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Jul 1 2014
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Aspen Ideas Festival: Better Health as Better Business

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“Getting cigarettes out of our stores is a first step to making pharmacies a place where health happens,” said Troy Brennan, Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer of CVS Caremark Corporation, of the company’s decision earlier this year to stop selling tobacco products in its stores. In a Spotlight: Health session at the Aspen Ideas Festival last week, Brennan and other business CEOs discussed how making health a priority can lead to better business outcomes.

By decreasing the number of places that consumers are exposed to cigarettes and eliminating the convenience of tobacco, he said that CVS is actively trying to reduce smoking rates in the areas it serves. However, the healthy decision is also good for the company’s bottom line—already the decision has had positive business results that it didn’t anticipate, including an increase in the company’s stock price following the announcement.

“Companies that make health a priority—consumers gravitate toward that,” he said. “That’s the business incentive.”

Joining Brennan in the conversation, Vitality Institute Executive Director Derek Yach added that the private sector needs to complement public efforts when it comes to health and prevention. For example, taxes and increased prices must work in concert to discourage consumers from unhealthy products or behaviors.

“There may be an economic hit in the short term,” said Yach of companies that make healthy choices easier. “But in the long term, businesses are going to get an inflow of customers who know that their values are aligned.”

Yach also encouraged using County Health Rankings data to understand the underlying risks in each local area, as businesses are uniquely positioned to tailor their interventions to what the surrounding community needs.

Jul 1 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: July 1

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Study: New Requirements Needed for Hand Hygiene for Anesthesia Providers
Anesthesia providers frequently miss identified opportunities to clean their hands during surgical procedures, with the points immediately before patient contact and immediately after contact with the patient’s environment the times when they are least likely to practice proper hand hygiene, according to a new study in the American Journal of Infection Control. However, the findings also point to a larger problem: Complete compliance with all hand hygiene guidelines would take so much time that there would be no time to actually perform any procedures. The findings indicate “a need to create more practical—but still effective—methods of controlling bacterial transmission in anesthesia work environments.” Read more on prevention.

HHS: $840M to Help State, Local Agencies Improve Disaster Preparedness
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has awarded approximately $840 million in grants to help state and local public health and health care systems improve their emergency response preparedness. Distributed through the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) and the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program, the funds will ensure that communities are prepared to respond to an array of emergencies, including infectious disease outbreaks, natural disasters, or chemical, biological, or radiological nuclear events. “Community and state preparedness is essential to the health security of all Americans,” said Nicole Lurie, MD, assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), in a release. “Events in the last few years have demonstrated how critical it is for health systems across the country to be ready and able to respond quickly and effectively.” Read more on disasters.

ACP: Annual Pelvic Exams Not Needed for Asymptomatic Women
Annual pelvic exams for women do more harm than good and should not be a routine part of health care for women who are not pregnant or who show no other signs of pelvic problems, according to new guidelines from the American College of Physicians (ACP). In a review, researchers found no studies on the effectiveness of pelvic exams in identifying cancers, infections and other health issues that they are commonly used to find. Researchers stressed that their findings only apply to pelvic exams and that women should still undergo recommended cervical cancer screening. Read more on prevention.

 

Jun 30 2014
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Faces of Public Health: Al Sommer, the Johns Hopkins University

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A new climate change report, Risky Business: The Economic Risks of Climate Change in the United States, suggests that the American economy could face significant and widespread disruptions from climate change unless U.S. businesses and policymakers take immediate action to reduce climate risk. The report was released by former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg and former Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson.

The assessment of the committee that wrote and reviewed the report is that communities, industries and properties across the country face profound risks from climate change, but that the most severe risks can be avoided through early investments in resilience, as well as through immediate action to reduce the pollution that causes global warming.

The public health findings of the report were reviewed by Al Sommer, MD, Dean Emeritus of the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. NewPublicHealth spoke with Sommer about the report.

NewPublicHealth: How did the report come about?

Al Sommer: The report came about because of the primary interest of the three co-chairs—Hank Paulson, investor Tom Styra and Mike Bloomberg—who felt that there was a need to better understand and better describe the possible public health impacts of climate change on businesses and labor productivity. Their goal is to engage the interest of business leaders so that they begin to think about the ramifications and perhaps see the problems of climate change from a totally different perspective than we usually talk about it.

I think from my own personal perspective that one of the great advantages of this report is that the group that did the analyses stuck with the data and the assumptions, and used sophisticated modeling and statistical analyses to give a range of outcomes. The most important part of the report from my perspective is that it has a granularity that most of the [climate change] reports don’t have, so it looks at likely outcomes in different regions of the country simultaneously.

