black patients generally saw a shorter time between diagnosis and referral, they also had more advanced CLL at the time of referral and their cancers progressed more quickly. The researchers from the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C., said that biological factors may account for the different survival rates. Research consistently shows that minority patients tend to have worse cancer outcomes than white patients; poverty and access to care have also been identified as potential factors. Read more on health disparities.