In some instances, it looks like there is no change. There is reduced mortality in the northern part of the country because there is less freezing. But at the same time in the southern part of the country there’s dramatically increased mortality because of increased heat and humidity.

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Jun 30 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: June 30

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AHA to Fund Research Network for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Stroke
With a $15 million grant from the American Heart Association (AHA), four major medical institutions are coming together to form a research network with the goal of preventing heart disease and stroke. The Strategically Focused Prevention Research Network Centers will include investigators at Northwestern University in Chicago, Vanderbilt University in Nashville, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City and the University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. “Heart attack and stroke can strike suddenly, and frequently without warning. The best way to reduce premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases and stroke is to prevent the development of the risk factors that lead to these conditions,” said AHA President Elliott Antman, MD, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and a senior physician in the cardiovascular division of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, in a release. “Scientists working in these research centers are helping to discover the mechanisms that will allow all Americans to live healthier lives, helping lead us to a culture of health.” Read more on heart health.

Study: One-Third of U.S. Total Knee Replacements ‘Inappropriate’
Approximately one-third of all total knee replacements in the United States are unnecessary and “inappropriate” under a patient classification system used in Spain, according to a new study in the journal Arthritis & Rheumatology. Researchers said the findings demonstrate a need for the United States to develop similar patient selection criteria so as to limit the unneeded surgeries. There are more than 600,000 total U.S. knee replacements annually—meaning that approximately 200,000 are unnecessary, according to the study—and from 1991 to 2010 the number of Medicare-covered replacements climbed by approximately 162 percent annually. Read more on aging.

Kids’ ADHD Medications Not Linked to Increase Risk of Substance Abuse
While children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are twice as likely to abuse drugs, the medications prescribed to treat ADHD do not play a role in the increased risk, according to a new study in the journal Pediatrics. In fact, researchers determined that the combination of behavioral techniques and ADHD medications actually lowers the risk of substance abuse. "Obviously, the medications that are used to treat ADHD have the potential for abuse, but the vast majority of children with ADHD do not develop a substance abuse problem," said Michael Duchowny, MD, a pediatric neurologist at Miami Children's Hospital. "More research has to be done to find out why some children are more susceptible than others." Common ADHD medications include amphetamines such as Adderall or Dexedrine, and methylphenidates such as Concerta, Metadate CD or Ritalin. Read more on substance abuse.

Jun 27 2014
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Buildings that Heal — Spotlight: Health Q&A with Michael Murphy, MASS Design Group

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At this week’s Spotlight: Health conference at the Aspen Ideas Festival, Michael Murphy of the MASS Design Group will be part of a panel called “Buildings that Heal.” Murphy is a recent recipient of a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) for a two-year year research initiative to investigate effective and innovative models of health care facilities in Rwanda and other Sub-Saharan African countries. The goal is to gauge the implications for community health and economic development and then disseminate the findings in order to help improve facilities in the United States.

NewPublicHealth spoke with Murphy ahead of the Spotlight: Health conference. 

file Michael Murphy, MASS Design Group

NewPublicHealth: Tell us about the scope of your work.

Michael Murphy: I’m an architect and designer by training, and I launched MASS Design with my partner, Alan Ricks, around designing built environments to improve health outcomes. We have been working with a number of NGOs in the global south, thinking about the way that hospitals are designed and the built environment, and seeing very specific and direct links between our built environment and the health of our individual selves and our communities. We were struck by the direct links between the two, and how un-designed those environments are when they could be so easily shifted to improve people’s health.

NPH: Where have you done your work?

Murphy: We have an office in Rwanda where we built the Butaro Hospital in Northern Rwanda, together with the healthcare nonprofit Partners in Health. That first opportunity came about after meeting with the group and seeing that they were doing a lot of their work without the help of designers and architects. We were given the opportunity to assist their infrastructure team to help them rethink hospitals. We finished Butaro Hospital in 2011 and since then have brought this model to other countries, eight of which are in Africa: Tanzania, Uganda, Gabon, Liberia, Zambia, Malawi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Haiti.

So, we have quite a bit of experience thinking about the health care environments that are affecting some of the more vulnerable communities in the world, and we encountered some real insights that could actually vastly improve the way in which we think about our health care environments back at home in the United States.

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Jun 27 2014
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Aspen Ideas Festival: Communities That Thrive

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This Thursday at Spotlight: Health, the two-and-a-half day extension of the Aspen Ideas Festival, a number of speakers discussed the many facets that are integral to building a community that thrives. Speakers included Kennedy Odede, the Co-Founder, President and CEO of Shining Hope for Communities; Belinda Reininger, Associate Professor of Health Promotion and Behavioral Science and the University of Texas School of Public Health; Gabe Klein, Senior Visiting Fellow at the Urban Land Institute; and Gina Murdock, Founder and Director of the Aspen Yoga Society.

Although the communities they serve and the work they do vary greatly, all four presenters agreed on four key themes:

  1. The importance of listening to the community
  2. Working with the residents, rather than over their heads, to create what they believe will be a thriving place to live
  3. Measuring outcomes
  4. Setting goals

To the first theme, Odede explained that “people in the community must be ready for change and we can’t import it.” Growing up in Kenya’s Kiberia Slum, Odede went on to found Shining Hope For Communities—an organization that combats gender inequality and extreme poverty in urban slums by linking free schools for girls to holistic community services for all. By connecting these services with a school for girls, Odede and Shining Hope for Communities show that benefiting women has a positive impact on the entire community. The organization’s model relies on community input and solutions.

In Brownsville, Texas, a family-oriented town requires a family-oriented approach to improving health. Sitting in one of the poorest metro areas in the nation, the town is known for its low graduation rates and high prevalence of obesity and diabetes. However, the community had a goal of being one of the healthiest areas in the state and began chipping away at the obstacles by including all residents.

“Everything we do is driven by families,” said Reininger. “We wanted to be the healthiest area in the state, and to get there we all had to be part of it.”

Brownsville is beginning to see improvements across the community in physical activity and food choice. In fact, the thriving and changing community has been selected by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) as one of this year’s Culture of Health prize winners. 

Gabe Klein, who in addition to his work with the Urban Land Institute is a former Vice President of Zipcar, spoke about the importance of communication in affecting community change. “In Chicago, we never talked about bike lanes for the sake of bike lanes, we talked about opportunities for better health and ways to get where you’re going,” said Klein. “You have to communicate the larger vision.”

The session moderator, RWJF President and CEO Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, stressed the importance of goal setting and metrics. According to Lavizzo-Mourey, defining a vision is critical to success and measurements lead you to the outcomes you are trying to reach.

Jun 27 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: June 27

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FDA Approves for Marketing a Motorized Walking Suit for People with Spinal Cord Injuries
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved for marketing a device called the ReWalk, which is the first motorized device intended to act as an exoskeleton for people with lower body paralysis from a spinal cord injury. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are about 200,000 people in the United States living with a spinal cord injury. ReWalk consists of a fitted, metal brace that supports the legs and part of the upper body; motors that supply movement at the hips, knees and ankles; a tilt sensor; and a backpack that contains the computer and power supply. Crutches provide the user with additional stability when walking, standing and rising up from a chair. Using a wireless remote control worn on the wrist, the user commands ReWalk to stand up, sit down or walk. Read more on disability.

One in 10 Deaths Among Working-Age Adults is Due to Excessive Drinking
Excessive alcohol use accounts for one in 10 deaths among working-age adults ages 20-64 years in the United States, according to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and published in Preventing Chronic Disease. Excessive alcohol use led to approximately 88,000 deaths per year from 2006 to 2010, and shortened the lives of those who died by about 30 years. The deaths were due to health effects from drinking too much over time, such as breast cancer, liver disease and heart disease; and health effects from drinking too much in a short period of time, such as violence, alcohol poisoning and motor vehicle crashes. In total, there were 2.5 million years of potential life lost each year due to excessive alcohol use. Nearly 70 percent of deaths due to excessive drinking involved working-age adults, and about 70 percent of the deaths involved males. About 5 percent of the deaths involved people under age 21. The highest death rate due to excessive drinking was in New Mexico (51 deaths per 100,000 population) and the lowest was in New Jersey (19.1 per 100,000). Read more on substance abuse.

Men and Women Use Mental Health Services Differently
Women with chronic physical illnesses are more likely to use mental health services than men with similar illnesses, and they also seek out mental health services six months earlier than those same men, according to new study from St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Canada and published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. The study looked at people diagnosed with at least one of four physical illnesses: Diabetes, high blood pressure, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The researchers found that among those with at least one of these four illnesses, women were 10 percent more likely to use mental health services than men, and within any three-year period women with physical illness used medical services for mental health treatment six months earlier than men. The researchers say the results may imply that women are more comfortable than men with seeking mental health support; that symptoms are worse among women, requiring more women to seek help and sooner; or that men defer seeking treatment for mental health concerns. Read more on mental health.

Jun 26 2014
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The Way to Wellville — Spotlight: Health Q&A with Esther Dyson

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At this week’s Spotlight: Health conference, an expansion this year of the annual Aspen Ideas Festival, angel investor Esther Dyson will be talking about “The Way to Wellville,” a contest that her nonprofit Health Initiative Coordinating Council—or “HICCup”—is organizing to encourage a rethinking of how communities produce health. The Way to Wellville is a five-year national competition among five communities to see which can make the greatest improvements in five measures of health and economic vitality.

“In the end, we hope to show that the best way to produce health is to change multiple interacting factors—diet, physical activity, preventive measures, smoking and the like—as well as more effective traditional health care,” said Dyson. “We’re less concerned with specific ‘innovations’ or digital miracles and more with simply applying what we already know at critical density.”

file Esther Dyson, HICCup

The five health measures have not been finalized yet, but are likely to include health impact, financial impact, social/environmental impact (such as crime rate or high school graduation rate), sustainability (such as a health financing system) and a specific “wild card” that each community will set for itself, such as teenage pregnancy or smoking rates.

NewPublicHealth spoke with Dyson ahead of the Spotlight: Health conference about the Wellville contest.

NewPublicHealth: How did the contest come about?

Esther Dyson: I had signed up to be a judge on the Health Care X Prize, but unfortunately it never materialized. For the next few years I kept thinking somebody should do this, and as I got more and more interested in health, I thought that with greater and greater enthusiasm. I had to give some remarks at a quantified self conference last year and was going to say that “someone should do this.” But I realized that would be a very lame talk and ultimately I announced that I would do it. Having appointed myself, I arranged several open-call brainstorming sessions. At one of them, a nice gentleman showed up with lots of awkward questions about metrics, funding, evaluation...the usual! So I appointed him as CEO. That’s Rick Brush, who formerly worked at Cigna and more recently has been running asthma-prevention programs with innovative financial models.

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Jun 26 2014
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RWJF Honors Six Communities with the 2014 Culture of Health Prizes

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Building a Culture of Health—one where health is a part of everything we do—will not be an easy task. In fact, it will be very hard, admitted Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, MD, MBA, president and CEO of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

It’s a “call to action for all of us,” said Bill Frist, “but these six communities show it can be done.” The six communities in question are the 2014 winners of the RWJF Culture of Health Prize, announced yesterday at the Aspen Ideas Festival. Each community, while different in its own way, thinks about health in a whole new way, as being impacted by all aspects of daily life—from food production to urban design.

Why were these communities chosen from more than 250 applicants from across the country? They’re harnessing the power of partnerships; focusing on lasting solutions; working on the social and economic factors that impact health, such as education and poverty; creating equal opportunities for health for everyone in the community; making the most of resources; and measuring and sharing results.

But what really sets the Prize communities apart, said Lavizzo-Mourey—the “magic ingredient” and the “secret sauce”—are passion, purpose and even joy.

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Jun 26 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: June 26

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‘I Got Tested’ Campaign Promotes Importance of Knowing Your HIV Status
A new public information campaign from Greater Than AIDS is using real-life stories to advocate the importance of knowing your HIV/AIDS status. The “I Got Tested” campaign will place materials in clinics to support providers in HIV outreach; provide free HIV testing in select Walgreens pharmacies; and promote hotlines and online resources provided by departments of health and agencies, as well as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Despite overwhelming evidence that early diagnosis and treatment play an important role both in the health of those who are positive and in reducing the spread of HIV, many Americans at highest risk for infection still have not been tested,” said Tina Hoff, Senior Vice President and Director of Health Communication and Media Partnerships at the Kaiser Family Foundation, a co-founding partner of Greater Than AIDS, in a release. “This campaign is about helping to reduce the stigma surrounding HIV testing, to encourage patients to ask their providers to get tested, and to connect people with services in their communities.” Read more on HIV/AIDS.

Court: NYC’s ‘Soda Ban’ is Illegal
New York City’s ban on large sugary drinks—often referred to as former Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s “soda ban”—is illegal, according to a 4-2 ruling from the state Court of Appeals. The court found that the local health board that passed the regulation overstepped its authority. "By choosing among competing policy goals, without any legislative delegation or guidance, the Board engaged in law-making and thus infringed upon the legislative jurisdiction of the City Council of New York," wrote Judge Eugene Pigott for the majority. The soda ban was one of several public health initiatives pushed by Bloomberg, along with a ban on cigarettes in certain public spaces and a ban on trans fats from restaurants. Read more on nutrition.

Study: 3 Hours of Television Per Day Can Double Risk of Early Death
Watching more than three hours of television per day may double a person’s risk of an early death, compared to someone who watches less than one hour per day, according to a surprising new study in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Researchers tracked more than 13,000 seemingly healthy adults in Spain, finding that for every two additional hours a person spent watching television, their risk of death from heart disease climbed 44 percent, their cancer death risk climbed 21 percent and their risk of premature death climbed 55 percent for all other causes. The study found no such link for other sedentary causes, including working at a computer and driving. Read more on physical activity.